Eric Lambert

Eric Lambert
Wayne State University | WSU · Department of Criminal Justice

About

252
Publications
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8,239
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Publications

Publications (252)
Article
Full-text available
Prison officers not only affect prison operations, but correctional workplace variables also have effects on officers. Most of the past empirical research on this topic has focused on officers working in Western prisons. This study used the job demands–resources model to examine the effects of workplace variables in terms of job demands (e.g., perc...
Article
Full-text available
Using the job demands–resources model, the association of job demands (dangerousness, role underload, role overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict) and job resources (instrumental communication, formalization, input into decision-making, views on training, and job autonomy) with the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization,...
Article
Full-text available
Trust is a vital part of society and is critical for organizations. The main forms of organizational trust are management trust, supervisor trust, and coworker trust, each of which allows organizations to function and operate efficiently. This is particularly true for police agencies. Yet, few studies have examined how organizational trust affects...
Article
Appropriate supervision strategies are the backbone of community corrections. The success of community supervision is dependent upon the attitudes of both officers and offenders. Despite this, research on offenders’ attitudes toward community corrections supervision is surprisingly very limited. The current study investigated attitudes of officers...
Article
Research examining the effect of organizational justice on the correctional environment is typically limited to its consequences on various outcomes. Absent from this body of literature is how perceptions of organizational justice are formed among correctional staff. Filling this void and using data from a Midwestern correctional facility, the curr...
Article
Only one study among U.S. prison staff has explored the effects of work–family conflict and job burnout. To replicate the research to determine whether the results vary by nation, this study examined the effects of four types of work–family conflict (strain-based, time-based, behavior-based and family-based conflict) on three dimensions of job burn...
Article
Organizational trust includes both supervisor trust and management trust. Additionally, the three main work attitudes are job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of the two types of trust on the three work attitudes with data from a survey of 255 U.S. social workers. I...
Article
Studies exploring how workplace factors contribute to job stress among police officers are not rare, but studies specifically examining how work–family conflict is associated with the job involvement and satisfaction of police officers are. In this study, data from 827 Indian police officers were used to examine the relationships of the four dimens...
Article
Research examining correctional staff indicates that there are far-reaching negative consequences related to job burnout, including, but not limited to, diminished physical and mental health, increased risk of substance use, and decreased job performance. One area that may contribute to correctional staff job burnout is work–family conflict, which...
Article
The bulk of correctional staff life satisfaction research has focused on staff in Western nations, particularly the United States. The current study examined how workplace variables are related to life satisfaction among Nigerian correctional staff, and it used the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. This model postulates that w...
Article
Full-text available
Life satisfaction is a positive overall feeling towards one’s life and is an important factor for employees and their employers. There has been little research on life satisfaction of staff working at correctional institutions who play an important security role in the care, custody, and control of offenders. The current study explored how work env...
Article
Views of organizational justice among correctional staff (i.e. whether they perceive that their employing organization treats them fairly) impact both staff and prisons. The two major dimensions of organizational justice are distributive justice (fairness of outcomes) and procedural justice (fairness of processes and procedures). Limited research a...
Article
Life satisfaction is an important concept for both police and other law enforcement organizations. Past research on the spillover theory has found that higher life satisfaction results in better physical health, being more open-minded, improved effort, and longer life expectancy. The spillover theory holds what happens at work does not stay at work...
Article
Prisons depend on their employees, and staffing a prison is expensive. Approximately 80% of a prison’s budget is for staff wages and benefits. Prisons are not generally viewed as desirable places to work, thus recruiting and retaining correctional officers can be difficult. Work-related stress can negatively affect staff members’ home lives, and ho...
Article
Prison work is inherently demanding, stressful, and frustrating. The literature supports that work-family conflict (including time-, strain-, behaviour-, and family-based conflict) occurs among prison staff. The psychological strains emanating from these conflicts affect not only staff members’ work performance, but also their relationships with fa...
Article
Private security staff play an important role in protecting society, including those who work in private prisons. Working in a private prison is a demanding job. Staff are responsible to ensure that the correctional facility is safe, secure, and humane. Past research has found that organizational trust, in terms of supervisor and management trust,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Police organizations work better when officers feel satisfied with their jobs. High job satisfaction has been linked to positive outcomes for both officers and police organizations. Perceived fairness of transfers should be positively associated with job satisfaction. There has been little research in this area, and none of the limited past...
Article
No corner of the world is completely safe from terrorist attacks. Both India and the United States have suffered horrific acts of terrorist-inspired violence. While views of terrorism vary for different reasons, culture certainly plays a role. A total of 918 undergraduate college students, composed of 434 Indian students and 484 U.S. students, were...
Article
The current study explored how three key work environment variables – input into decision-making, instrumental communication, and perceived quality of supervision – affected views of distributive and procedural justice among correctional staff (n= 322) at an unusual Southern prison. Results supported the premise that work environment variables infl...
Article
High job involvement has been shown to result in many favourable outcomes, including higher job satisfaction, increased work performance, and improved life satisfaction. Organisational justice, which includes the concepts of distributive and procedural justice, refers to the perception that the employing organisation treats employees in a fair and...
Article
The current study sets out to examine the effects of job demands and job resources on the job involvement of Nigerian correctional services staff. Job demands make the job more difficult and reduce positive work outcomes such as job involvement. Job resources make the job more pleasant and aid employees in doing their work, leading to increases in...
Article
Correctional staff are a necessary and valuable resource for correctional institutions, in both Western and Nonwestern nations; however, studies of correctional staff in Nonwestern nations, particularly those in Africa, are lacking. Improving the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of these staff are imperative, as both of these job atti...
Article
Organizational justice is important for most employees. Distributive justice (fairness of outcomes) and procedural justice (fairness of processes to reach outcomes) are two major dimensions of organizational justice. Limited research has examined how perceptions of the distributive and the procedural types of justice are linked with job stress of c...
Article
Staff are essential to running safe and humane correctional institutions. To this end, staff sometimes need to report coworker misconduct. Doing so requires a propensity to engage in whistleblowing, a topic that has received very little attention in the criminal justice literature. Using results from the Work Experiences Questionnaire (WEQ), an ins...
Article
Full-text available
Staff are the most vital resource for any correctional facility. As corrections is a very expensive budget item in the U.S., finding and keeping dedicated employees is essential. Organizational commitment refers the bond between correctional staff and their institution. A strong bond is essential for the safety and security of both employees and in...
Article
Understanding the factors that lead to correctional officer (CO) turnover intent is vital. Using a gendered career stage model, this study focused on male and female CO similarities and differences in workplace variable effects on turnover intent across career stages. The results indicated that organizational commitment was a consistent predictor o...
Article
Police operate around the world. Police organizations are tasked with a wide variety of duties, and successful police organizations need committed officers. The three main forms of organizational commitment are affective, normative, and continuance commitment. This study examined the relationship of overall job satisfaction and facet job satisfacti...
Article
Previous research indicates that job involvement among staff can result in positive outcomes for both the staff and the organization; however, there is little research on how workplace factors can shape and foster job involvement among correctional staff. The current study examines how organizational trust, specifically supervisor trust and adminis...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable empirical research has shown that work–family conflict has a negative effect on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of United States correctional staff. This study is the first to examine the effect of work–family conflict on job satisfaction and organizational commitment for staff at Chinese prisons. Findings from ordin...
Article
Trust is crucial to the proper functioning of organizations. Trust has been examined at many levels, and researchers have recently expanded the study of trust to include areas ranging from the neuroscience of trust to the influence of institutional trust on product sales and marketing. While academic interest in trust has grown, research on trust a...
Article
While the issue of trust is theoretically essential for the effective operation of correctional organizations, few researchers have examined how the different types of trust are related to salient outcomes for staff. In this study, we examined the effects of coworker, supervisor, and management trust on the job involvement, job satisfaction, and or...
Article
Employees’ positive perceptions of organizational justice are crucial to the successful operation of correctional institutions. Employees who perceive their employer treats them justly and fairly report less job-related stress and happier home lives. Organizational justice has two primary components – procedural and distributive justice – that have...
Article
In the United States, institutional corrections is a major undertaking that requires substantial financial resources. Correctional staff are the essential element to ensuring the safety and security of these institutions, which house approximately 2.2 million adults. Thus, it is invaluable to explore work environment variables that contribute to th...
Article
Full-text available
Past research among U.S. correctional staff has found that work–family conflict has negative outcomes such as decreasing job satisfaction, decreasing organizational commitment, and increasing job stress. Little empirical research has addressed the association of the specific types of work–family conflict with job involvement. The present study cont...
Article
In private correctional institutions, staff are an important resource, since they are tasked with a myriad of duties necessary to operate a humane, safe, and secure facility. As political demands for budgetary restraint increase, it is paramount that administrators find and retain good staff. Staff retention is influenced by workplace factors. This...
Article
Organisational commitment is an important concept in the field of corrections. The current study examined how workplace variables affected commitment among Nigerian correctional staff and compared the results to the findings of past studies of U.S. correctional staff. Specifically, the effects of the workplace variables of input into decision-makin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The independent variables as a group accounted for about 44% of the observed variance in the job satisfaction index variable The job variables accounted for far more variance than did personal characteristics. The job resource variables accounted for more variance than did the job demand variables.
Article
Research on victimization has progressed dramatically over the last four decades. This research has identified important individual and contextual predictors of both fear and perceived risk. Nevertheless, few studies have examined perceptions of safety among corrections employees. The current study used data from 322 correctional staff working at a...
Article
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) have been the subject of considerable research attention within business organizations. Much less attention has been directed at OCBs within criminal justice agencies, and even less research has addressed OCBs within police organizations. The present study uses survey data collected from 829 police office...
Article
Policing is a stressful occupation that may give rise to work–family conflict (WFC). WFC arises when the work domain encroaches into the family domain, or vice versa, causing officers to become less attached to their job and the police organization. Using survey data collected from a sample of police officers in India, we examined the relationship...
Article
Job stress has many negative effects on correctional staff. We proposed and tested a path model of transactional, procedural, and distributive justice’s direct and indirect effects on the job stress of 322 surveyed correctional staff, including 219 correctional officers, at a maximum security Southern prison. Findings indicated that procedural, dis...
Article
Full-text available
Police organizations are tasked with a wide variety of duties, and officers often encounter stressful situations. Past studies have indicated that job stressors are negatively related to job involvement, which is, in turn, positively related to several beneficial outcomes. The present study empirically tested the job demands model using data obta...
Article
There is a growing body of research that has explored how workplace factors affect prison staff, although empirical research specifically aimed at how organizational justice affects correctional job involvement is lacking. This study examined how organizational justice’s two primary dimensions of distributive justice and procedural justice were ass...
Article
Job stress is a problem in corrections. Although the very nature of correctional work is stressful, workplace variables also contribute to correctional staff job stress. The job demands-resource model holds that job demands increase negative outcomes (e.g., job stress) and decrease positive outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction), whereas job resources h...
Article
Correctional staff are expensive, and they perform the most critical and central duty within the facility: the care and custody of inmates. Improving the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of staff is important, as they have been linked to many salient positive outcomes. We explored whether the job satisfaction and organizational commit...
Article
While there are different approaches to dealing with offenders sentenced to community corrections, the three major ones are law enforcement (surveillance), therapeutic (rehabilitation), and crime opportunity prevention. Using the study of U.S. community corrections staff by Miller as a guide, the current study examined the supervision strategy used...
Article
Full-text available
Working in prisons is a demanding career. While a growing number of studies have explored the predictors of job stress, job involvement, and job satisfaction, very few studies have examined how job stress, job involvement, and job satisfaction effect prison staff life satisfaction. Moreover, past studies on prison staff life satisfaction have all b...
Article
Full-text available
Role strain has many negative outcomes. While the majority of role strain research has focused on its effects, this study explored possible antecedents of role strain among staff at a large, urban Southern jail in the United States. Based on regression analysis of survey data, instrumental communication, views that policy is followed, input into de...
Article
Full-text available
Staff are critical for the proper functioning of a prison; empirical research into the forces that affect salient organizational attitudes of staff, such as organizational commitment, is equally important. A survey instrument measuring affective commitment and personal (i.e. gender, tenure, age, and educational level), job (i.e. perceived dangerous...
Article
Full-text available
While both forms of organizational justice are important, the empirical literature indicates that procedural justice generally has wider and greater effects on job attitudes compared with distributive justice. Regression analysis of self-reported survey data from 322 staff at two Chinese prisons in Guangzhou suggests that, while both forms of organ...
Article
Staff are an obvious and important resource for correctional organizations across the globe. One important area that concerns staff is job involvement (i.e., the psychosocial bonds between staff members and their jobs). The majority of the limited research on how work environment factors affect correctional personnel has examined U.S. staff. To fil...
Article
Full-text available
Job satisfaction has been linked to many positive outcomes, such as greater work performance, increased organizational commitment, reduced job burnout, decreased absenteeism, and lower turnover intent/turnover. A substantial body of research has examined how work environment variables are linked to job satisfaction among U.S. correctional staff; fa...
Article
China’s current Criminal Law has 46 death-eligible offenses, and China executes more people than any other country in the world. However, there is a lack of study of attitudes toward capital punishment for specific offenses, and no death penalty view comparison between college students and regular citizens in China was found. This study was taken t...
Article
Life satisfaction is an important concept for both workers and employing organizations. Past research on the spillover theory has found that higher life satisfaction results in lower absenteeism and turnover/turnover intent, higher job performance, and better mental and physical health. The current study examined how job variables (i.e., job stress...
Article
Full-text available
Working in law enforcement can be a trying experience that can result in work-family conflict. Work-family conflict occurs when the domains of work and home spill into one another, causing strain and conflict for a person. There are four major dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based, behaviour-based, strain-based and family-based. One conseq...
Article
Correctional staff job satisfaction is critical for the staff’s well-being and low turnover. This study’s focus was identifying variables that predicted job satisfaction for Nigerian correctional staff and comparing the findings to past studies of US correctional staff job satisfaction. One hundred and twenty correctional staff from Nigeria were su...
Article
Job stress is the psychological tension, distress, and anxiety caused by stressors at work, and job stress is linked to numerous negative outcomes. While the nature of working with inmates can cause stress, work environment variables also contribute to the job stress of prison staff. The current study used the job demands-resource model as a theore...
Article
The job characteristics model was used to explain job satisfaction at a large southern prison. The effects of job variety, role clarity, views of supervision, views of training, perceived dangerousness of the job, and job autonomy on job satisfaction were studied. Using data from 322 staff members, the study found positive job characteristics (i.e....
Chapter
Staff perform myriad tasks to help ensure a safe, secure, and humane correctional facility. Correctional staff face many challenges when working in institutional corrections. One of these challenges is job stress, which is defined as feeling psychologically distressed or strained due to work demands or stressors. The job demands-resources model pro...
Article
There has been limited research on the correlates of organizational commitment among community correctional staff, regardless of the nation. Using data from 225 community correction officers from Hubei, China, this study examined community correctional staff commitment to their agencies and its predictors. The study found the majority of the respon...
Article
Three principles correctional counseling (3PCC) posits that people in prison have inner mental health they have obscured to varying degrees with their own thinking. 3PCC further posits that people in prison can rekindle and sustain this inner health via understanding how three psychospiritual principles—Universal Mind, consciousness, and thought—co...
Presentation
There is a small and growing body of research on the predictors of job involvement among police officers. Most of this research, however, has been conducted among Western, especially U.S., officers. There is a need to examine how workplace factors effect job involvement among non-Western police officers. The current study examined how various workp...
Article
Drawing from person–environment fit theory, the current study adds to recent empirical inquires that have considered how workplace factors affect jail staff. In doing so, the focus is on how perceptions of pay fairness effect the job stress, job involvement, and organizational commitment of jail personnel. Utilizing survey data from a large county...
Article
As of this writing, South Korea (officially, the Republic of Korea) is an abolitionist-in-practice nation; capital punishment is legal, but no death sentences have been carried out since a moratorium was enacted in 1997. Public support for the death penalty has decreased over time; however, the factors that determine support for or opposition to th...
Article
Full-text available
Policing has long been recognized as a stressful, emotionally trying, and sometimes dangerous occupation. Job stress is related to several harmful outcomes for officers, and ultimately police organizations. The present study empirically examined the applicability of the job demands–resources model to explain levels of work stress experienced by a s...
Article
The use of private corrections has grown to over 400 facilities in the United States. The staff are of particular importance in facilities operating on a tight profit margin. Maximizing profitability depends upon minimizing workplace factors that detract from staff performance and/or create costly strain. This study explored organizational trust an...
Article
Correctional research has just begun to explore the effects of variables and their differences over the course of a career within the field. This study examined several correctional staff outcomes and how they varied over three identified career stages (initial, establishment, and maintenance) at a state-government operated prison. Results indicate...
Article
Job burnout can negatively impact individual officers, the organization that employs the burned out officers, citizens with whom these officers directly interact, and the community more broadly. The vast majority of the empirical research on burnout has been based on Western police officers. The present study extends our understanding of the associ...
Article
Private security personnel play an important role in protecting society, including personnel who work in private prisons. Staff are critical to ensure the private prison is operated in a safe, secure, and humane manner. This study, a survey of 160 staff members at a private prison located in a Midwestern state, examined the impact that support by m...
Article
Full-text available
Job stress, which has been found to have numerous negative effects on U.S. correctional staff, occurs as a result of stressors in the work environment. Recent research in the U.S. suggests that work-family conflict (e.g., time-based conflict, strain-based conflict, behavior-based conflict, and family-based conflict) may contribute to job stress for...
Article
Full-text available
While organizational citizenship behaviors (i.e., employee’s choosing to perform above and beyond work expectations) are beneficial for the success of any organization, there has been little research on this form of prosocial behavior in private correctional agencies. This study is the first to examine the relationship between two forms of organiza...
Article
Gender is a strong predictor of death penalty support and views in the United States, with men being more supportive and punitive than women. This exploratory study was undertaken to determine whether these same differences would be present in Japan, a nation that also imposes the death penalty. Students at a Japanese university and a U.S. universi...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of justice plays an important role in shaping the attitudes of citizens towards criminal justice agencies. Additionally, research indicates that police officers’ perceptions of justice within their own organisation can affect their attitudes towards it. Most of the research to date has focused on police officers in Western nations; howe...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have revealed that some, but not all, jail custody officers fear workplace victimization. The job demands–resources theoretical model holds that job demands result in strain, increasing the chances of negative outcomes, such as job burnout, decreased job satisfaction, and fear of being harmed on the job. This framework also contends that jo...
Article
Full-text available
A new spiritual understanding commonly known as the Three Principles proposes that mindfulness/flow/mental health is people’s most natural state and can be realized and sustained by everyone via insights gained through understanding three spiritual principles—Universal Mind, Consciousness, and Thought. We test this proposition for people exposed to...