Eric L Gilman

Eric L Gilman
Pelagic Ecosystems Research Group

PhD

About

129
Publications
82,552
Reads
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7,680
Citations
Introduction
Research areas include: ecological responses to pelagic marine fisheries and management measures, measures and technology to mitigate bycatch of vulnerable species, area-based management tools, electronic monitoring and derelict fishing gear.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
Safina Center
Position
  • Fellow
December 2013 - May 2021
The Nature Conservancy
Position
  • Consultant
December 2010 - present
Pelagic Ecosystems Research Group
Position
  • Research Director
Education
January 1997 - January 2000
University of Tasmania
Field of study
  • Geography
January 1991 - January 1993
Oregon State University
Field of study
  • Marine Resources Management / Oceanography

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We review the state of knowledge of mangrove vulnerability and responses to predicted climate change and consider adaptation options. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface e...
Article
A performance assessment was conducted of regional fisheries management organi-zations' (RFMOs') bycatch governance, one element of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Obtaining a mean score of 25%, with a 64% CV, collectively the RFMOs have large governance deficits. Individually, there has been mixed pro-gress, with some RFMOs having m...
Article
Full-text available
Bycatch in fisheries can have profound effects on the abundance of species with relatively low resilience to increased mortality, can alter the evolutionary characteristics and concomitant fitness of affected populations through heritable trait-based selective removals, and can alter ecosystem functions, structure and services through food web trop...
Article
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Discarding by fisheries is one of the most wasteful human marine activities, yet we have few estimates of its scale. Reliable estimates of global discards are essential for sustainable fisheries management. Using United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization databases on country-specific landings, we estimated the discard rate and magnitude for...
Chapter
Given that over 1 million seabirds are estimated to be killed incidentally in fishing operations each year and at-sea mortality poses the greatest threat to many seabird species and populations, reducing the bycatch of seabirds is a paramount priority of seabird conservation efforts. This chapter reviews methodological approaches to determine the b...
Article
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Participatory decision tools enable stakeholders to reconcile conflicting natural resources management objectives. Fisheries targeting highly productive species can have profound impacts on co-occurring bycatch species with low fecundity and other life history traits that make them vulnerable to anthropogenic sources of mortality. This study develo...
Article
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Derelict fishing gear causes substantial adverse ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study determined the rate of production of derelict gear from an Iranian Persian Gulf fishery using a type of fishing pot regionally known as gargoor. From November 2018 to July 2020, fishermen were surveyed and pots were marked in Jofreh, Jalali and Ganaveh...
Article
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There has been increasing recognition of the need to address adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects of abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG). This component of marine debris has been progressively problematic over recent decades with the rapid expansion of global fisheries’ footprint and effort, and the transition to synthetic an...
Article
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Over the past 4 decades there has been a growing concern for the conservation status of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). In 2002, the first elasmobranch species were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Less than 20 yr later, there were 39 species on Appendix II and 5 o...
Article
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Fisheries bycatch threatens the viability of some seabird populations and reduces fishing efficiency. Albatross bycatch in a US North Pacific tuna longline fishery has increased over the past decade and now exceeds 1,000 annual captures. Seabirds interacting with this fishery reach hooks at depths up to 1 m. A branchline weight’s mass and distance...
Article
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Background and objectives The environmental effects of static gear fishing include habitat-level effects such as permanent changes to the physical environment and the structure of the benthic and epibenthic communities. Ecosystems subjected to prolonged exposure to pressure from static gear may undergo permanent changes and may never regain their p...
Article
For many years, tremendous effort has been dedicated to developing new industrial tuna fisheries, while their adverse impacts on threatened marine species have received relatively little attention. In tuna fisheries, bycatch is the major anthropogenic threat to marine megafauna in general, particularly sharks. Research on the development of gear te...
Article
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The pelagic fisheries beyond the continental shelves are currently managed with a range of tools largely based on regulating effort or target catch. These tools comprise both static and dynamic area‐based approaches to include gear limitations, closed areas and bycatch limits. There are increasing calls for additional area‐based interventions, part...
Article
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Bycatch on pelagic tuna longlines has contributed to population declines in several far-ranging, oceanic species and presents a conservation challenge that area-based management tools are increasingly promoted to address. In January 2020 the Republic of Palau, concerned about the impacts of longline fishing in its waters, closed 80% of its exclusiv...
Article
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The collection of accurate fisheries catch data is critical to ensuring sustainable management of tuna fisheries, mitigating their environmental impacts and for managing transboundary fish stocks. These challenges are exemplified by the western Pacific tuna longline fishery, who’s management includes >26 nations, but is informed by critically low c...
Article
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Overexploitation is currently the main cause of marine defaunation. Vulnerability to overexploitation varies across populations. Determining which populations are of highest ecological risk from fishing mortality guides management. Because no single approach is optimal across taxonomic groups, a multi-model ensemble of relative risk estimates for a...
Article
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Albatross bycatch has been increasing over the past decade in the US central North Pacific tuna longline fishery. A controlled field experiment was used to assess the efficacy of bird scaring or tori lines as a seabird bycatch mitigation measure for this fishery in a 3-factor sampling design with other mitigation methods (blue-dyed bait, offal disc...
Article
arising from n. Queiroz et al. Nature https://doi. Many shark species worldwide are vulnerable to overexploitation due to fishing. Using only the horizontal spatial overlap between the space use of 23 satellite-tracked shark species and the fishing distribution of pelagic longline fisheries tracked using an automatic identification system, Queiroz...
Article
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Derelict fishing gear is a highly visible source of marine plastic pollution, causing mortality and ecosystem degradation with uncertain long‐term consequences. The quantity of derelict gear entering the oceans remains unknown because of heterogeneity in fishing gear and effort, as well as inadequate monitoring. Prior studies have been limited in s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As fisheries with seabird interactions increasingly use Electronic Monitoring (EM) systems to meet monitoring requirements, ACAP recognizes the need for guidelines for EM systems to meet objectives of monitoring seabird interactions. These ACAP guidelines define how fisheries EM systems can be designed to meet objectives of fisheries monitoring tha...
Article
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Industrial fishing, instrumental in feeding the world's population while providing a livelihood to many people, also presents a variety of hazards to the health of the ocean, including the accumulation of derelict fishing gear. Although direct evidence of harm from derelict gear is abundant, efforts to quantify and assess the threats posed by it ar...
Article
Full-text available
Derelict abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear have profound adverse effects. We assessed gear-specific relative risks from derelict gear to rank-order fishing methods based on: derelict gear production rates, gear quantity indicators of catch weight and area of fishing grounds, and adverse consequences from derelict gear. The latter accounted...
Article
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Marine mammals can play important ecological roles in aquatic ecosystems, and their presence can be key to community structure and function. Consequently, marine mammals are often considered indicators of ecosystem health and flagship species. Yet, historical population declines caused by exploitation, and additional current threats, such as climat...
Article
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Bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations and reduces fishing efficiency. A branchline fishing weight’s mass and distance from the hook significantly explain seabird catch risk during setting and hauling. We surveyed Hawaii tuna longline fishers to obtain their perspectives on the practicality, safety...
Article
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Fisheries can profoundly affect bycatch species with 'slow' life history traits. Managing bait type offers one tool to control species selectivity. Different species and sizes of marine predators have different prey, and hence bait, preferences. This preference is a function of a bait's chemical, visual, acoustic and textural characteristics and si...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) can contribute to protecting biodiversity and managing ocean activities, including fishing. There is, however, limited evidence of ecological responses to blue water MPAs. We conducted the first comprehensive evaluation of impacts on fisheries production and ecological responses to pelagic MPAs of the Pacific Remote Is...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) can contribute to protecting biodiversity and managing ocean activities, including fishing. There is, however, limited evidence of ecological responses to blue water MPAs. We conducted the first comprehensive evaluation of impacts on fisheries production and ecological responses to pelagic MPAs of the Pacific Remote Is...
Article
Fisheries electronic monitoring (EM) is increasingly being used to augment human observer programs and provide coverage where none previously existed. This study identified observer data fields prioritized for research and compliance monitoring that were not collected by a pilot EM system and compared estimates made by the EM system and observer pr...
Article
Fisheries electronic monitoring (EM) is increasingly being used to augment human observer programs and provide coverage where none previously existed. This study identified observer data fields prioritized for research and compliance monitoring that were not collected by a pilot EM system and compared estimates made by the EM system and observer pr...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a recent proliferation of large-scale marine protected areas (MPAs) containing pelagic habitats. These contribute substantially towards meeting the area-based goal of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and to managing pelagic ecosystem pressures, including fishing. We assessed theoretical and empirical evidence for the achievement of ecolo...
Article
1. Fisheries-dependent data underpin essential scientific and management applications. Electronic monitoring (EM) systems are increasingly being used to supplement human observer programmes and provide coverage where none previously existed. 2. Candidate methods were identified to expand EM functionalities to collect data fields of human observer...
Article
Accurate data on discards, the proportion of the catch that fishers do not retain, is necessary to achieve socioeconomically and ecologically sustainable fisheries. We review conventional and emerging approaches to monitor and manage discards. At-sea human observer programs currently produce the most accurate data on discards. Electronic monitoring...
Article
Robust assessments of the effects of fishing require accounting for components of fishing mortality, including post-release fishing mortality (Fr). Random-effects meta-analysis synthesized Fr in seven pelagic shark species captured, tagged and released with 401 pop-up satellite archival tags compiled from 33 studies and three gears (longline, purse...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A Third Assessment of Global Marine Fisheries Discards
Technical Report
Full-text available
Workshop report on the relative promise of a alternative seabird bycatch mitigation methods for use in Hawaii’s pelagic longline fisheries.
Article
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Accounting for components of fishing mortality, including post-release mortality (Fr ), is necessary for robust assessments of the effects of fishing. Forty-eight blue (Prionace glauca) and 35 silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags to monitor Fr rates from pelagic longline vessels in the western trop...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Data from fisheries observer programs support fundamental research and management applications, ranging from conducting stock assessments to assessing the performance of ecosystem-based harvest strategies. Electronic monitoring (EM) systems are increasingly being used to augment conventional coverage by human onboard observers, as well as to provid...
Article
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Pelagic fisheries can have profound effects on ecosystem structure and functioning, affecting ecosystem services, including fisheries production, and threaten vulnerable bycatch species. Controlling hook size could manage the species- and size-selectivity and survival of target and incidental catch. To test this hypothesis, we conducted experimenta...
Technical Report
Full-text available
KEY FINDINGS  There were no significant differences in catch composition, nominal mean catch rates, and mean discard rates from logbook data with versus without electronic monitoring (EM) systems. The presence of EM appears to not change fisher logbook data recording behavior.  Mean catch rates for combined tunas, other teleosts, combined elasmob...
Technical Report
Full-text available
• Catch rates from electronic monitoring (EM) data were about an order of magnitude higher than from logbook data. The species richness from logbook data was about half of that from EM data. Logbook data are very likely inaccurate due to substantial underreporting. • There were no significant differences in catch composition, nominal mean catch ra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fish aggregating devices (FADs) used by tuna purse seine fisheries improve fishing efficiency relative to other purse seine fishing strategies and make it possible to successfully fish in new areas. However, when not responsibly managed, FADs can cause adverse effects. Abandoned, lost and otherwise discarded FADs cause ghost fishing, damage sensiti...
Article
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Monitoring and managing fisheries bycatch is increasingly recognized as a critical component of robust fisheries management frameworks. This review, addressing this subject, begins by defining bycatch and analyzing the reasons it happens, from accidental to intentional discarding. It identifies the most common species composing bycatch of the main...
Article
Monitoring live and dead discarded catch contributes to effective fisheries management and ecological and socioeconomic sustainability. We determined contemporary rates and levels of discards in global tuna fisheries. An estimated 265,279 t (52,283-478,275 95% CI) is annually discarded by global tuna fisheries, composing about 5% of the weight of t...
Article
Full-text available
Pelagic longline fisheries for relatively fecund tuna and tuna-like species can have large adverse effects on incidentally caught species with low-fecundity, including elasmobranchs. Analyses of observer programme data from the Fiji longline fishery from 2011 to 2014 were conducted to characterize the shark and ray catch composition and identify fa...
Article
Full-text available
Data required from fisheries monitoring programmes substantially expand as management authorities transition to implement elements of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). EBFM extends conventional approaches of managing single fishery effects on individual stocks of target species by taking into account the effects, within a defined ecosyst...
Article
Full-text available
Bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is one of the most serious threats to some sea turtle populations. Hook shape, hook minimum width and bait type have been the focus of research and management measures to mitigate problematic bycatch of vulnerable taxa. To assess the current state of knowledge and progress over the past decade, we reviewed find...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Information Paper, 8th Meeting of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels: https://www.acap.aq/en/working-groups/seabird-bycatch-working-group/seabird-bycatch-wg-meeting-8/sbwg8-information-papers/2928-sbwg8-inf-23-perspectives-on-the-commercial-viability-and-efficacy-of-alternative-methods-to-reduce-seabird-bycatch-during-gear...
Chapter
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1. Many marine species are undergoing rapid shifts in geospatial and depth distributions and changes in phenology in response to ocean warming and other climate change outcomes. 2. Predictions of responses of pelagic (open ocean) tunas and billfishes to long-term rising average global subsurface and sea surface temperatures have been based on evide...
Article
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Capture in global pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline tuna fishery annually catches hundreds of seabirds, primarily Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. Since seabird regulations were introduced in 2001, the seabird catch rate has declined 74%. H...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ecological and socioeconomic problems caused by abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) are increasingly of concern. Marine gillnets and trammel nets, which have relatively high ghost fishing potential, are globally important gear types. Used primarily by coastal, artisanal, small-scale fisheries worldwide, gillnet and trammel net fi...
Article
Elasmobranch mortality in pelagic longline fisheries poses a risk to some populations, alters the distribution of abundance between sympatric competitors, changing ecosystem structure, processes and stability. Individual and synergistic effects on elasmobranch catch and survival from pelagic longline gear factors, including methods prescribed to mi...
Article
Full-text available
Elasmobranch mortality in pelagic longline fisheries poses a risk to some populations, alters the distribution of abundance between sympatric competitors, changing ecosystem structure, processes and stability. Individual and synergistic effects on elasmobranch catch and survival from pelagic longline gear factors, including methods prescribed to mi...
Research
Full-text available
The Joint Tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations’ (RFMOs’) Bycatch Technical Working Group prioritized adopting minimum data fields and standardized collection protocols to enable interoperability of the tuna RFMOs’ observer-collected bycatch datasets. Standardizing data fields, data collection protocols and database formats enables meani...
Article
1. Pelagic longline fisheries impact both market and vulnerable bycatch species and can have broad effects on community structure and processes. 2. Observer data from the Palau longline fishery were analysed to identify opportunities to mitigate vulnerable species bycatch, determine temporal trends in local abundance, and assess changes following...
Article
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Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human–environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are projected to occur within the next several decades, to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
About this document The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and to conserve and manage coastal and oceanic marine resources and habitats to help meet our Nation's economic, social, and environmental needs. As a branch of NOAA, the National Marine Fishe...
Article
Full-text available
Bycatch in longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline swordfish fishery reduced seabird captures by an order of magnitude primarily through mitigating bycatch during setting. Now, 75% of captures occur during hauling. We fit observer data to a generalized additive regression model with mixed effects...