Eric Fong

Eric Fong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong | CUHK · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

71
Publications
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1,312
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Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and Canada's largest city. The city of Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are regarded as English Canada's hub of commercial, economic, and cultural life. The GTA is also one of the most multiethnic and multicultural cities in North America and serves as the predominant immigrant‐receiving city i...
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Previous studies of Hong Kong immigrants have largely focused on those Chinese from the mainland, and less attention has been paid to non-Chinese immigrants. As exceptions to this, a few studies have focused on the channels of non-Chinese immigrants to Hong Kong, but less research has examined their labor market outcomes. This is partly because the...
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en In this paper, we envisage how the sociohistorical experiences of groups are related to their residential patterns. We posit that the residential clustering of a group can be strongly related to the group's mnemonic institutions, which are organizational symbols of collective identity that link the present to the past. We present the case of Jew...
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This paper examines how collective memory informs residential choices by analysing the residential patterns of Jews in Toronto. Our study extends the literature on collective memory and ethnic boundaries to include understandings about how our socio-historical and cultural worlds shape our environment and give it meaning. We argue that collective m...
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Our study explores the unemployment patterns of local-born and immigrant youth in Hong Kong. Hong Kong provides a unique context to evaluate assimilation outcomes without a race effect. Based on data from the 2011 Hong Kong census, the findings support the classical assimilation perspective, the segmented assimilation perspective, and the paradox o...
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We explore how participation by immigrants in voluntary groups is related to their social contact patterns. Our discussion is guided by the structural integration and the homophily perspectives. Drawing from the 2008 Canadian General Social Survey, the findings in general support the structural integration perspective. The findings also show that f...
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This study examines empirically the relationship between the economic conditions back home and the friendship patterns of migrants at the new destination. The migrant adjustment process is not just associated with the individual socioeconomic status, but is also related to family economic conditions in their place of origin. Our study, based on dat...
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We explored the timing of obtaining regular and non-regular employment after school completion in Japan. Our study is based on a unique longitudinal data set, the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey. The results capture a peculiar recruitment system of the Japanese youth labor market. The likelihood of regular employment after school completion in Ja...
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A key topic in population and urban studies is neighbourhood social relations. The topic has significant implications for the larger debate about friendship patterns in contemporary North American society. Ties among neighbours provide social support, foster social relations, and facilitate social capital. Our study explores how the exchange of fav...
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This study explores how family characteristics affect the emigration of family members from the city of Fuqing, China, a major migrant-sending area in China. We focus our discussion on three related questions: how family demographic characteristics affect a family’s participation in emigration, the number of family members involved in emigration, a...
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A growing number of immigrants are living in non-gateway metropolises. In this paper, drawing from the 2006 Canadian census, we explore and compare the earnings of immigrants in Canadian gateway and non-gateway metropolises. We differentiate entrepreneurs and paid workers in the analysis. In addition, we compare white and non-white immigrants in ga...
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In this study, we extend prior work on how ethnic boundaries in specific contexts affect the earnings of racial and ethnic groups by simultaneously exploring how levels of ethnic enclosure, measured by co-ethnic concentration, of neighborhoods, workplaces, and industrial sectors, and their "moderating" effects on the earnings of six major recent ra...
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Using recently collected data from Toronto, a major city in Canada, we explored job mismatch among Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants. Our study shows that a relatively small percentage of Chinese immigrants, and an even lower percentage of Asian Indian immigrants, work in the same industry and occupation as they did before immigrating. The multiv...
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The study, with specific hypotheses developed from the literature on ecological perspective and the economic sociology, addresses the locational patterns of small and large ethnic businesses in a multiethnic context. Drawing from a 2001 data set of Chinese businesses collected in Toronto and 2001 Canadian census tract data, our results show that th...
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The author discusses return migration from Canada to Hong Kong, evaluating how much suggested theoretical perspectives in the literature help to explain the situation. The discussion suggests that many factors are involved in the return migration patterns from Canada to Hong Kong. No single theoretical perspective provides a full explanation of the...
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This study, based on 2001 Canadian census data for 16 census metropolitan areas, explores residential segregation among eight religious groups. We include non-Christian religious groups to reflect the emerging religious diversity of Canadian society. Our study provides the first comprehensive comparison of the residential patterns of people affilia...
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Although decades of research have contributed to understanding the operation and implications of minority-concentrated industrial sectors, the reasons for concentration in some sectors but not others remain unclear. To address the question of why some sectors are minority concentrated, this article draws on four sources of literature— human ecology...
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The study of epidemics is almost non-existent in sociological literature, even though such outbreaks can have detrimental effects on communities. The occurrence of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003 provides a rare opportunity to understand the social functioning of a community during the outbreak of an epidemic. To evaluate the exten...
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The U.S. residential landscape is increasingly multi-racial and multi-ethnic, giving rise to the question of how to compare dichotomous segregation among multiple groups living in the same area. To address the problem in the existing dichotomous approach, which offers no common basis for comparing dichotomous segregation among multiple groups, this...
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There has been considerable discussion in recent decades about the integration patterns of new immigrants. Recognizing advancements in technology and the increased economic integration of countries, some researchers have suggested that the emerging integration trend for immigrants is the transnational pattern, whereby immigrants maintain contact wi...
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Our study examines how immigrants cluster in co-ethnic neighborhoods. We systematically explore the effects of three factors on the co-ethnic clustering of immigrants: economic resources, co-ethnic preferences, and the use of co-ethnic information sources. The study is based on a unique data set that provides rarely available rich information on ho...
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Abstract This study explores the effects of foreign education on earnings. Previously, most research used indirect estimated information about foreign education, and documented the lower earnings of immigrants who had foreign education in comparison to those who had domestic education. Using direct information obtained from respondents of a recent...
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This article explores residential patterns across generations of new immigrant groups. The discussion is situated in a multi-ethnic context. The analysis is based on data from the 2001 Canadian census and focuses on three visible minority groups in the four largest metropolitan areas of Canada. In line with the spatial assimilation perspective, the...
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Our study drew on a data set of 513 Chinese immigrants that was collected in Toronto in 1998 and 1999. We looked at how prior experiences in the ethnic economy affect current job transitions. Our analysis went beyond previous studies by situating job transition in the context of the economic integration of immigrants, with consideration of possible...
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English Our paper extends the study of residential ecology to understand social changes, specificallythe adoption of Internet use. We suggest that the residential ecology of the metropolitan area,in addition to household socioeconomic factors, should be considered in understanding Internetuse. The centripetal dimension of residential ecology, repr...
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Les auteurs examinent les liens micro et macroscopiques dans l'étude de l'économie en transition, en analysant la façon dont les entrepreneurs mobilisent leurs réseaux sociaux personnels intégrés à diverses institutions, afin de protéger leurs ressources d'affaires. Les résultats démontrent que les membres du réseau travaillant dans les organismes...
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The growth and proliferation of sociological immigration research has garnered sufficient attention to warrant a review and evaluation of the development of the field. This study took the first step by collecting detailed information about work published in the area of immigration research from major journals between 1990 and 2004. We explored thre...
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The authors propose a model for understanding ethnic business locations in multiethnic cities. The central argument of the framework is that the location of ethnic businesses reflects the match between the neighborhood business environment and the unique locational demand of the ethnic businesses involved in particular industrial sectors. Hypothese...
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We investigate the association between the residential concentration of Chinese in Toronto and discrimination as experienced and perceived by Chinese immigrant residents. A unique aspect of this study is our focus on perceived employment discrimination. We find that Chinese immigrants living in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of other Chin...
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We extend research on ethnic businesses by comparing the distribution of ethnic businesses in suburbs and city. The study is drawn from a recently compiled data set of Chinese businesses in Toronto. Drawing from four diverse and different sets of literature on ethnic businesses and urban forms, we identify factors that may affect the geographic dis...
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There has been considerable interest among researchers in immigrant adaptation patterns. Growing number of researchers has adopted the transnational perspective to understand the immigrant adaptation process. While this perspective opens a new avenue for understanding the immigrant adaptation process, it also has generated wide debate. Critics rais...
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Drawing on Bonacich's split market theory, the work of Hechter and Blalock on ethnic conflict, and the literature on social movements, the authors develop a model of factors producing conflict between native and immigrant workers. The model identifies the relative size of the immigrant group, the growth of the immigrant population, the desirability...
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This study addresses two questions. First, among the three major perspectives on integration (i.e., zero-sum, pluralist, and selective integration) suggested in the literature, which is the dominant pattern of the participation level in informal social activities in the ethnic community and in the wider society among new immigrant groups? Second, h...
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Key Words race, ethnicity, urban ■ Abstract The growing Hispanic and Asian populations in most major North American cities have drastically transformed the urban demographic landscape to be-come racially and ethnically diversified. We review literature on multiethnic cities by focusing on three important aspects of urban structures and processes: r...
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Based on a Toronto business data set collected in 1995 and 1996 Canadian census data, we studied spatial distribution of suburban Chinese business in Scarborough, Ontario. We explored the determinants of the spatial distribution of suburban ethnic business by drawing on literature from the human ecological perspective, the economic sociological per...
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The aim of this study is to understand how city factors explain racial and ethnic residential patterns in contemporary multiethnic cities. We examined residential patterns among 17 groups in 12 Canadian cities. The results suggest that we should be cautious in taking factors derived from literature based largely on European experiences at the begin...
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We examine the comparative residential segregation of Asian-origin groups in the United States and Canada. For over 100 years immigrants have made their way from Asia to North America. This stream of immigrants has varied in composition by nationality and demographic structure. Moreover, the two host countries have varied in the composition of arri...
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In this paper, we addressed three questions. First, how transient are poorneighborhoods? Second, is the distribution of different racial and ethnicgroups affected unequally by changes in the economic status of neighborhoods?Third, what is the relative importance of the neighborhood life cycle,invasion-succession and spatial effect models in explain...
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English This is the first statistical analysis to understand how economicglobalization affects earnings of native-born and immigrant populations with different racial andethnic backgrounds in Canada. Draw on four measures of economic globalization: number of non-residentworkers in CMAs, number of companies with foreign investment, size of financia...
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This article uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative historical data from all California counties to assess the efficacy of variables derived from the split labor market, cultural division of labor, and ethnic competitive models, as well as variables related to the organizational capacity of majority group workers, to predict efforts in...
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This study examines the effects of working in ethnic economy on social integration of immigrants. The analysis is based on a recently completed survey of the Chinese ethnic economy in Toronto. Our findings show that working in ethnic economies hampers participation in the social activities of the wider society. Results also suggest that those who g...
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this report. A Possible Spatial Component: Is There a "Double Digital Divide" The literature that we have reviewed about the digital divide in North America focuses on differences between people, such as socioeconomic and gender differences. To some extent, these are joined with discussions about household differences, such as family wealth. Yet ex...
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Although there had been various studies on the consequences of participating in the ethnic economy, there has been a notable absence of research exploring the life satisfaction of those participating in it. A 1998/1999 survey of Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Toronto was analyzed to measure the life satisfaction of those participating in and ou...
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We used the 1991 Canadian census to examine the extent of spatial separation of the poor in Canadian cities. Although there were no extensive areas of blight, decay, or housing abandonment, we found high spatial separation of poor visible minorities in the selected cities. The index of dissimilarity indicates high segregation of poor blacks and mod...
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This paper examines the determinants of interethnic friendship patterns with the majority group and coethnic friendship ties. The analysis is based on a specially constructed data set from three separate sources. Our analysis indicates that (1) participation in ethnic business tends to substantially lower chances of developing friendship with the m...
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This paper examines the neighborhoodpatterns in three major Canadian metropolitan areasbetween 1986 and 1991. Data are obtained from 1986 and1991 profile census files and two Special Tabulationsof 1986 and 1991 Canadian census. The data indicatethat the first pathway of neighborhood change is thediversification that takes place among charter-onlyne...
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This article provides a detailed picture of spatial assimilation by simultaneously considering suburbanization and home ownership in order to model the complexity of residential patterns in modern society. The data are from the 1% Sample of the 1990 PUMS. Multinominal logit analyses were used to estimate the effects of socioeconomic level, accultur...
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This paper examines the neighborhood qualities of major ethnic groups in Canada. Using data drawn from the 1991 census 2B file and special tabulations requested from the Statistics Canada, we found that the British, northern Europeans, and western Europeans live in neighborhoods with desirable social qualities without paying higher cos.ts, even aft...
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Given the theoretical importance and policy implications of the spatial assimilation model, it is surprising that few studies have carefully and empirically examined the relationship of the three key variables in the model that has been used to explain the process of neighborhood attainment among immigrants, i.e., neighborhood environments, socioec...
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Given the theoretical importance and policy implications of the spatial assimilation model, it is surprising that few studies have carefully and empirically examined the relationship of the three key variables in the model that has been used to explain the process of neighborhood attainment among immigrants, i.e., neighborhood environments, socioec...
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This paper applied the model of Linear System of Action developed by Coleman (1992) to understand racial composition in neighborhoods from a systemic approach. The model had an advantage to consider how an individual household simultaneously maximizes all desirable neighborhood qualities with limited socioeconomic resources. The model generated rel...
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This article takes a first step to compare the residential segregation of blacks and Asians from whites in American and Canadian cities. The analysis is based on census data from 404 American and 41 Canadian cities. African Americans in the United States experience a higher level of residential segregation than Asians in U.S. cities. On the other h...
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This study compares the suburbanization process of native and immigrant populations. Analyses are based on three major hypotheses: social status, family life stages and social stratification. Data are based on a five-percent A sample of the 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). We select eight major racial and ethnic groups in our study. Results...
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The author compares the racial residential proximity patterns in U.S. and Canadian neighbor-hoods. In the United States, Asian-Americans experience higher levels of residential proximity in neighborhoods with whites than do blacks. In Canada, blacks and Asians experience similar levels of residential proximity in neighborhoods with whites. A dynami...
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In this article we examine the extent to which three minority groups were able to achieve selected neighborhood social and physical outcomes in the San Francisco metropolitan area. Ecological regressions were estimated to generate elasticities that measure the relative abilities of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians to convert education and income into...
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Abstract This paper explores an emerging,common,phenomenon,of new immigrant,groups,clustering in suburban,areas. We argue that the households of new immigrant groups are concerned with neighborhood safety. They are attracted to suburban neighborhoods which generally have lower crime rates. Since suburban neighborhoods,have become,more heterogeneous...

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