Eric Clua

Eric Clua
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes | EPHE · CRIOBE - Centre de Recherche Insulaire et Observatoire de l’Environnement

DVM, PhD, HDR

About

165
Publications
95,753
Reads
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2,390
Citations
Introduction
My main focus is on sharks behavioural ecology with an emphasis on bites on humans (forensic) and shark conservation. I am trying to approach these issues through the biology and ecology of sharks (behaviour, role and resilience), through an economical approach (Total Economic Value and contribution to ecosystem services) and the eco-anthropology (shark perception in indigeneous vs modern societies). I however also work on tropical fish ecology (incl. ciguatera), marine mammals and freediving.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
Position
  • Professor
September 2014 - present
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
Position
  • External lecturer
Description
  • Course on shark biology and ecology Course on Post Larval Capture and Culture Course on coral reef sustainable management
September 2012 - December 2015
French Ministry for Research and Innovation
Position
  • Consultant
Education
January 2012 - June 2013
Université de Perpignan
Field of study
  • Shark ecology and behaviour
March 2001 - March 2004
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
Field of study
  • Tropical fish ecology
September 1998 - June 2000
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
Field of study
  • Tropical fish ecology

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
Most shark‐induced human fatalities are followed by widespread and unselective culling campaigns that have limited effectiveness and may have high ecological costs for threatened species. The blanket culling strategy implicitly assumes that incident risk is directly correlated with shark density, an assumption that has yet to be demonstrated. We pr...
Article
Selective removal of problem individuals following shark bite incidents would be consistent with current management practices for terrestrial predators, and would be more effective and more environmentally responsible than current mass-culling programs. In parallel, and in addition to traditional forensics analysis, we recommend the routine collect...
Article
Identifying the species and size of sharks responsible for biting humans is essential for developing strategies to prevent these incidents. Here, we use bite wound characteristics and genetic analysis of a tooth fragment extracted from the wounds to identify a sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens as the perpetrator of nonfatal bites on the leg...
Article
Understanding why sharks bite humans is essential for developing strategies to prevent these incidents. Here, we use bite wound characteristics and eye witness descriptions of shark behavior to determine the likely motivation for several bites perpetrated by an oceanic whitetip (OWT) shark Carcharhinus longimanus on an adult female snorkeler off Mo...
Article
Full-text available
Isolated coral reef habitats are unique systems to study the natural dynamics of coral traits and their natural acclimatization, adaptation, and recovery from global-scale stressors such as thermally induced bleaching events. This study evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in coral community attributes (diversity, live cover, and coral assemb...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. The tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) is a large iconic marine predator inhabiting worldwide tropical and subtropical waters. So far, only mitochondrial markers and microsatellites studies have investigated its worldwide historical demography with inconclusive outcomes. Here, we assessed for the first time the genomic variability of tig...
Article
Coastal erosion, aggravated by coral reef mortality is a major issue for Small Island Developing States. Traditionally gray infrastructure, financed by public budgets has been used to combat beach loss. We examined if three Nature-based Solutions (NbS): (i) coral restoration (green) (ii) restoration + limestone (hybrid) and (iii) restoration + 3D p...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal protection, an important coral reef ecosystem service, is threatened by increasing coral mortality, exacerbated by global climate change. Nature-based solutions in the form of coral restoration, while not perfect, can assist in rebuilding reef structure and improving the flow of the service for some sites. With a financing gap existing betw...
Preprint
Full-text available
Clipperton, an uninhabited and remote coral atoll from the Eastern Pacific, is an important steppingstone area that harbors a high marine biodiversity. Despite its biogeographic importance, little information on the ecological status of its coral reefs is available from the last decade. Herein, we characterized the benthic coral community and healt...
Article
The tourism activities linked to artificial provisioning of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and pink whiprays (Pateobatis fai) on a specific site in French Polynesia were suddenly and completely stopped due to a COVID-19 lockdown that lasted 6 weeks from March 20 until April 30, 2020. Using both drone footage and underwater countin...
Article
Identifying the species involved in shark bite incidents is an ongoing challenge but is important to mitigate risk. We developed a sampling protocol to identify shark species from DNA transferred to inanimate objects during bite incidents. To develop and refine the technique, we swabbed shark bite impressions on surfboards and wetsuit neoprene coll...
Article
Full-text available
106,107 ✉ replying to A. V. Harry & J. M. Braccini Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03463-w (2021) Our global analysis 1 estimated the overlap and fishing exposure risk (FEI) using the space use of satellite-tracked sharks and longline fishing effort monitored by the automatic identification system (AIS). In the accompanying Comment, Harry...
Article
This article is a response to Murua et al.'s Matters Arising article in Nature, "Shark mortality cannot be assessed by fishery overlap alone," which arose from arising from N. Queiroz et al. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1444-4 (2019).
Article
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an emerging tool intended to solve a range of ecosystem management inefficiencies, by linking conservation action to payment. Such schemes have not been tested to our knowledge, for coral reef derived coastal protection, which is a key Ecosystem Service (ES) for many nations bordered by tropical coral reefs....
Preprint
Full-text available
DNA evidence is routinely used to identify individual predators responsible for attacks on people and livestock in terrestrial settings. However, the use of transfer DNA techniques in aquatic environments for similar purposes is a recent development. To date, DNA barcoding has been used successfully to identify shark species depredating fish catche...
Article
Full-text available
The global lockdown to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic health risks has altered human interactions with nature. Here, we report immediate impacts of changes in human activities on wildlife and environmental threats during the early lockdown months of 2020, based on 877 qualitative reports and 332 quantitative assessments from 89 different studies. Hundr...
Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promising examples of Nature-Based Solutions that can protect diversity while delivering ecosystem services. However insufficient funding for effective management and expansion of MPAs remains a challenge and one that particularly affects developing countries. During the last ten years, a community of investors see...
Article
Coral reef fisheries provide important ecosystem services to coastal communities, yet in the Pacific Islands, many of these contemporary fisheries are threatened by overexploitation. Historically, Pacific Island societies successfully utilized community-based management and spatial temporal closures to regulate the harvest of marine resources. In r...
Article
Full-text available
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) is a large, mobile, circumglobally distributed high trophic level predator that inhabits a variety of remote islands and continental coastal habitats, including freshwater environments. Here, we hypothesize that the barriers to dispersal created by large oceanic expanses and deep-water trenches result in a heter...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of breath-hold diving strategies regarding loss of consciousness (LOC). Three international competitions were examined through video in constant weight diving with (CWT) or without (CNF) fins. We analysed three breath-hold parameters (time, speed, and movements count) for the following phases: act...
Article
Full-text available
An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Teleost fish that form predictable spawning aggregations and undertake reproductive migrations can be particularly vulnerable to overexploitation. To support community-based management of an artisanal fishery that targets bonefish (Albula glossodonta) spawning aggregations, we used a combination of acoustic telemetry, biological sampling, and remot...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the seas most affected by the collapse of shark populations due to overfishing. Considered ‘vulnerable’ by the IUCN on a global scale, the blue shark Prionace glau-ca is classified as ‘Critically Endangered’ in the Mediterranean Sea. A fisheries-independent study was conducted through the implementation of 14 24-hour...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats³. Here we address this knowledge gap usi...
Article
This study focuses on the important role of sharks in the Melanesian mythology. Based on unpublished stories essentially originating from New Caledonia, we show how strong the links are between myths and the physical environment in which Kanak live. As prevalent mythical animals, sharks can indifferently play the role of avengers and righters of wr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Synthèse des opérations technico-scientifiques menées par la mission Mexicano-française sur Clipperton en Oct. 2019
Technical Report
Full-text available
INforme tecnico de las operaciones tecnico-cientifica que se desarollaron durante la mision en Clipperton en octubre 2019
Article
Full-text available
Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVs) are efficient devices for remotely characterising the assemblage and relative density of fishes and other marine organisms. However, technological constraints (e.g., battery life and limited storage memory) typically limit deployment times to <2 h making it very difficult to capture the presence of mar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-distance movements of sharks within and between islands pose substantial challenges for resource managers working with highly migratory species. When no-take zones do not cover the critical areas that sharks use as part of their lifecycle, exposure to fishing activities can be significant. Shark movements between the Marine Protected Areas (MP...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Synthèse des opérations technico-scientifiques menées par la mission Mexicano-française sur Clipperton en Oct. 2019
Article
We used long-term observations of 55 individually identified tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) at a shark eco-tourism site off Tahiti to estimate the prevalence, retention times and impacts of residual hooks and trailing line resulting from fisheries interactions. Thirty-eight percent of tiger sharks had at least one fisheries interaction resulting...
Article
Full-text available
In French Polynesia, both currently recognized manta ray species, Mobula alfredi and M. birostris, are observed. Despite being an important cultural asset and generating significant economic benefits through manta ray watching tourism, published data on the ecology and threats to these species in the region are scarce. Based on an 18-year dataset o...
Article
Data‐limited fisheries assessment methods have great potential to help inform small island communities on the status of their fisheries resources. In this paper, we provide a length‐based assessment of an artisanal fishery that primarily targets spawning aggregations of Shortjaw Bonefish Albula glossodonta at Anaa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago o...
Article
Première identification du poisson perroquet des Caro-lines (Calotomus carolinus) et du poisson ange bleu (Holacanthus passer) autour de l'île de Clipperton-La Passion (Océan tropical nord-Est). En août 2018, une mission sur l'île de Clipperton-La Passion (Océan tropical Nord-Est) a permis d'identifier la présence inédite de deux spécimens de poiss...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities have resulted in the loss of over 90% of sharks in most ocean basins and one in four species of elasmobranch are now listed at risk of extinction by the IUCN. How this collapse will affect the ability of populations to recover in the face of continued exploitation and global climate change remains unknown. Indeed, important ecologi...
Article
Fisheries management requires knowledge on the population dynamics of exploited stocks. To that end, the present study used a mark–recapture approach to characterise the population demographics of roundjaw bonefish Albula glossodonta (Forsskål) and their interaction with a data‐limited fishery on Anaa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Poly...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of population structure, connectivity, and effective population size remains limited for many marine apex predators, including the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas. This large-bodied coastal shark is distributed worldwide in warm temperate and tropical waters, and uses estuaries and rivers as nurseries. As an apex predator, the bull shark l...
Article
Full-text available
Effective ocean management and conservation of highly migratory species depends on resolving overlap between animal movements and distributions and fishing effort. Yet, this information is lacking at a global scale. Here we show, using a big-data approach combining satellite-tracked movements of pelagic sharks and global fishing fleets, that 24% of...
Article
Although relatively rare, adoptions have been reported in a number of mammals, in‐ volving almost exclusively individuals of the same species, and hardly ever between species or across genera. Adoption remains poorly documented and its proximate causes are controversial. Here, we describe a unique case of a cross‐genus adop‐ tion within a small com...
Article
Although relatively rare, adoptions have been reported in a number of mammals, involving almost exclusively individuals of the same species, and hardly ever between species or across genera. Adoption remains poorly documented and its proximate causes are controversial. Here, we describe a unique case of a cross‐genus adoption within a small communi...
Article
Artisanal fisheries are critically important to food security and economic opportunity in coastal communities throughout the developing world. However, the dynamics of these fisheries are poorly understood, and a basic understanding of the gear types and species harvested, is required to promote effective fisheries management. To this aim, we surve...
Article
Many species of groupers form transient fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) that are both spatially and temporally predictable, making them highly vulnerable to fishing. Consequently, many known aggregations have disappeared, making the collection of additional baseline data imperative to inform management actions and decisions that have the capacity...
Article
Full-text available
Population genetics has been increasingly applied to study large sharks over the last decade. Whilst large shark species are often difficult to study with direct methods, improved knowledge is needed for both population management and conservation, especially for species vulnerable to anthropogenic and climatic impacts. The tiger shark, Galeocerdo...
Article
Full-text available
Bonefishes Albula spp. are important components of subsistence fisheries and lucrative sport fishing industries throughout their circumtropical distribution. In Oceania, however, Albula spp. have historically been overexploited and there is a growing need to balance the demands of competing fishing sectors, making the description of their life hist...
Technical Report
Synthesis of the scientific research programmes that were implemented during the 2017 mission to Clipperton-La Passion island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
Article
We provide the first assessment for a coral reef fish population of a potentially threatened endemic species from a remote and isolated oceanic island. Based on a 3-dimensional (3D) numerical field model of the reef habitat and underwater visual censuses conducted by 2 different teams in February and May 2016, we show that the 3.7 km2 of the Clippe...
Article
Full-text available
We provide the first assessment for a coral reef fish population of a potentially threatened endemic species from a remote and isolated oceanic island. Based on a 3-dimensional (3D) numerical field model of the reef habitat and underwater visual censuses conducted by 2 different teams in February and May 2016, we show that the 3.7 km2 of the Clippe...
Poster
Full-text available
L'hypothèse de la densité-dépendance qui justifie les campagnes de pêche aveugle des requins suite à une attaque mortelle sur l'homme ont montré leur limite. Selon une hypothèse innovante, ce phénomène très rare serait lié au comportement alimentaire individuel très différencié chez les grands squales. Grâce à de nouvelles approches, notamment géné...
Article
Full-text available
Polynesians’ detailed observations of shark behaviour encompass the notion of a divinity, the fleeting image of a sky god, as well as potential source of food and valued tools. Due to prevailing cosmogony, sharks benefited from being a taboo species, historically limiting their exploitation. We examine how the reputedly fierce warriors of ‘Anaa (an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Une mission à caractère scientifique s’est effectuée sur l’atoll de Clipperton-La Passion du 6 au 13 août 2018 dans le cadre de l’expédition Tara Pacific qui a débuté en mai 2016 et qui se terminait par ces récifs sous juridiction française avant un 32ième site sur l’île de Coiba au Panama. Tara Pacifique, dont la direction scientifique est assurée...
Article
Following the letter in Science by Cramp et al. we raised the issue that RMI was not the first and largest shark sanctuary (created in 2011) in the Pacific, once French Polynesia protected all shark species (except the mako added in 2012) in its entire EEZ in 2006. More important than this anecdotal detail, we also promote the idea of boosting cult...
Article
Full-text available
To adapt to their environment, organisms can either directly interact with their surroundings or use social information, namely information provided by neighbouring individuals. Social information relates to the external features of surrounding peers, and little is known about its use by solitary species. Here, we investigated the use of social cue...
Article
Full-text available
The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the r...