Erhard Christian

Erhard Christian
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna | boku · Institute of Zoology

Professor

About

115
Publications
28,980
Reads
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2,547
Citations
Citations since 2017
22 Research Items
1047 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 1990 - December 2013
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (115)
Book
Full-text available
Multidisciplinary, natural history monograph of Vjetrenica cave, a biodiversity hot-spot of Dinaric Alps.
Article
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Between 2015 and 2019, the list of Lepidoptera from “cave” habitats (i.e., proper caves, rock shelters and artificial subterranean structures) in Austria grew from 17 to 62 species, although the effort of data collection remained nearly constant from the late 1970s onwards. The newly recorded moths and butterflies were resting in caves during dayti...
Article
The Niphargus tatrensis species complex, entirely subterranean, has a wide distribution range extending from Southern Poland to Austria and Slovenia. Because of its large and confusing morphological variability, it was subdivided into several 'forms', four of which described from Austrian caves. To shed light on this chaotic situation, we sampled t...
Article
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Laudatio for Professor Horst Aspöck on his 80th birthday
Article
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Diplura is a group of entognathous hexapods, often considered a sister group to insects. They play an important role in recycling organic matter in soil and subterranean terrestrial ecosystems. The Campodeidae is the most diverse family, divided into four subfamilies. The subfamily Plusiocampinae has a subterranean life-style with many species dist...
Article
Laboubeniales are understudied in Austria, where no more than 40 species have been recorded so far. In the present paper 14 new records from this country are reported, including the first record of Euhaplomyces ancyrophori Thaxter 1901 after its original description. Other new national records are reported from neighboring territories in Slovenia,...
Article
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Subterranean cavities serve as resting places and hibernation shelters for mosquitoes. In Europe, members of the genus Culex are often the most abundant insects on cave walls. Culex pipiens L., the common house mosquito, exists in two physically very similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct biotypes (or forms, ‘f.’), namely Cx. pipiens f....
Article
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The fifth insect camp of the Entomological Society of Austria (ESA) was conducted from April 27 to May 2, 2018. Many of the 39 participants were recognized experts on different arthropod groups. Fifty-seven localities within and nearby the Donau-Auen National Park were investigated, and a total of 1265 invertebrate species identified: 8 Collembola,...
Conference Paper
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Subterranean habitats serve as resting places and hibernation shelters for flies (Diptera) from various families including mosquitoes (Culicidae). Species of the genus Culex (often abbreviated as Cx.) are among the most common insects on the cave walls. A subunit of this genus termed the Culex pipiens complex comprises Cx. pipiens and a few other s...
Book
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The 12th EuroSpeleo Forum, Europe’s premier speleological event, is held in Ebensee, Austria, on 23rd-26th August 2018. Under the motto “Speleology – Connecting Science”, the congress will focus on the role of speleology as a bridge for different ways of thinking, cultures of knowledge and scientific approaches. The proceedings comprise (extended)...
Article
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On the distribution and bionomics of the ladybird parasite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (MeDaniel & Morrill, 1969) (Acari, Podapolipidae) — Coccipolipus hippodamiae is reported from Austria for the first time. In Vienna, the sexually transmitted ecto-parasitic mite exhibits varying prevalence in subpopulations of its host Adalia bipunctata. The migrato...
Technical Report
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Lepidopterans from subterranean habitats in Döbling (Vienna, Austria) Caves, i.e. natural rock cavities more than five meters in length, probably do not exist in the municipal area of Vienna. The two objects listed in the Austrian Cave Register, Severinus Cave and Probus Cave, both in the district of Döbling, are destroyed or inaccessible and moreo...
Article
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2017 erfolgten im Rahmen des Tags der Artenvielfalt Aufsammlungen von Mollusken in Alland, Niederösterreich, durch Michael Duda, Otto Moog, Alexander Mrkvicka, Jan Steger.Insgesamt 67 Taxa wurden nachgewiesen. Bemerkenswerte Funde waren Bythinella cf. austriaca, Hauffenia cf. wienerwaldensis, Lebendvorkommen von Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, V...
Book
Auf 464 reich bebilderten Seiten geben die Autoren Einblick in die faszinierende Natur der Markt- gemeinde Perchtoldsdorf. Ausgehend vom Tag der Artenvielfalt 2007 arbeiteten über 30 Biologin- nen und Biologen 10 Jahre lang an der Erforschung der Perchtoldsdorfer Natur und dokumentier- ten sie mit zahlreichen eindrucksvollen Fotos. 5100 Arten umfaß...
Chapter
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Cave animals. — The subterranean fauna of Austria includes animals that are often found in the entrance sections of caves, but spend only part of their life there. Many of these subtroglophilic species, e.g. the moths Scoliopteryx libatrix and Triphosa dubitata, undergo diapause in caves during winter, a few others do so during summer. Troglophilic...
Chapter
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Caves in graphics and paintings. – Caves have been depicted for a variety of purposes. To elucidate the intentions behind the production of cave pictures, we comment on prints, watercolors, and paintings of “real” caves and grottoes from Austria and from former Habsburg dominions in modern-day Slovenia. The subjective selection includes fine, appli...
Article
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Eukoenenia vargovitshi sp. n. is described after a male from Nizhnyaya Shakuranskaya Cave, Abkhazia, Western Caucasus. The troglobiont species shares a peculiar and probably apomorphic character state with Eukoenenia pretneri from a cave in southern Croatia. The type locality of E. vargovitshi lies in the middle of a large area without previous pal...
Article
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Palpigradi are a poorly understood group of delicate arachnids, often found in caves or other subterranean habitats. Concomitantly, they have been neglected from a phylogenetic point of view. Here we present the first molecular phylogeny of palpigrades based on specimens collected in different subterranean habitats, both endogean (soil) and hypogea...
Article
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Current knowledge of the taxonomy and distribution of European cave palpigrades largely rests upon incidental records. Samples seldom comprise more than one or two specimens, and many regions have only been unevenly explored, if at all. The present study is the first to investigate morphological variability within, and differentiation between, subt...
Article
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We report on occurrences of the subcosmopolitan palpigrade Eukoenenia florenciae (Rucker, 1903) in a hothouse in Bratislava and in a dry river bed on Tenerife. We redescribe this probably parthenogenetic species, provide information on the thick setae of the coxae and the forked setae on the terminal segment of the first leg, and discuss the signif...
Poster
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The soil fauna was examined during several excursions in heated greenhouses situated in the Botanical Garden of the Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Three annelid species were recorded. From them, Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 represents the first record for Slovakia; Pheretima sp. is an exotic introduced species. The finding of Stenochru...
Article
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The first record of the palpigrade Eukoenenia gasparoi Condé 1988 in Croatia is reported. We review the distribution of this troglobiotic species endemic to the classical European Karst region, give an illustrated description of the adult stages and the juvenile female, and evaluate divergence among the populations. Morphological differences reflec...
Article
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Endemic species play an important role in conservation ecology. However, knowledge of the real distribution and ecology is still scarce for many endemics. The aims of this study were to predict the distribution of the short-range endemic Alpine jumping bristletail Machilis pallida ; to evaluate the actual level of endemism via ground validation usi...
Chapter
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Currently 58 species of Protura are reliably recorded from Austria. Records of another eight species are doubtful.
Article
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The present paper provides evidence for the co-occurrence of edaphic palpigrade species in Europe. Eukoenenia mirabilis and E. gallii coexist in the soil of a cork oak plantation on the Ligurian coast in northwestern Italy. Year-round sampling there produced, for the first time in a temperate zone, complete annual cycles of palpigrade populations....
Article
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The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of t...
Article
Good alpha taxonomy is central to biology. On the basis of a survey of arthropod studies that used multiple disciplines for species delimitation, we evaluated the performance of single disciplines. All included disciplines had a considerable failure rate. Rigor in species delimitation can thus be increased when several disciplines chosen for comple...
Article
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Among the 27 palpigrade species recorded in Europe so far, 23 occur in caves or narrow subterranean voids. Eukoenenia gallii n. sp. from a cork oak forest on the Italian Riviera (Liguria) is added to the small group of edaphic European palpigrades. E. gallii is not closely related to the common soil-dweller E. mirabilis (Grassi & Calandruccio, 1885...
Article
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The archaeognathan fauna of Austria ranks among the most diverse in Central Europe, but vast blanks in the distribution maps indicate regional sampling deficits. Ten of currently 20 Austrian species were recorded predominantly or exclusively within the federal territory, chiefly in high montane and alpine zones. The occurrence of Charimachilis reli...
Chapter
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The dipluran fauna of Austria currently comprises 18 species and 1 subspecies of the family Campodeidae and 2 species of the family Japygidae. The taxonomy of subterranean populations of the Plusiocampa strouhali group is not yet resolved.
Article
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Cave crickets – the anniversary of the word coinage Höhlenheuschrecke The compound Höhlenheuschrecke was created by the Austrian entomologist Vincenz Kollar 175 years ago. To mark this anniversary, the present review highlights several aspects of the research history and the biology of cave crickets. Emphasis is laid on Troglophilus cavicola (Koll...
Article
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A survey of North Adriatic intertidal Collembola is given, including the first records of Friesea acuminata, Archisotoma interstitialis, Entomobrya dollfusi, and Pseudosinella hauseri. Granulometric and biococnological analyses of culittoral loose sediments allowed determination of the animals' substrate preference. The limitation to cuhaline habit...
Article
Spatial modelling of species distributions has become an important tool in the study of biological invasions. Here, we examine the utility of combining distribution and ecological niche modelling for retrieving information on invasion processes, based on species occurrence data from native and introduced ranges. Specifically, we discuss questions,...
Article
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Mutualism, whereby species interact to their mutual benefit, is extraordinary in a competitive world. To recognize general patterns of origin and maintenance from the plethora of mutualistic associations proves a persisting challenge. The simplest situation is believed to be that of a single mutualist specific to a single host, vertically transmitt...
Chapter
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Article
An ant supercolony is a very large entity with very many queens. Although normal colonies of small extent and few queens remain distinct, a supercolony is integrated harmoniously over a large area [1, 2]. The lack of aggression is advantageous: Aggression is costly, involving direct and indirect losses and recognition errors [3, 4]. Indeed, superco...
Article
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Article
The western Palearctic ant, Tetramorium moravicum, is the only species of the large genus known to display two alternative social strategies: macrogyny-monoygyny (characterized by one large queen per colony) and microgyny-polygyny (multiple small queens per colony). The microgyne colonies of this ant are confined to the westernmost part of its dist...
Article
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We sampled 54 caves and galleries in north and east Slovenia methodically for ecological data and the invertebrate fauna. The snow fly Chionea austriaca, recorded in 37% of the cavities, proved indifferent with regard to most of the abiotic factors, but occurred in significantly higher individual numbers in caves on north and east slopes. The subte...
Article
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We compare the performances of established means of character selection for discriminant analysis in species distinction with a combination procedure for finding the optimal character combination (minimum classification error, minimum number of required characters), using morphometric data sets from the ant genera Cardiocondyla, Lasius and Tetramor...
Article
Diversity of ants of the Tetramorium caespitum/impurum complex was investigated in a multidisciplinary study. Focusing on morphologically hardly distinguishable Western Palearctic samples, we demonstrate the genetic and phenotypic diversity, demarcate phylogenetic entities, and discuss the clades in terms of biogeography. Sequences of 1113bp of the...
Article
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The phylogenetic relationships in the myrmicine ant genus Myrmecina were analyzed using 1,281 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Intermorphic queens observed in M. graminicola (Europe), M. nipponica (Japan), M. americana (North America; reported for the first time) and M. sp. A (Java) were reconstructed as an ancestral trait in th...
Article
No aspect of speciation is as controversial as the view that new species can evolve sympatrically, among populations in close physical contact. Social parasitism has been suggested to yield necessary disruptive selection for sympatric speciation. Recently, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography has shown that the ant Myrmica microrubra is closely related...
Article
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It is commonly held that Central Europe harbours but a single harvester ant species, namely Messor structor. Recently discovered bionomic differences between two Central European populations, which may reflect interspecific variation, cast doubt on this assumption. In the present study we test alternative hypotheses - one versus two harvester ant s...
Article
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Combining molecular and morphological evidence, an invasive ant in Missouri and Illinois, USA, is identified as Tetramorium tsushimae Emery, 1925, a polygynous-polycalic species native to East Asia. T. tsushimae is recorded as invasive for the first time. RFLP and worker morphometrics provide tools for reliable determination. Mitochondrial DNA data...
Article
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Pitfall trapping and nest counting are the most common census methods for ant assemblages. We examined the concordance between pitfall catches and nest counts on dry grassland. Spearman rank correlations and non-metric multidimensional scaling of the Bray Curtis similarity index revealed moderate concordance between the data collated by the two met...
Article
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A micro whipscorpion from cave Griffner Tropfsteinhöhle: first record of Eukoenenia spelaea in Carinthia (Arachnida, Palpigradi) – We characterize the morphology of an adult female of Eukoenenia spelaea from cave „Griffner Tropfsteinhöhle“ and assign the specimen to the eastern subspecies E. spelaea vagvoelgyii. The record of the second palpigrade...
Article
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By combining different methods we evaluate whether the ant Tetramorium rhenanum is specifically separated from T. moravicum or whether it is a conspecific microgyne form. High-precision morphometry shows a clear difference in queen size. Sequence comparison of 1031bp of COI reveals that T. rhenanum falls into a clade with T. moravicum, which is sig...
Article
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C. 2005: Towards DNA-aided biogeography: An example from Tetramorium ants (Hyme-noptera, Formicidae). — Ann. Zool. Fennici 42: 23–35. The increasing level of fine-scale systematics in insects requires sophisticated mor-phometric tools for species identification. As a consequence, regional species lists and biogeographic data tend to be ambiguous. W...
Article
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The term Kaltloch (pl. Kaltlöcher) refers to a site with aestival exhalation of cold air from narrow-spaced cavities in solid or loose rock. We compile data on 43 East Alpine Kaltloch sites and point out research deficits with regard to geomorphology, microclimatology, ecophysiology, vegetation and zoology. Floristic information is available for ha...
Article
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Ants are prominent study organisms in basic and applied ecology. Pitfall traps are among the most widely used methods for arthropod density assessment. We appraised the congruence of data from two periods of pitfall trapping for the study of ant assemblages in dry grassland. Spearman rank correlations and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordinat...
Article
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Ten ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from three subfamilies feed on honeydew excreted by nymphs of the leaf- hopper Balclutha punctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). This relationship is facultative for the partners. Preliminary field observations suggest a mutualistic interaction that represents an intermediate stage in the spectrum of formicid-h...
Article
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In the first study of the Protura of a big city, six representative habitat types were sampled in Vienna, Austria. Twenty-five sites between the green belt and the city centre yielded 42 known species. Abundance, species number and diversity were highest in colline deciduous forests, with a maximum of 23 syntopic species in a Quercus pubescens stan...
Article
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Deception is a crucial yet incompletely understood strategy of social parasites. In central Europe, the Mountain Alcon Blue, Maculinea rebeli, a highly endangered butterfly, parasitises several Myrmica ant species. Caterpillars gain access to host nests probably by faking the ants' odour. We analysed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data of bod...
Article
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Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI gene confirms the species status of the recently described Lasius austriacus. The five haplotypes of L. austriacus do not cluster according to their geographic origin, indicating a recent gene flow among the populations. The molecular data corroborate the morphology based hypothe...
Article
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The recent distribution of cave Collembola in Austria is discussed in the light of Quaternary climate oscillations. Four principal patterns are described: (1) widely scattered alpine cave-dwellers which have survived the last glaciation on nunataks; (2) endemic troglobionts within the borders of maximum WÏrm glaciation which have endured in their o...
Article
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The recent distribution of cave Collembola in Austria is discussed in the light of Quaternary climate oscillations. Four principal patterns are described: (1) widely scattered alpine cave-dwellers which have survived the last glaciation on nunataks; (2) endemic troglobionts within the borders of maximum Wurm glaciation which have endured in their o...
Article
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A new genus, Vindobonella gen. n. (Acerentomidae s. I.), and a new species, Vindobonella leopoldina sp. n., are described from Vienna. The new genus belongs to a group characterized by a reduced labial palp and a non-modified striate band on abdominal segment VIII.
Article
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The two-spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata is the only known host of the sexually transmitted fungus Hesperomyces virescens in Austria. Three further insect ecto-parasites of the order Laboulbeniales are recorded for the first time in Austria: Laboulbenia notiophili, Stigmatomyces majewskii and Stigmatomyces scaptomyzae.
Article
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Two new species of Protura (Eosentomidae) from forests within the municipal area of Vienna, Austria, are described: Eosentomon vindobonense sp.n. and Eosentomon cetium sp.n.
Chapter
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Article
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An user-friendly synoptic key to the Lumbricidae of Austria is presented (62 species and infraspecific entities). Mature individuals of many species can be readily identified by external characters. In several cases, however, dissection remains indispensable. Two internal characters of taxonomic significance (shape of nephridial vesicles and struct...
Article
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A worldwide review is presented of arenicolous interstitial Collembola, comprising 168 species recorded from supralittoral and inland ("dry") sand and 56 species from marine intertidal ("humid") sand.
Article
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The Genus Coletinia in Central Europe (Thysanura: Nicoletiidae) Records of Nicoletiidae (Thysanura) from a Polish greenhouse and outdoor biotopes in Hungary and Austria are reconsidered. A new record from a close-to-nature biotope in Vienna provides further evidence that Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887), the only Central European species found outdo...
Article
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Firemen equipped with protective suits and respirators turned out to vacuum large spots of an alleged pollutant - "a furry, reddish brown substance" - from a municipal road near Silz (Tyrol, Austria) on May 26, 1996. The operation, telecasted the following day, was triggered by a mass occurrence of juvenile springtails, Ceratophysella sigillata (Uz...
Article
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Mit den hier gemeldeten Erstnachweisen für Österreich (Tygarrup javanicus, Stigm atogaster gracilis, Schendyla dentata und Nyctunguis persim ilis) sind derzeit 20 Erdläufer-Arten aus W ien bekannt. Die Beschreibung von N. persim i­ lis A ttems, 1932 wird korrigiert und ergänzt. Als einzige paläarktische Art der revisionsbedürftigen Gattung Nyctungu...
Article
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Biogeographic aspects of a record of Plusiocampa. caprai CONDE, 1950 (Diplura: Campodeidae) are discussed. The troglomorphic dipluran was found in the air-filled cavity system of a stony, hand-packed torrent control construction in the brook „Apriacher Bach" southeast of Heiligenblut, Carinthia.
Article
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Three series of food preference experiments with the isopod Porcellio scaber were carried out: (1) maple leaf discs (Acer pseudoplatanus) immediately after exposition to the excrements and mucus of Enchytraeus albidus (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae), (2) leaf discs after exposition and subsequent incubation for one week, and (3) leaf discs after exposi...
Article
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Four bait-trapping campaigns at seven sites along the W-E-axis across Vienna yielded 25 species of vinegar flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Deciduous wood sites are faunistically similar despite different anthropogenic pressure; they are characterized by high species numbers, high diversity and at least one third hemerophobic individuals. The natura...
Article
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Small spots of low vegetation on granite boulders in N Austria are inhabited by a characteristic collembolan coenosis. Ecophysiological properties of three frequent boulder-dwelling springtail species (representing two different life forms) were tested in field and laboratory experiments and related to the specific life habits. The euedaphic Onychi...
Article
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In zwei Kaltluft führenden Hohlraumsystemen des niederösterreichischen Voralpcngebictcs wurden neben bodenbewohnenden Collembolcn-Arten auch Troglobiontcn (Bonetogastrura cavicola, B. spelicola) gefunden. Der mittel-europäische Erstnachweis der arkto-alpinen Friesea alaskella unterstreicht die biogeographische Bedeutung dieser unbefahrbaren Windröh...
Article
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Mapping of Diplura within the city limits of Vienna (11 Campodeidae and 2 Japygidae species) reveals the habitat preference and the hemerobiological and bioindicative significance of the more abundant species. The faunistic characters of 8 urban biotope groups are outlined and the modes of both long-distance and intra-urban dispersal of Diplura are...