Research Items (16)
- Jun 2018
This article examines the types of capitals possessed by informal tourism entrepreneurs and locates their value within the field relations that orders their contribution to the tourism system. Bourdieu’s theory on fields and capitals was applied to ethnographic narrative accounts of stakeholders in tourism in Chiang Mai, Thailand to assess these roles. Informal entrepreneurs have limited access to resources and their perspectives are excluded from academic debates and policy initiatives. The paper identifies the dynamism, positive social capital, flexibility, and symbolic capital of informal entrepreneurs. These are related to the field conditions that determine and structure their contribution to tourism destinations. The analysis reveals the importance of collaboration between informal entrepreneurs and other stakeholders, concluding with recommendations for policy makers.
- Mar 2018
This article examines informal entrepreneurs’ capital usage and conversion in the Thai tourism sector. On the Bourdieusian assumption that people perpetually transform tangible and intangible forms of capital, this study seeks to answer how informal tourism entrepreneurs transform intangible capital into tangible capital, and vice versa, at different stages of their development process. A visual dataset of 78 filmed interviews and of 426 photographs of informal entrepreneurs in three tourist-island destinations in Thailand was compiled and analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The results show the importance of diversification of capital mix at informal entrepreneurs’ different development stages. Whereas cultural and symbolic capital are more salient for freelancers and small-size entrepreneurs, economic and social capital are more important for mid-size and large informal entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this study introduces dream capital as a new form of capital. Developing countries are recommended to introduce a policy on profiling informal tourism entrepreneurs so that the appropriate level of regulation can be applied in order to maintain or increase their benefits to society.
This is an empirical, descriptive study of tourists at sport mega-events. Its purpose is to describe tourists who attend sport mega-events. As an empirical study, it surveys tourists at two major sport mega-events in two different countries: the 2008 Olympic Games in China and the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. Building on a growing body of literature related to the marketing of sport mega-events, results support that both the place (China versus South Africa) and the attraction (Olympic Games versus FIFA World Cup) influence – across a number of Place Image variables – the nature and composition of the tourists who are attracted to the sport mega-event. The findings suggest that the sport mega-event can be used by the host country to target potential tourists who have limited interest in the event. Further, this research finds that the tourist view of the sport mega-event is influenced by the host country and the nature of the event. The research responds to a key need in both the literature and in practice, where understanding of tourists in the SME context is needed for countries, regions and communities
In this paper, the authors address a literature gap with regard to sponsorship outcomes of mega-events and their host countries. This paper is about research that investigates the interrelatedness of three important images – host country, mega-event and sponsor images – from the perspective of a cameo appearance building on the sponsorship and brand placement literature. It is based on the premise that the host city makes a cameo appearance during a mega-event for sport tourists while the event itself makes a cameo appearance for residents of the host country. The results indicate that mega-events can have a transitory influence, and that cameo effects exist, but that the patterns of relationships are different for sport tourists and residents.
EXPLORING THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND POWER RELATIONS IN TOURISM STUDIES: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE RAMI K. ISAAC AND ERDINҪ ҪAKMAK Academy for Tourism, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences This special issue of Tourism, Culture & Communication on “Tourism and Power: Science, culture and society” advances theoretical, conceptual, and empirical research on power relations in the context of tourism. The call for articles was inspired by our theoretical, and research interests in science and power relations in tourism studies based upon a session organised by the Research Committee 50 (RC50) on International Tourism, of the International Sociologist Association (ISA) congress in Yokohama July 2014. The collection of articles in this special issue provides original and innovative international tourism research studies that are embedded with interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary theoretical, conceptual, and methodological thought in the study of tourism and power relations. This special issue is a collection of articles representing authors from the UK, China, India, Pakistan, Bulgaria, Palestine and Turkey.
Drawing Tourism to Conflict-ridden Destinations The collection of articles in this special issue provides original and innovative research studies that are embedded with interdisciplinary theoretical, conceptual, and methodological thought in the study of destination marketing and branding. The emphasis is on critically interpreting the theoretical models of destination marketing and branding in problematic, conflict-ridden destinations and challenging to adapt frameworks that have not been tested earlier in tourism studies. In this way, the articles in this special issue help to unpack the complexity of destination marketing in conflict-ridden destinations, yet at the same time reinforce the relationship between them. There are seven articles published in this special issue.
In our introduction to this volume, we provide a chronological discussion of science and power relations in the academia and set the scene for the articles featured in this special issue. This endnote works to a reverse formula, looking forward and seeking if not to unweave the dominating discourse of centrality in the tourism academia and pointing out for further advancing the often complex discussions by different traditions of academia. On the top of that, these articles in this special issue by no means capture the full array of interesting studies being conducted in the area of science and power relations in tourism studies. Obviously, research and discussions related to some of the bigger and relevant trends in recent years (e.g. gender and tourism academy, tokenism, diversity including age, class, ethnicity, national origin, religion, and even disciplinary) do not appear in this volume.
- Aug 2016
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the motives and emotions of Western tourists visiting Tuol Sleng Genocide Prison Museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and further contribute to a deeper understanding of the dark tourism consumption. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from popular travel blog sites. This study employs various qualitative and quantitative methods, such as netnography, semantic network analysis and critical content analysis in order to gain a deeper insight into the visitors’ emotions and motivations. Findings This study reveals that people visit Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum mainly for “remembrance”, “worth visiting”, “learning and understanding”, “paying respect” and a “must visit” attraction. Emotions revealed in this study were “shocking“, “sadness“, “horror” and “depressive”. Research limitations/implications This paper is limited to the analyses of travel blogs sites. Further research could include interviews with Western visitors, and professionals managing the site. Originality/value To the best of the knowledge, this is the first study to examine the emotions of visitors in Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum.
- Jan 2016
- The Politics and Power of Tourism in Palestine
Introduction State branding is about promoting a state’s image, products and resources for tourism, public diplomacy and foreign direct investment (FDI) by means of strategic destination marketing. States, like products, compete with each other for getting competitive advantage in a world of 206 sovereign states (International Olympic Committee, 2015). Having a strong state brand means that a country, its products and people, are seen as attractive in the global market place. Such a state potentially attracts tourists, FDI, talented people and its export products find markets easily worldwide. Moreover, when that state speaks in the political realm of international affairs its voice is more likely to be heard. Globalization has made each state aware of itself, its image and reputation worldwide (Van Ham 2001). The lack of a strong state brand potentially means a weakness for countries aspiring to wield political influence in the international political arena. Although Palestine with Bethlehem and Jerusalem has been an important pilgrimage destination for centuries and probably possesses one of the oldest brands in the world, it suffers from having an unknown state brand. The declared State of Palestine is recognized by 135 UN member states and it has become a member of international organizations such as UNESCO, International Criminal Court, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, FIFA, and International Olympic Committee among others. Nevertheless, two things are clear for the State of Palestine: (i) branding the state of Palestine is no longer a choice but a necessity; (ii) a branding strategy should be performed as an integrated and concerted by all relevant stakeholders like public organizations, private sector, SMEs, residents and diaspora. Therefore, this chapter aims to serve as an early step of developing the Palestine’s state branding strategy.
- Oct 2013
This study begins to fill the gap in research of people's motivations to visit sites of death and suffering and to contribute to a deeper understanding of dark tourism consumption within dark conflict sites. The article aims to examine the motivations of visitors to former transit camp Westerbork as an iconic dark site in the Netherlands. The research process involved a self-administered survey questionnaire filled by 238, randomly selected Dutch visitors. Data are analysed by means of exploratory factor analysis to decide upon the relevant factors for representing the motivations of visitors to Westerbork. The findings show that people visit Westerbork mainly for 'self-understanding', 'curiosity', 'conscience', a 'must see' this place and 'exclusiveness'. This is the first study to examine visitors' motivations to Westerbork as a dark site. Most research on visitor motivations is not based on empirical data, but on theoretical research.
- Nov 2012
The understanding of visitor images is an important subject for tourism destination marketers. Although an increasing number of empirical studies explore images of several tourism destinations worldwide, limited research has been focussed on the tourism destination image of conflict areas. This study examines the image of Bethlehem by analysing Bethlehem’s visitors’ online publishing. Data was collected from popular travel blog sites, which include online posts about Bethlehem and its visitors’ beliefs and evaluations. The results revealed that destination specific attributes in addition to primary image attributes are essential to understand the visitors’ image of a conflict area. This study suggests that destination marketers of conflict areas should first accept their unique destination attributes, which do not change rapidly. The visitors’ perceptions of Bethlehem and its people are based on more functional and psychological attributes than on holistic impressions. Destination marketers of conflict areas should craft a unique branding strategy that fits their destination best.
- Apr 2012
In this critical review article an adopted framework from critical theorists will be introduced in order to question the alleged neutral objectivity in social scientific discussion. This old discussion—on value free science—becomes increasingly evident through the illustration of the relevant example of how academics concealed their positions of neutrality just before the 86th annual tourism conference of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), October 2010 in Jerusalem. This critical review article continues by analyzing the relatively high amount of email reactions to a Palestinian tourism scholar who called for support from the tourism academic community for the rejection of Jerusalem as the place where the conference will be held. On the basis of this material, three categories of reactions will be introduced and organized as a normative, critical discussion. In this discourse, an emancipatory perspective on this topic will be presented. This emancipatory knowledge will give voice to the marginalized and less heard voices in this region. With these voices a counterdiscourse can be organized in this region in which Arendt's “agora” will be introduced as a place of plural discussions. The intention of this revitalized critical discussion is to create a climate of broader enlightenment that ultimately goes beyond the perspectives of individual parties. (Editor's introduction)
- May 2011
This study analyses the impact of destination competitiveness (DC) factors upon the competitive identity of Brazil as a Dutch holiday destination. The identification of a relevant set of DC factors represents an important pre-condition for assessing a specific destination's competitiveness with regard to its competitor set. The findings suggest that Brazil's performance on a range of DC factors is uneven, and significant performance gaps exist between Brazil and its closest competitors. As well as contributing to the currently scarce academic literature on Brazil's competitive identity, this article also indicates a number of directions for related future research.