E.R. Kleemans

E.R. Kleemans
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Faculty of Law

Prof. Dr.

About

130
Publications
171,978
Reads
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2,392
Citations
Introduction
Prof. Dr. Edward R. Kleemans is Full Professor at the VU School of Criminology, Faculty of Law, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He is Vice-Dean / Director of Research of the Faculty of Law and conducts research into organized crime and cybercrime, including drug trafficking, human smuggling, human trafficking, fraud and money laundering, social organization, embeddedness, and the interaction between offenders and the criminal justice system.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Full Professor, VU School of Criminology
September 1996 - February 2013
Research and Documentation Centre (WODC)
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • Senior researcher and Head of the Crime, Law Enforcement and Sanctions Research Department of the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Ministry of Security and Justice, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Publications

Publications (130)
Article
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This article contributes to the debate in terrorism research on how unique terrorist suspects (i.e. individuals suspected of crimes with terrorist intent) actually are and whether or not specific theories are necessary to explain their behavior. Our study compares terrorist suspects from the Netherlands with their siblings and nonterrorist suspects...
Article
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What are similarities and differences between violent and nonviolent terrorist suspects? Our study aims to answer this question by comparing violent terrorist suspects (VTS) ( n = 57) to nonviolent terrorist suspects (NVTS) ( n = 292) in the Netherlands. Guided by social control theories and using register data from the Dutch Public Prosecution Ser...
Article
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This article contributes to our existing knowledge through a crime script analysis of contract killings, based on six extensively analyzed police investigations in the Netherlands. Starting from a universal crime script, a more specific crime script for contract killings is elaborated. To provide a clear picture of the whole process, the descriptio...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-021-09424-z
Article
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As existing literature on intergenerational continuity of criminal behavior is mainly based on data on ‘general’ offenders and their children, the current study aims to improve our knowledge by looking at intergenerational continuity of crime among a national sample of children of organized crime offenders. Judicial data on all (N= 478) offenders c...
Article
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In this article, we aim to further our understanding of the social embeddedness of organized crime by exploring the (possible) ways the social environment adds to the shielding of organized crime or criminal activities by organized crime groups. We argue that the metaphor of 'walls of silence' provides a fruitful way to examine the shielding of org...
Article
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This article discusses a unique "natural experiment," the introduction of entry gates at Dutch train stations and the potential effects of this on crime in the areas around these stations. A quasi-experimental study was carried out to show that introducing entry gates correlated with a drop in crime in these areas. After entry gates had been introd...
Article
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Using long-term personal background and registered criminal career data on 2,714 police-identified members of Dutch Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMCGs), the current study examines Dutch OMCG membership and its association with members' criminal careers. Results show that Dutch OMCG members differ from the average adult male population (N = 6,845,110) i...
Chapter
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A major problem in cybercrime research is that it is simply difficult to study the criminals committing cybercrimes: Criminals try to hide their illegal activities and are usually not disposed to talking openly to researchers, which limits the usefulness of the more traditional social sciences’ research methods. Furthermore, the innovative methods...
Book
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This systematic review of the (Dutch) literature answers the following two research questions: 1. What is known in the scientific and grey literature about the content, processes and effects of public-private partnerships in the field of financial and economic crime and cybercrime? 2. What success factors and bottlenecks are known about these publi...
Article
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In recent years, many European countries have taken far-reaching measures to combat the criminal activities of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Meanwhile, empirical research into the ways OMCGs are involved in and influence the crimes of their members is largely lacking. This study presents the main findings of research based on police files of cas...
Article
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Employment is considered to help offenders desist from crime. Studies focusing on organized crime offenders, however, have suggested that employment may promote rather than inhibit crime for these offenders, but lacked quantitative individual-level data to confirm this finding. Using a large sample of organized crime offenders ( N = 1921) and longi...
Chapter
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This chapter describes the shape and content of criminal careers of a large sample of Dutch organized crime offenders and relates these criminal careers to social economic factors such as employment and income. Other chapters in this volume provide systematic reviews of the literature regarding criminal careers of specific – largely understudied –...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of what we know about organized forms of cybercrime executed with a financial goal. First, criminal cooperation is covered. We discuss recent insights into the structure, composition, and mechanisms of origin and growth. Second, bottlenecks in the criminal business process and criminal money flows are described. Ev...
Article
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Account hijacking, i.e. illegitimately accessing someone else’s personal online account, is on the rise and affects not only financial accounts, but the full spectrum of online accounts. To gain more insight in the illicit act of online dissemination of stolen account credentials, we systematically examined how such credentials were offered on thre...
Article
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In this explorative study we provide empirical insight into how organized crime offenders use IT to launder their money. Our empirical data consist of 30 large-scale criminal investigations into organized crime. These cases are part of the most recent, fifth data sweep of the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor (DOCM). We do not focus on cybercrime alone...
Book
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Een goed onderbouwde aanpak van de georganiseerde criminaliteit is alleen mogelijk wanneer er een gedegen inzicht bestaat in de aard van de georganiseerde criminaliteit zoals die zich in Nederland manifesteert. De Monitor Georganiseerde Criminaliteit biedt dat inzicht door zo veel mogelijk de kennis te benutten die wordt opgedaan tijdens omvangrijk...
Book
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A sound basis for preventive and repressive policies regarding organised crime re-quires empirical insight into the nature of organised crime in the Netherlands. The Dutch Organised Crime Monitor provides that insight by making use of the knowledge gained during large-scale police investigations. This report is the result of the most recent, fifth...
Article
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This qualitative descriptive study aims to explore (1) the extent of intergenerational continuity of crime in families of organized crime offenders, (2) the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and (3) the mechanisms underlying intergenerational discontinuity. The study comprised a descriptive analysis of the available numeric information on 25 or...
Article
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This article presents the results of empirical analyses of the use of information technology (IT) by organized crime groups. In particular, it explores how the use of IT affects the processes of origin and growth of criminal networks. The empirical data presented in this article consist of 30 large scale criminal investigations into organized crime...
Article
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Female offenders are seldom studied by criminological scholars. This is certainly the case regarding offenses like human trafficking and sexual exploitation. However, the number of women suspected of being a perpetrator of human trafficking should not be underestimated. In this paper we present the results of a study on female perpetrators of human...
Article
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When it comes to human trafficking, hype often outweighs evidence. All too often, the discourse on trafficking – increasingly absorbed under discussions of so-called ‘modern slavery’ too – is dominated by simplistic treatments of a complex problem, sweeping claims and dubious statistics [1, 2, 3]. Such an approach might help to win attention, inves...
Article
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Current money laundering policies often rely on the same prescribed instruments for many business sectors. For ‘risk based’ policies, however, it is important to know in which business sectors money laundering risks are relatively higher. This paper builds upon work conducted as part of Identifying and Assessing the Risk of Money Laundering in Euro...
Article
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Nobody wants dead Chinese in a locked container. Human smuggling investigations and the so-called ban on passage of people. Abstract. According to Dutch law, investigating officers have to comply with a so-called ban on passage of people, in cases of concrete 'knowledge' about human smuggling, making intervention obligatory (in order to protect s...
Article
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Dit artikel biedt empirisch inzicht in hoe daders binnen de georganiseerde criminaliteit ICT gebruiken voor het regelen van hun geldstromen. We richten ons daarbij niet uitsluitend op cybercrime, maar verkennen juist het gebruik van ICT én de consequenties daarvan voor een breder scala van soorten georganiseerde criminaliteit, dus ook ‘traditionele...
Article
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Which opportunities due to digitization are exploited by criminals? And how do criminals gather the required ICT-expertise to take advantage of these opportunities? This exploratory study provides insight into criminals seeking ICT-expertise by analyzing five Dutch cases. This paper shows that criminals seeking ICT-expertise take advantage of compa...
Book
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Het doel van deze studie is het vergroten van het inzicht in hoe daders binnen de georganiseerde criminaliteit ICT gebruiken en welke invloed dat gebruik heeft op hun criminele bedrijfsprocessen. We richten ons daarbij niet uitsluitend op cyber-crime, maar verkennen juist het gebruik van ICT én de consequenties daarvan voor een breder scala van soo...
Book
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This study provides empirical insight into how organised crime uses IT and how it affects criminal operations. We do not focus on cybercrime alone. Instead, we explore the use of IT and its consequences in a broad range of types of organised crime, i.e. from 'traditional 'types of organised crime such as offline drug smuggling to cybercrime. This r...
Article
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Any person who has been a victim of human trafficking has a right to compensation. Compensation entails the reimbursement of material and immaterial damages a trafficked person has suffered. In spite of the internationally recognized right to compensation, the number of trafficked persons in Europe having actually received any reimbursement is very...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the connection between organized crime and places for three types of organized crime: racketeering, transit crime, and the local provision of illegal goods and services. Place turns out to have a different meaning for these three types of organized crime and raises several theoretical challenges. As these types of organized c...
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Hardcore soccer supporters, opportunity structures and organized crime. This paper describes the results of twelve criminal investigations into criminal activities of hardcore supporters of a Dutch soccer club. The information from these criminal investigations consists of among other 74,246 transcribed, wiretapped telephone conversations and 643 p...
Book
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Dutch report, funded by the Police & Science Foundation ('Programma Politie en Wetenschap'), on the criminal careers of 1041 young offenders who were suspected of a serious crime in 2000. In the first part, the criminal careers (up to - on average - age 33) are analyzed, using group-based trajectory models. In the second part, 50 youngsters who com...
Article
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In this article, we study the various functions of online cybercriminal meeting places from a unique perspective: We do not take the criminal meeting place as a starting point, but the users—the criminal networks. This allows not only for a view of what is happening on online meeting places, but it also places online meeting places into perspective...
Article
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Introduction to a (Dutch) special issue on contract killings.
Book
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This special issue focuses on contract killings in the Netherlands.
Article
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Criminological research over the last couple of decades has improved our understanding of cybercrimes. However, this body of research is regarded as still theoretically thin and not fully developed; more knowledge on the actors involved, their characteristics, and modus operandi is needed. Some publications recently suggested that organised crime i...
Technical Report
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The final report of project IARM presents an exploratory methodology for assessing the risk of money laundering (ML). In particular, it develops a composite indicator of money laundering risk at geographic area level and at business sector level. The methodology is tested in three pilot countries (Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). The...
Article
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Online forums serve as offender convergence settings for cybercriminals, but it is unknown whether all cybercriminal networks use forums. Important questions are how cybercriminals meet, how cybercriminal networks develop and what this means for the criminal capabilities of these networks. To gain insight into these questions, we analysed 18 crimin...
Chapter
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This chapter describes the emerging focus on situational prevention of organised crime, an area in which repression and a law enforcement approach has traditionally dominated. It elaborates on the theoretical background as well as important critical reflections. Situational crime prevention theory is applied to the case of synthetic drugs productio...
Article
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Case studies show that there are at least two types of groups involved in phishing: low-tech all-rounders and high-tech specialists. However, empirical criminological research into cybercriminal networks is scarce. This article presents a taxonomy of cybercriminal phishing networks, based on analysis of 18 Dutch police investigations into phishing...
Article
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Two recent studies which are part of the Dutch Research Program on the Safety and Security of Online Banking, present empirical material regarding the origin, growth and criminal capabilities of cybercriminal networks carrying out attacks on customers of financial institutions. This article extrapolates upon the analysis of Dutch cases and compleme...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the emerging focus on situational prevention of organised crime, an area in which repression and a law enforcement approach has traditionally dominated. It elaborates on the theoretical background as well as important critical reflections. Situational crime prevention theory is applied to the case of synthetic drugs productio...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we provide insight into a common but scarcely researched problem in the process of confiscating criminal earnings: attrition, that is, the gap between estimated criminal profits on the one hand and the actually recovered amount of money on the other. We investigate the practice and results of financial investigation and asset recov...
Article
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This paper assesses the empirical evidence on multi-agency collaboration to reduce crime, uphold justice and improve safety in the so-called ‘Red Light District’ in the city center of Amsterdam, which has been a high crime area for decades. Three periods are analyzed: crime on the streets (1980s-1996); organized crime behind the front doors (1996-2...
Article
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Dutch drug policy, once considered pragmatic and lenient and rooted in a generally tolerant attitude toward drug use, has slowly but surely shifted from a primarily public health focus to an increasing focus on law enforcement. The “coffee shop” policy and the policy toward MDMA/ecstasy are illustrations. Both were initiated from a public health pe...
Article
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This article uses empirical data from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the choices organized crime offenders make when they invest their money in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1,196 individual investments, light is shed on what kind of assets offenders purchase and where these assets are located. The results are...
Article
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This article introduces the discussion on money laundering and financial aspects of organized crime and presents the main findings of the articles of this special issue. The special issue comprises two papers on investments in two different countries with divergent organized crime situations (Italy and the Netherlands), a paper on persons facilitat...
Chapter
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Criminal organization is dependent on context, place, and time. However, in the study of organized crime, criminal organization is often conceptualized without a wider view on the context within which opportunities for criminal activities arise and in which criminal networks develop that take advantage of these opportunities. Historical research te...
Article
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This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what extent the nature of sex trafficking has parallels w...
Article
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In this article the authors use empirical data from the Dutch Organised Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the investments of organised crime offenders in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1,196 individual investments, they look into what kind of assets offenders purchase and where these assets are located. The authors use the empirical r...
Article
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Special issue of the Dutch Journal of Criminology on 'Criminology and criminal investigation'.
Article
Introduction to the special issue of the Dutch Journal of Criminology on 'Criminology and criminal investigation'.
Chapter
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This chapter on organized crime research focuses on the ways in which academic and applied research can be combined to challenge assumptions and inform policy. It is based on experiences with the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor, an ongoing research project based upon the analysis of closed, extensive police investigations. During the period 1996-2012...
Article
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This paper analyzes the role of women in various types of transnational organized crime and tests the ‘gendered markets’ hypothesis by Zhang et al. (Criminology 45(3):699–733 2007) for a wide cross-section of 150 cases from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor. The main information sources for the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor are closed Dutch police...
Chapter
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This essay discusses six theoretical perspectives on organized crime: "alien conspiracy theory", the bureaucracy model, illegal enterprise theory, protection theory, the social network approach, and the logistic or situational approach toward organized crime. Furthermore, three emerging issues in organized crime theory are reviewed: criminal career...
Chapter
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This essay discusses several topics related to human smuggling and human trafficking with a special focus on exploitation in the sex industry.
Article
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Met zijn oratie Netwerken op niveau plaatst Toine Spapens, hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, zich in een traditie van Nederlandse en buitenlandse onderzoekers die sociale netwerken centraal stellen bij de beschrijving en verklaring van het verschijnsel georganiseerde criminaliteit. Misdaadorganisaties werden in het verleden v...
Article
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In 2000, the Dutch authorities lifted the ban on brothels in the Netherlands. The essence of their approach was to regulate prostitution. People of legal age could now voluntarily sell and purchase sexual services. Brothels which complied with certain licensing conditions were legalized. This paper critically assesses the logic of a position that a...
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