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## Publications

Publications (572)

Motivated by singular limits for long-time optimal control problems, we investigate a class of parameter-dependent parabolic equations. First, we prove a turnpike result, uniform with respect to the parameters within a suitable regularity class and under appropriate bounds. The main ingredient of our proof is the justification of the uniform expone...

A new framework to obtain time-decay estimates for partially dissipative hyperbolic systems set on the real line is developed. Under the classical Shizuta-Kawashima (SK) stability condition, equivalent to the Kalman rank condition in control theory, the solutions of these systems decay exponentially in time for high frequencies and polynomially for...

Federated Learning (FL) is a distributed learning paradigm that enables multiple clients to collaborate on building a machine learning model without sharing their private data. Although FL is considered privacy-preserved by design, recent data reconstruction attacks demonstrate that an attacker can recover clients' training data based on the parame...

We consider finite element approximations to the optimal constant for the Hardy inequality with exponent $p=2$ in bounded domains of dimension $n=1$ or $n\geq 3$. For finite element spaces of piecewise linear and continuous functions on a mesh of size $h$, we prove that the approximate Hardy constant, $S_h^n$, converges to the optimal Hardy constan...

Inspired by normalizing flows, we analyze the bilinear control of neural transport equations by means of time-dependent velocity fields restricted to fulfill, at any time instance, a simple neural network ansatz. The L^1 approximate controllability property is proved, showing that any probability density can be driven arbitrarily close to any other...

We consider the problem of identifying a sparse initial source condition to achieve a given state distribution of a diffusion-advection partial differential equation after a given final time. The initial condition is assumed to be a finite combination of Dirac measures. The locations and intensities of this initial condition are required to be iden...

We consider a convex set $$\Omega $$ Ω and look for the optimal convex sensor $$\omega \subset \Omega $$ ω ⊂ Ω of a given measure that minimizes the maximal distance to the points of $$\Omega .$$ Ω . This problem can be written as follows $$\begin{aligned} \inf \{d^H(\omega ,\Omega ) \ |\ |\omega |=c\ \text {and}\ \omega \subset \Omega \}, \end{ali...

This paper is concerned with the eigenvalue decay of solution operators to operator Lyapunov equations, a relevant topic in the context of model reduction for parabolic control problems. We mainly focus on the Gramian operator, which arises in the context of control and observation of heat processes in infinite time, which is normally the first ste...

We give a full characterization of the range of the operator which associates, to any initial condition, the viscosity solution at time T of a Hamilton–Jacobi equation with convex Hamiltonian. Our main motivation is to be able to treat the case of convex Hamiltonians with no further regularity assumptions. We give special attention to the case H(p)...

In this note, we prove a controllability result for entropy solutions of scalar conservation laws on a star-shaped graph. Using a Lyapunov-type approach, we show that, under a monotonicity assumption on the flux, if u and v are two entropy solutions corresponding to different initial data and same in-flux boundary data (at the exterior nodes of the...

We consider a convex set Ω and look for the optimal convex sensor ω ⊂ Ω of a given measure that minimizes the maximal distance to the points of Ω. This problem can be written as follows inf{d H (ω, Ω) | |ω|= c and ω ⊂ Ω}, where c ∈ (0, |Ω|), d H being the Hausdorff distance. We show that the parametrization via the support functions allows us to fo...

In this paper, by using the Brunovsky normal form, we provide a reformulation of the problem consisting in finding the actuator design which minimizes the controllability cost for finite-dimensional linear systems with scalar controls. Such systems may be seen as spatially discretized linear partial differential equations with lumped controls. The...

This paper is concerned with a combination of Random Batch Methods (RBMs) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) called RBM-MPC. In RBM-MPC, the RBM is used to speed up the solution of the finite-horizon optimal control problems that need to be solved in MPC. We analyze our algorithm in the linear-quadratic setting and obtain explicit error estimates t...

Inverse design of transport equations can be addressed by using a gradient-adjoint methodology. In this methodology numerical schemes used for the adjoint resolution determine the direction of descent in its iterative algorithm, and consequently the CPU time consumed by the inverse design. As the CPU time constitutes a known bottleneck, it is impor...

We address the Selective Harmonic Modulation (SHM) problem in power electronic engineering, consisting in designing a multilevel staircase control signal with some prescribed frequencies to improve the performances of a converter. In this work, SHM is addressed through an optimal control methodology based on duality, in which the admissible control...

We analyze the consequences that the so-called turnpike property has on the longtime behavior of the value function corresponding to a finite-dimensional linear-quadratic optimal control problem with general terminal cost and constrained controls. We prove that, when the time horizon T tends to infinity, the value function asymptotically behaves as...

The local stability and convergence for Model Predictive Control (MPC) of unconstrained nonlinear dynamics based on a linear time-invariant plant model is studied. Based on the long-time behavior of the solution of the Riccati Differential Equation (RDE), explicit error estimates are derived that clearly demonstrate the influence of the two critica...

We analyze the sidewise controllability for the variable coefficients one-dimensional wave equation. The control is acting on one extreme of the string with the aim that the solution tracks a given path or profile at the other free end. This sidewise profile control problem is also often referred to as nodal profile or tracking control. The problem...

We study the time-asymptotic behavior of linear hyperbolic systems under partial dissipation which is localized in suitable subsets of the domain. More precisely, we recover the classical decay rates of partially dissipative systems satisfying the stability condition (SK) with a time-delay depending only on the velocity of each component and the si...

The turnpike property in contemporary macroeconomics asserts that if an economic planner seeks to move an economy from one level of capital to another, then the most efficient path, as long as the planner has enough time, is to rapidly move stock to a level close to the optimal stationary or constant path, then allow for capital to develop along th...

This paper studies the observability of heat equations with real analytic memory kernels. More precisely, we characterize the geometry on observation sets that ensure several observability inequalities, including two-side inequalities. By an observation set, we mean the space-time support of an observer, which is chosen to be measurable. In additio...

We present a new proof of the turnpike property for nonlinear optimal control problems, when the running target is a steady control-state pair of the underlying system. Our strategy combines the construction of quasi-turnpike controls via controllability, and a bootstrap argument, and does not rely on analyzing the optimality system or linearizatio...

In this article, we explore the effects of memory terms in continuous-layer Deep Residual Networks by studying Neural ODEs (NODEs). We investigate two types of models. On one side, we consider the case of Residual Neural Networks with dependence on multiple layers, more precisely Momentum ResNets. On the other side, we analyse a Neural ODE with aux...

We give a full characterization of the range of the operator which associates, to any initial condition, the viscosity solution at time $T$ of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with convex Hamiltonian. Our main motivation is to be able to treat the case of convex Hamiltonians with no further regularity assumptions. We give special attention to the case $H...

This paper follows and complements [12], where we have established the turnpike property for some optimal shape design problems. Considering linear parabolic partial differential equations where the shapes to be optimized act as a source term, we want to minimize a quadratic criterion. The existence of optimal shapes is proved under some appropriat...

The \emph{turnpike property} in contemporary macroeconomics asserts that if an economic planner seeks to move an economy from one level of capital to another, then the most efficient path, as long as the planner has enough time, is to rapidly move stock to a level close to the optimal stationary or constant path, then allow for capital to develop a...

We consider the problem of identifying a sparse initial source condition to achieve a given state distribution of a diffusion-advection partial differential equation after a given final time. The initial condition is assumed to be a finite combination of Dirac measures. The locations and intensities of this initial condition are required to be iden...

We consider the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation with random electric field where the random field is parametrized by countably many infinite random variables due to uncertainty. At the theoretical level, with suitable assumption on the anisotropy of the randomness, adopting the technique employed in elliptic PDEs (Cohen and DeVore in Acta Numerica 24...

In this paper we develop a procedure to deal with a family of parameter-dependent ill-posed problems, for which the exact solution in general does not exist. The original problems are relaxed by considering corresponding approximate ones, whose optimal solutions are well defined, where the optimality is determined by the minimal norm requirement. T...

The aim of this chapter is to give a broad panorama of the control properties of fractional diffusive models from a numerical analysis and simulation perspective. We do this by surveying several research results we obtained in the last years, focusing in particular on the numerical computation of controls, though not forgetting to recall other rele...

These lecture notes address the controllability under state constraints of reaction-diffusion equations arising in socio-biological contexts. We restrict our study to scalar equations with monostable and bistable nonlinearities.
The uncontrolled models describing, for instance, population dynamics, concentrations of chemicals, temperatures, etc., i...

We address the Selective Harmonic Modulation (SHM) problem in power electronic engineering, consisting in designing a multilevel staircase control signal with some prescribed frequencies to improve the performances of a converter. In this work, SHM is addressed through an optimal control methodology based on duality, in which the admissible control...

This paper presents, using dynamical system theory, a framework for investigating the turnpike property in nonlinear optimal control. First, it is shown that a turnpike-like property appears in general dynamical systems with hyperbolic equilibrium and then, apply it to optimal control problems to obtain sufficient conditions for the turnpike behavi...

This paper deals with the averaged dynamics for heat equations in the degenerate case where the diffusivity coefficient, assumed to be constant, is allowed to take the null value. First we prove that the averaged dynamics is analytic. This allows to show that, most often, the averaged dynamics enjoys the property of unique continuation and is appro...

We build up a decomposition for the flow generated by the heat equation with a real analytic memory kernel. It consists of three components: The first one is of parabolic nature; the second one gathers the hyperbolic component of the dynamics, with null velocity of propagation; the last one exhibits a finite smoothing effect. This decomposition rev...

We prove that the viscosity solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a smooth convex Hamiltonian of the form $H(x,p)$ is differentiable with respect to the initial condition. Moreover, the directional G\^ateaux derivatives can be explicitly computed almost everywhere in $\mathbb{R}^N$ by means of the optimality system of the associated optimal c...

In this article, we explore the effects of memory terms in continuous-layer Deep Residual Networks by studying Neural ODEs (NODEs). We investigate two types of models. On one side, we consider the case of Residual Neural Networks with dependence on multiple layers, more precisely Momentum ResNets. On the other side, we analyze a Neural ODE with aux...

We discuss the multilevel control problem for linear dynamical systems, consisting in designing a piece-wise constant control function taking values in a finite-dimensional set. In particular, we provide a complete characterization of multilevel controls through a duality approach, based on the minimization of a suitable cost functional. In this ma...

This paper is devoted to analysing the explicit slow decay rate and turnpike in the infinite-horizon linear quadratic optimal control problems for hyperbolic systems. Assume that some weak observability or controllability are satisfied, by which, the lower and upper bounds of the corresponding algebraic Riccati operator are estimated, respectively....

In this paper, by using the Brunovsky normal form, we provide a reformulation of the problem consisting in finding the actuator design which minimizes the controllability cost for finite-dimensional linear systems with scalar controls. Such systems may be seen as spatially discretized linear partial differential equations with lumped controls. The...

In this article, we study the problem of identification for the 1-D Burgers equation. This problem consists in identifying the set of initial data evolving to a given target at a final time. Due to the property of nonbackward uniqueness of the Burgers equation, there may exist multiple initial data leading to the same given target. In articles “Ini...

We model, simulate and control the guiding problem for a herd of evaders under the action of repulsive drivers. The problem is formulated in an optimal control framework, where the drivers (controls) aim to guide the evaders (states) to a desired region of the Euclidean space. The numerical simulation of such models quickly becomes unfeasible for a...

The aim of this work is to give a broad panorama of the control properties of fractional diffusive models from a numerical analysis and simulation perspective. We do this by surveying several research results we obtained in the last years, focusing in particular on the numerical computation of controls. Our reference model will be a non-local diffu...

We analyze Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (NODEs) from a control theoretical perspective to address some of the main properties and paradigms of Deep Learning (DL), in particular, data classification and universal approximation. These objectives are tackled and achieved from the perspective of the simultaneous control of systems of NODEs. F...

In this paper, problems of optimal control are considered where in the objective function, in addition to the control cost, there is a tracking term that measures the distance to a desired stationary state. The tracking term is given by some norm, and therefore it is in general not differentiable. In the optimal control problem, the initial state i...

We analyze the dynamics of the heat equation with a general memory kernel, through building up a decomposition for the flow generated by the equation. This decomposition not only reveals a hybrid parabolic-hyperbolic phenomenon of the flow, but also gives a fine comparison between solutions of the heat equations with and without memory. It consists...

We study the controlled heat equations with analytic memory from two perspectives: reachable subspaces and control regions. Due to the hybrid parabolic-hyperbolic phenomenon of the equations, the support of a control needs to move in time to efficiently control the dynamics.We show that under a sharp sufficient geometric condition imposed to the co...

We analyze the dynamics of the heat equation with a general memory kernel, through building up a decomposition for the flow generated by the equation. This decomposition not only reveals a hybrid parabolic-hyperbolic phenomenon of the flow, but also gives a fine comparison between solutions of the heat equations with and without memory. It consists...

We analyze the sidewise controllability for the variable coefficients one-dimensional wave equation. The control is acting on one extreme of the string with the aim that the solution tracks a given path at the other free end. This sidewise control problem is also often referred to as nodal profile or tracking control. First, the problem is reformul...

In this paper, we study the problem of identification for the one-dimensional Burgers equation. This problem consists in identifying the set of initial data evolving to a given target at a final time. Due to the property of non-backward uniqueness of Burgers equation, there may exist multiple initial data leading to the same given target. In recent...

In this paper, we study the problem of initial data identification for the one-dimensional Burgers equation. This problem consists in identifying the set of initial data evolving to a given target at a final time. Due to the time-irreversibility of the Burgers equation, some target functions are unattainable from solutions of this equation, making...

We present a new proof of the turnpike property for nonlinear optimal control problems, when the running target is a steady control-state pair of the under- lying dynamics. Our strategy combines the construction of suboptimal quasi-turnpike trajectories via controllability, and a bootstrap argument, and does not rely on an- alyzing the optimality s...

We study the inverse problem, or inverse design problem, for a time-evolution Hamilton--Jacobi equation. More precisely, given a target function $u_T$ and a time horizon $T>0$, we aim to construct all the initial conditions for which the viscosity solution coincides with $u_T$ at time $T$. As is common in this kind of nonlinear equation, the target...

We present an algorithm for the time-inversion of diffusion–advection equations, based on the adjoint methodology. Given a final state distribution our main aim is to recover sparse initial conditions, constituted by a finite combination of Kronecker deltas, identifying their location and mass. We discuss the strengths of the adjoint machinery and...

In this article, we the optimal control and neural ordinary differential equation (neural ODE) perspective of deep supervised learning. Our objective is, via rigorous analysis, to study the impact of the final time horizon T appearing in the neural ODE, on the training error and the optimal parameters.

It is by now well-known that practical deep supervised learning may roughly be cast as an optimal control problem for a specific discrete-time, nonlinear dynamical system called an artificial neural network. In this work, we consider the continuous-time formulation of the deep supervised learning problem, and study the latter's behavior when the fi...

We introduce and study the turnpike property for time-varying shapes, within the viewpoint of optimal control. We focus here on second-order linear parabolic equations where the shape acts as a source term and we seek the optimal time-varying shape that minimizes a quadratic criterion. We first establish existence of optimal solutions under some ap...

Dynamic phenomena in social and biological sciences can often be modeled by reaction-diffusion equations. When addressing the control from a mathematical viewpoint, one of the main challenges is that, because of the intrinsic nature of the models under consideration, the solution, typically a proportion or a density function, needs to preserve give...

The concept of turnpike connects the solution of long but finite time horizon optimal control problems with steady state optimal controls. A key ingredient of the analysis of the turnpike is the linear quadratic regulator problem and the convergence of the solution of the associated differential Riccati equation as the terminal time approaches infi...

We consider the controllability problem for finite-dimensional linear autonomous control systems with nonnegative controls. Despite the Kalman condition, the unilateral nonnegativity control constraint may cause a positive minimal controllability time. When this happens, we prove that, if the matrix of the system has a real eigenvalue, then there i...

This paper deals with an optimal control problem associated with the Kuramoto model describing the dynamical behavior of a network of coupled oscillators. Our aim is to design a suitable control function allowing us to steer the system to a synchronized configuration in which all the oscillators are aligned on the same phase. This control is comput...

In this work, we analyze the consequences that the so-called turnpike property has on the long-time behavior of the value function corresponding to an optimal control problem. As a by-product, we obtain the long-time behavior of the solution to the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. In order to carry out our study, we use the setting of a...

In this paper, problems of optimal control are considered where in the objective function, in addition to the control cost there is a tracking term that measures the distance to a desired stationary state. The tracking term is given by some norm and therefore it is in general not differentiable. In the optimal control problem, the initial state is...

In this paper we perform a complete probabilistic study of a finite dimensional linear control system with uncertainty. The controllability condition with random initial data and final target is analysed. To conduct this investigation we determine the first probability density function of the control and the solution of the random control problem u...

We address the application of stochastic optimization methods for the simultaneous control of parameter-dependent systems. In particular, we focus on the classical Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) approach of Robbins and Monro, and on the recently developed Continuous Stochastic Gradient (CSG) algorithm. We consider the problem of computing simult...

We model, simulate and control the guiding problem for a herd of evaders under the action of repulsive drivers. The problem is formulated in an optimal control framework, where the drivers (controls) aim to guide the evaders (states) to a desired region of the Euclidean space. The numerical simulation of such models quickly becomes unfeasible for a...

In these lecture notes, we address the problem of large-time asymptotic behaviour of the solutions to scalar convection-diffusion equations set in ${R}^N$. The large-time asymptotic behaviour of the solutions to many convection-diffusion equations is strongly linked with the behavior of the initial data at infinity. In fact, when the initial datum...

We study the inverse problem, or inverse design problem, for a time-evolution Hamilton-Jacobi equation. More precisely, given a target function $u_T$ and a time horizon $T>0$, we aim to construct all the initial conditions for which the viscosity solution coincides with $u_T$ at time $T$. As it is common in this kind of nonlinear equations, the tar...

This paper deals with an optimal control problem associated to the Kuramoto model describing the dynamical behavior of a network of coupled oscillators. Our aim is to design a suitable control function allowing us to steer the system to a synchronized configuration in which all the oscillators are aligned on the same phase. This control is computed...

We model and analyze a guiding problem, where the drivers try to steer the evaders’ positions toward a target region while the evaders always try to escape from drivers. This problem is motivated by the guidance-by-repulsion model [R. Escobedo, A. Ibañez and E. Zuazua, Optimal strategies for driving a mobile agent in a “guidance by repulsion” model...

We analyze the propagation properties of the numerical versions of one- and two-dimensional wave equations, semi-discretized in space by finite difference schemes. We focus on high-frequency solutions whose propagation can be described, both at the continuous and at the semi-discrete levels, by micro-local tools. We consider uniform and non-uniform...

In this paper, we analyze the controllability properties under positivity constraints on the control or the state of a one-dimensional heat equation involving the fractional Laplacian (−dx ²)s (0 < s < 1) on the interval (−1, 1). We prove the existence of a minimal (strictly positive) time Tmin such that the fractional heat dynamics can be controll...

We introduce and study the turnpike property for time-varying shapes, within the viewpoint of optimal control. We focus here on second-order linear parabolic equations where the shape acts as a source term and we seek the optimal time-varying shape that minimizes a quadratic criterion. We first establish existence of optimal solutions under some ap...

We address the problem of inverse design of linear hyperbolic transport equations in 2D heterogeneous media. We develop numerical algorithms based on gradient-adjoint methodologies on unstructured grids. While the flow equation is compulsorily solved by means of a second order upwind scheme so to guarantee sufficient accuracy, the necessity of usin...

In ecology and population dynamics, gene-flow refers to the transfer of a trait (e.g. genetic material) from one population to another. This phenomenon is of great relevance in studying the spread of diseases or the evolution of social features, such as languages. From the mathematical point of view, gene-flow is modelled using bistable reaction-di...

Dynamic phenomena in social and biological sciences can often be modeled by employing reaction-diffusion equations. When addressing the control of these modes, from a mathematical viewpoint one of the main challenges is that, because of the intrinsic nature of the models under consideration, the solution, typically a proportion or a density functio...

We model and analyze a herding problem, where the drivers try to steer the evaders' trajectories while the evaders always move away from the drivers. This problem is motivated by the guidance-by-repulsion model [Escobedo, R., Iba\~nez, A. and Zuazua, E. COMMUN NONLINEAR SCI 39 (2016) 58-72], where the authors answer how to control the evaders' posi...

We analyse the problem of controlling to consensus a nonlinear system modelling opinion spreading. We derive explicit exponential estimates on the cost of approximately controlling these systems to consensus, as a function of the number of agents N and the control time horizon T. Our strategy makes use of known results on the controllability of spa...

We study the null controllability of linear shadow models for reaction-diffusion systems arising as singular limits when the diffusivity of some of the components is very high. This leads to a coupled system where one component solves a parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) and the other one an ordinary differential equation (ODE).
We analy...

We consider the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation with random electric field where the random field is parametrized by countably many infinite random variables due to uncertainty. At the theoretical level, with suitable assumption on the anisotropy of the randomness, adopting the technique employed in elliptic PDEs [Cohen, DeVore, 2015], we prove the b...