Enrique Peñalver

Enrique Peñalver
Instituto Geológico y Minero de España | IGME · Department of Geosciences Research and Prospective (Geominer Museum)

Doctor

About

207
Publications
62,293
Reads
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3,132
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - March 2019
Instituto Geológico y Minero de España
Position
  • Senior Researcher
February 2004 - February 2006
American Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Postdoctoral
January 1992 - January 2002
University of Valencia
Position
  • PhD student, Professor

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
Two new species of the genus Plecia (Diptera: Bibionidae) are described. The only occurrence of the genus Plecia in the Miocene amber of Dominican Republic was formerly identified as P. pristina, a species having previously been described in the Mexican Miocene fauna. The Dominican specimen is hereby studied again and attributed to a new species, P...
Article
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Braconid parasitoid wasps are a widely diversified group today, while their fossil record from the Mesozoic is currently poorly known. Here, we describe Utrillabracon electropteron Álvarez-Parra & Engel, gen. et sp. nov. , from the upper Albian (Lower Cretaceous) amber of San Just in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. The holotype specimen is incomplet...
Article
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The Cretaceous family Spathiopterygidae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea), containing five species in four genera, showed a wide distribution from the upper Barremian to the Turonian. We describe two new representatives of the family from the upper Albian San Just outcrop in the eastern Iberian Peninsula that correspond to Diameneura marveni gen. et sp. n...
Article
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Barklice are insects belonging to the order Psocodea. They are herbivorous or detritivorous, and inhabit a wide range of environments. Their oldest fossil record dates back to the late Carboniferous, but it was not until the Cretaceous that they became much more diverse. However, their fossil record could be affected by taphonomic processes due to...
Article
Although specimens in fossil to Recent resins are remarkable for their fidelity of preservation, amber is well known and studied, unlike the younger resins as Pleistocene copal (2.58–0.0117 Ma) and Holocene copal (0.0117 Ma–1760 AD), or Defaunation resin, which is resin produced after 1760 AD. However, the scientific relevance of these younger resi...
Article
Tubuliferan Thysanoptera are extremely uncommon in the fossil record, thus little is our knowledge of their geological history. Here, we describe the first apterous Phlaeothripidae, and the eighth species of Tubulifera, for the entire Mesozoic. It corresponds to a small female preserved in Upper Albian amber of Peñacerrada II outcrop (Álava amber)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of extinct Cretaceous families of Hymenoptera is crucial as it provides unique glimpses into the diversification of the group during a dramatic period in evolutionary history. The †Serphitidae were a family of parasitoid wasps, with representatives distributed worldwide during the Cretaceous, ranging temporally from the Albian through the...
Conference Paper
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Acercaria is a group of insects comprising the extant orders Psocodea, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera. The extinct orders †Lophioneurida (late Carboniferous–Late Cretaceous), †Permopsocida (early Permian–Late Cretaceous), †Miomoptera, and †Hypoperlida (both late Carboniferous-late Permian) are also included within Acercaria. †Lophioneurida is grouped...
Conference Paper
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Spiders are renowned hunters that often efficiently capture prey using a web, the early evolution of which remains obscure as it rarely fossilizes. We report several Cretaceous spider web portions, not single silk strands, preserved in 110- and 105-million-year-old amber (Albian) from five Spanish localities. A partial spider web without prey from...
Article
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Dinosaur bonebeds with amber content, yet scarce, offer a superior wealth and quality of data on ancient terrestrial ecosystems. However, the preserved palaeodiversity and/or taphonomic characteristics of these exceptional localities had hitherto limited their palaeobiological potential. Here, we describe the amber from the Lower Cretaceous dinosau...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Specimens in fossil to Recent resins are remarkable for their fidelity of preservation. Amber is well known and studied, contrary to younger resins as Pleistocene copal (2.58-0.0117 Ma) and Holocene copal (0.0117 Ma—1760 AD), or Defaunation resin, which is resin produced after 1760 AD. The scientific relevance of these younger resins preserving art...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dinosaur bonebeds with amber content, yet scarce, offer a superior wealth and quality of data on ancient terrestrial ecosystems. However, the preserved palaeodiversity and/or taphonomic characteristics of these exceptional localities had hitherto limited their palaeobiological potential. Here we describe the amber from the Lower Cretaceous dinosaur...
Article
Full-text available
The Ribesalbes–Alcora Basin (Castelló Province, Spain) contains two lower Miocene units that are rich in fossils. The Unit B contains oil-shale and laminated bituminous dolomicrite related to a palaeolake, whereas the Unit C is composed of sandstone and mudstone beds from distal deltaic and shallow lacustrine environments. The La Rinconada and San...
Article
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Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) are a model group for studying the colonization of land. However, their fossil record is remarkably scarce and restricted to amber inclusions, and therefore amber deposits represent valuable windows to their past diversity and morphology. Here we present a new collection of 11 terrestrial isopod specimens...
Article
During the Early–Middle Triassic, the biosphere was recovering from the most severe mass extinction event of multicellular life, in the Permian–Triassic transition. Continental basins corresponding to present-day Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) were located in the equatorial region of the supercontinent Pangaea, in the western pe...
Article
Chemical analysis of amber, copal, and resin is a valuable tool for interpreting the botanic origin of amber and the ecological role of resin in ancient forests. Here we investigated for the first time the volatile and semi-volatile composition of Cretaceous amber, as well as copal and Defaunation resin produced by trees of the family Araucariaceae...
Article
Australian Anglesea amber, late middle Eocene in age, has been recently reported. It occurs in coal deposits formed in a meandering river system on an Austral subpolar coastal plain during a late Greenhouse Earth event, and contains well-preserved bioinclusions of plants, arthropods and microorganisms. Six specimens of biting midges have been recov...
Article
Five new beaded lacewings (Neuroptera: Berothidae) are described from ca. 105 Ma Spanish amber. A new genus and species, Cantabroberotha soplaensis gen. et sp. nov., are erected based on a complete amber specimen from the El Soplao outcrop (Cantabria, northern Spain). Four indeterminate berothids based on incomplete specimens are described from Peñ...
Article
Full-text available
The early fossilization steps of natural resins and associated terminology are a subject of constant debate. Copal and resin are archives of palaeontological and historical information, and their study is critical to the discovery of new and/or recently extinct species and to trace changes in forests during the Holocene. For such studies, a clear,...
Article
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Fossil records of vertebrate integuments are relatively common in both rocks, as compressions, and amber, as inclusions. The integument remains, mainly the Mesozoic ones, are of great interest due to the panoply of palaeobiological information they can provide. We describe two Spanish Cretaceous amber pieces that are of taphonomic importance, one b...
Article
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Past claims have been made for fossil DNA recovery from various organisms (bacteria, plants, insects and mammals, including humans) dating back in time from thousands to several million years BP. However, many of these recoveries, especially those described from million-year-old amber (fossil resin), have faced criticism as being the result of mode...
Article
We describe Psyllipsocus yoshizawai sp. nov., the oldest and first Cretaceous species of the extant genus Psyllipsocus (Psocodea: Trogiomorpha: Psyllipsocidae). This is the fifth genus and sixth species to be identified within the family Psyllipsocidae from the Cretaceous and the third genus and fourth species of psyllipsocids from the Cenomanian a...
Article
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Recently, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) has sent around a letter, dated 21st April, 2020 to more than 300 palaeontological journals, signed by the President, Vice President and a former President of the society (Rayfield et al. 2020). The signatories of this letter request significant changes to the common practices in palaeontology....
Article
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Fossilized remains preserved in amber provide abundant data on the paleobiota surrounding the resin-producing plants, but relatively scarcer information about the resinous sources themselves. Here, dark pseudoinclusions in kidney-shaped amber pieces from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) amber from Spain are studied. This type of fossilized remain, abu...
Article
Two virtually complete termites in Lower Cretaceous amber from the Peñacerrada I outcrop, Spain, are described and figured, representing the most well-preserved Isoptera yet discovered from the Albian stage. The material is described as Ithytermes montoyai gen. et sp. nov., and is similar in many details to the slightly younger Krishnatermes yoddha...
Article
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The loss of biodiversity during the Anthropocene is a constant topic of discussion, especially in the top biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar. In this regard, the study of preserved organisms through time, like those included in "Madagascar copal", is of relevance. “Madagascar copal" originated from the leguminous tree Hymenaea verrucosa, whi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Ribesalbes-Alcora Basin is located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Castelló, Spain) and corresponds to a complex graben of Neogene age that extends over an area of 150 km2. Two depositional units in this basin are rich in fossils: unit B, which has provided a diverse fossil assemblage including plants, molluscs, insects and amphibians from a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Psocodea is an insect order including the parasitic lice (Phthiraptera) and the psocids (‘Psocoptera’), counting more than 10,000 living species known to date. The oldest representative dates from the Moscovian (Carboniferous), but their diversification occurs during the Cretaceous, the amber being the main source of this knowledge. Up to now, four...
Article
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The Northern Hemisphere dominates our knowledge of Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossilized tree resin (amber) with few findings from the high southern paleolatitudes of Southern Pangea and Southern Gondwana. Here we report new Pangean and Gondwana amber occurrences dating from ~230 to 40 Ma from Australia (Late Triassic and Paleogene of Tasmania; Late Cre...
Article
Three larval neuropterans (Insecta: Neuropterida) with straight mandibulomaxillary stylets are described from Lower Cretaceous (late Albian, ~105 Ma) Spanish amber: a third-instar beaded lacewing (Berothidae) from the Peñacerrada I locality (Burgos, Spain), and two specimens from the San Just locality (Teruel, Spain), i.e., a tentative first-instar...
Article
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A new fossil genus of the family Hybotidae is described, based on male and female specimens. The new genus is monotypic: Syneproctus caridadi gen. et sp. nov. It belongs to the subfamily Hybotinae and shares some characters with the extant genera Syneches Walker, 1852, Stenoproctus Loew, 1858 and Chillcottomyia Saigusa, 1986; however, the differenc...
Article
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For the first time, the study of the fossil record present in laminated bituminous dolostones from the San Chils locality, lower Miocene in age (ca. 19 Ma), located at the Ribesalbes-Alcora Basin, is addressed. The identification of 11 families and three genera belonging to six insect orders (Orthoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Hymenop...
Article
Los depósitos del paleolago del Mioceno inferior de la Cuenca de Ribesalbes-Alcora se localizan al SE de la Cordillera Ibérica. Pese a que el registro fósil de su entomofauna ha sido intensamente estudiado desde finales del siglo XX, los ejemplares de los órdenes Coleoptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera y Lepidoptera aún no han sido descritos ni monograf...
Article
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Angiosperms and their insect pollinators form a foundational symbiosis, evidence for which from the Cretaceous is mostly indirect, based on fossils of insect taxa that today are anthophilous, and of fossil insects and flowers that have apparent anthophilous and entomophilous specializations, respectively. We present exceptional direct evidence pres...
Article
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Multiple predatory insect lineages have developed a raptorial lifestyle by which they strike and hold prey using modified forelegs armed with spine-like structures and other integumentary specialisations. However, how structures enabling the raptorial function evolved in insects remains largely hypothetical or inferred through phylogeny due to the...
Article
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Este número de la revista SJP está dedicado a recoger diferentes perspectivas sobre los fósiles y los yacimientos paleontológicos desde el punto de vista del patrimonio. El patrimonio paleontológico comprende aquellos yacimientos y fósiles a los que se ha otorgado un valor cultural, sea de tipo científi co, educativo o recreativo. Como tal patrimon...
Article
A new Cretaceous dustywing, Soplaoconis ortegablancoi gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae), is described from four specimens preserved in Early Cretaceous (Albian, ~105Ma) El Soplao amber (Cantabria, northern Spain). Two additional specimens are assigned to this new taxon. A crossvenational abnormality on an area of diagnostic significanc...
Article
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The holotypes of the Cenozoic fossil wasps attributed to the family Figitidae, which were described in the first half of the 20 th century by Charles T. Brues and Georg Statz from Florissant (USA) and Rott-am-Siebengebirge (Germany) sites respectively, have been restudied. The following new taxonomic changes are proposed: Palaeogronotoma? sola (Bru...
Article
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Ancient protein analysis is a rapidly developing field of research. Proteins ranging in age from the Quaternary to Jurassic are being used to answer questions about phylogeny, evolution, and extinction. However, these analyses are sometimes contentious, and focus primarily on large vertebrates in sedimentary fossilisation environments; there are fe...
Article
Jumping bristletails (order Archaeognatha), the basalmost order of extant insects, include some of the earliest fossil records among hexapods, yet their overall geological occurrence remains sparse and has provided little insight into their evolution. The earliest representatives of crown‐group bristletails are those in Lebanese amber (Cretaceous),...
Article
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Hatching is a pivotal moment in the life of most animals. Diverse chemical, behavioural and mechanical methods have evolved in metazoans to break the egg membranes. Among them, many arthropod and vertebrate embryos hatch using ephemeral, frequently convergent structures known as egg bursters. However, the evolutionary processes by which hatching me...
Article
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Abstract Diverse organisms protect and camouflage themselves using varied materials from their environment. This adaptation and associated behaviours (debris-carrying) are well known in modern green lacewing larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), mostly due to the widespread use of these immature insects in pest control. However, the evolutionary histor...
Chapter
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Portuguese amber has received very little attention from the paleontological and geological points of view. To our knowledge, only twelve amber outcrops or amber-bearing areas have been detected in Portugal. The first outcrops were cited in times as old as 1867 and 1910, and although some of them were considered Jurassic in age, most likely the amb...
Chapter
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CONCLUSIONES Las inclusiones de aspecto vacuolar son las responsables de los bandeados de color en piezas de ámbar con morfología arriñonada. Las diferentes bandas son el resultado de la acumulación reiterada de coladas de resina con distinta proporción de inclusiones de aspecto vacuolar. La ausencia de ornamentación superficial, la orientación den...
Chapter
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CONCLUSIONES En el área de Asturias durante el Albiense, como en otras partes de la península ibérica, se produjeron numerosos depósitos de ámbar, con presencia de algunas masas de gran tamaño y ricos en mesofósiles de plantas en los mismos niveles. No obstante, el ámbar de Asturias descubierto y estudiado hasta el momento, pese a ser relativamente...
Article
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Provenancing exotic raw materials and reconstructing the nature and routes of exchange is a major concern of prehistoric archaeology. Amber has long been recognised as a key commodity of prehistoric exchange networks in Europe. However, most science-based studies so far have been localised and based on few samples, hence making it difficult to obse...
Article
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Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For the first time the study of the fossil record of the lacustrine San Chils outcrop Lower Miocene in age (19 million years), located at the Ribesalbes-Alcora Basin, is addressed. Apart of plant remains and vertebrate coprolites, nine families and three genera in five insect orders (Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera) hav...
Article
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All the amber outcrops of the Iberian Peninsula are Lower Cretaceous in age and, in the case of Spain, some of them have provided important arthropod specimens preserved as bioinclusions. These Spanish localities are rich in fossil taxa of phylogenetic relevance and evidence of both paleoecological interactions and paleobehaviors are also abundant....
Article
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Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as...
Data
Measurements in microns of the specimens of Proisotoma communis from the assemblage. In bold are the maximum and minimum measurements. (DOCX)
Data
Fossil record of collembola. The numbered records of behavioral interactions are as follows: 1, phoresis; 2, spermatophores (indirect sperm transfer); 3, egg laying (stress behavior); 4, courtship; 5, aggregative behavior. Lebanese and French ambers denoted by an asterisk (*) have unstudied collembolan faunas. Note: †Protentomobryidae are assuredly...
Article
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2019. First fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from Spain and notes on the fossil record of Opiliones. Palaeontologia Electronica 22.1.5A 1-18. https://doi.org/10.26879/ 855 palaeo-electronica.org/content/2019/2393-new-fossil-harvestmen AVAILABLE AT: https://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2019/2393-new-fossil-harvestmen A B S T R A C T The...
Article
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The originally published version of this Article was updated shortly after publication to add the word 'Ticks' to the title, following its inadvertent removal during the production process. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.