Enrique García-Macías

Enrique García-Macías
University of Granada | UGR · Department of Structural Mechanics and Hydraulic Engineering

PhD
Smart Materials and Structural Health Monitoring

About

95
Publications
39,701
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1,257
Citations
Citations since 2016
84 Research Items
1244 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
E. García-Macías graduated with a Bachelor of Civil Engineering with First Class Honours in 2011 at the University of Granada, Spain. He received his MS degree from the University of Granada, Spain in 2012. Ph.D. cum laude in Civil Engineering in 2018, University of Seville, Spain. He currently holds a position as an Assistant Professor at the University of Granada (Spain) and develops a second PhD at the University of Perugia (Italy). EB member of ERX, and Heritage.
Additional affiliations
December 2019 - March 2020
Imperial College London
Position
  • Fellow
December 2018 - present
Università degli Studi di Perugia
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2014 - September 2018
University of Cordoba (Spain)
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Full-text available
Within the novel approach for structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures based on smart self-sensing structural materials, Carbon NanoTube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites, often termed “smart concretes” have drawn rising interest. These composites exhibit self-sensing capabilities resulting in measurable variations of the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent ground-breaking advances in sensing technologies, data processing, and structural identification have made Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) occupy a central place in Structural Engineering. Although the technological transfer to the industry is still in the early development stages, there is clear evidence that SHM-enabled condition-based...
Chapter
The growing need for assessing the integrity of aging monumental structures by means of cost-effective and not-destructive techniques has driven significant scientific interest in vibration-based structural health monitoring (SHM) procedures, allowing to track changes in selected damage-sensitive structural parameters. However, the evaluation of a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the development of a new software code for the fully autonomous management of permanent integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems installed in highway bridge structures. The code was developed within the framework of a research project funded by Anas S.p.A., the largest public infrastructure manager in Italy. The sof...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the development of a surrogate model to predict the macroscopic elastic properties of polymer composites doped with spherical particles. To this aim, a polynomial chaos expansion based Kriging metamodeling technique has been developed. The training experimental design is constructed through a dataset of numerical representativ...
Article
This work presents a surrogate model-based Bayesian model updating (BMU) approach for automated damage identification of large-scale structures, which outperforms methods currently available in the literature by effectively solving the real-time damage identification challenge. The computational difficulties involved in Bayesian inference using int...
Article
This paper proposes the use of adaptive polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) for uncertainty propagation analysis of the numerical homogenisation of polymer composites doped with random dispersions of spherical inclusions. The developed PCE acts as a surrogate model bypassing the computationally intense numerical homogenisation of the elastic propertie...
Article
The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) cement-based composites have been modeled in previous works by circuit models or homogenization theories. An alternative approach is the use of an effective medium theory with induced polarization: In this work, a new model based on the generalized effective medium theory of induced polarization (...
Article
This paper presents a novel methodology for earthquake-induced damage identification of historical constructions through sparse mutivariate regression. The proposed methodology comprises a first data cleansing stage using the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) method to mitigate the adverse effects related to the existence of outliers in the trai...
Preprint
We present a novel micromechanics-based phase field approach to model crack initiation and propagation in carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites. The constitutive mechanical and fracture properties of the nanocomposites are first estimated by a mean-field homogenisation approach. Inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs is accounted for by means of equival...
Article
Full-text available
We present a novel micromechanics-based phase field approach to model crack initiation and propagation in carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites. The constitutive mechanical and fracture properties of the nanocomposites are first estimated by a mean-field homogenisation approach. Inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs is accounted for by means of equival...
Article
This paper presents an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM)-based numerical scheme to compute electrical resistivity changes caused by the presence of cracks and the crack growth. Using the commercial finite element package ANSYS, the virtual continuous monitoring of the structure is solved in two steps. First, the strain response of the cracked c...
Article
The development of long-term structural health monitoring systems is recently receiving a growing scientific interest in the field of Civil Engineering. In the context of unsupervised learning processes, deviations of dynamic parameters from their normal conditions can allow damage detection. However, due to the fact that modal properties are highl...
Article
A critical aspect in structural health monitoring (SHM) applied to civil engineering structures is the lack of diagnostic labels able to assign a damage class to the measured data. In this context, a semi-supervised learning methodology, designated as transfer Bayesian learning (TBL), is proposed with the main objective of labeling post-processed d...
Chapter
One of the most daunting challenges of modern structural engineering concerns the management and maintenance of ageing infrastructure. The technical response to this challenge falls within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM), which pursues the automated diagnosis and prognosis of structures from continuously acquired sensor data. In...
Article
A new analytical formulation for the modeling of piezoresistive fiber-reinforced composites with percolation-type behavior is presented in this work. Firstly, we develop a closed-form solution of the electrical conductivity of oriented short-fiber reinforced composites by using generalized spherical harmonics series expansions of a Mori-Tanaka (MT)...
Chapter
Full-text available
The high level of damage suffered by historical structures due to the interaction between materials’ aging and seismic events that occurred during the last decade has revealed the need for developing reliable and long-lasting prevention techniques. In this context, long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) is a practice that has been spreading i...
Article
Full-text available
Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is becoming a mature and widespread technique for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of engineering structures. Nonetheless, while proved effective for global damage assessment, OMA-based techniques can hardly detect local damage with little effect upon the modal signatures of the system. In this context, recent res...
Chapter
This work reports the development of two novel software solutions, named MOVA and MOSS, for the autonomous management of integrated monitoring systems. MOVA and MOSS, Italian acronyms of “MOnitoraggio delle Vibrazioni Ambientali’’ and “MOnitoraggio dello Stato di Salute’’, respectively, offer online operational modal analysis (OMA), pattern recogni...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM)-based numerical scheme to compute electrical resistivity changes caused by the presence of cracks. Using the commercial finite element package ANSYS, the virtual continuous monitoring of the structure is solved in two steps. First, the strain response of the cracked composite domain is co...
Conference Paper
After recent seismic events in Italy (Umbria-Marche 1997, L’Aquila 2009, Emilia 2012, Central Italy seismic sequence 2016), there has been a growing scientific interest on the preventive conservation of historic monumental buildings. In this regards, vibration-based low-cost and non-destructive Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems provide ver...
Article
Damage localization/quantification through vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is commonly performed by inverse calibration of a numerical model. Nevertheless, the numerous simulations required in the associated optimization problem pose a daunting obstacle when applied to real-time SHM. Particularly critical are heritage buildings,...
Article
This paper presents an innovative meta-model for fast assessment of dynamic design envelopes of railway bridges. The proposed approach allows the computation of instantaneous amplitudes of dynamic response time series through the integral Hilbert transform (HT). Based upon the semi-analytic solution of the moving load problem of linear bridge struc...
Article
Full-text available
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based upon Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) constitutes an increasingly mature and widespread technology in the conservation of historic structures. Such techniques, while proved effective for assessing the global integrity of structures, may fail at detecting local damage with little influence on the modal featur...
Article
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced composites exhibit a piezoresistive behavior that permits their use as sensors in novel structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, by measuring the electrical resistivity change of the CNT modified laminate. However, the presence of cracks in such composite materials may not only compromise their structural in...
Chapter
Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring systems constitute widely accepted tools for post-earthquake structural assessment. Continuous model updating techniques based upon experimentally identified modal features allow the assessment and tracking of uncertain mechanical parameters susceptible to ageing deterioration or damage. Nevertheless, su...
Article
Full-text available
Smart materials are promising technologies for reducing the instrumentation cost required to continuously monitor road infrastructures, by transforming roadways into multifunctional elements capable of self-sensing. This study investigates a novel algorithm empowering smart pavements with weigh-in-motion (WIM) characterization capabilities. The app...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the micromechanics modeling of nanomodified cement-based composites, in particular carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced composites. It addresses micromechanics approach for the modeling of the overall electrical conductivity of these composites. Computational micro-macro-mechanics aims at determining the relationship between the...
Chapter
The mathematical modeling and simulation of smart concretes constitutes a broad scientific field that spans many spatial scales, from quantum mechanics to continuum theories, as well as diverse disciplines, including mathematical modeling, multiphysics, and computational mechanics. Furthermore, there exist many types of smart concrete with dissimil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes a new semi-supervised two-class pattern classification method for early damage detection of structures. The proposed approach comprises five consecutive steps, including the (i) collection of data samples representing the healthy condition of the structure (training period); (ii) clustering analysis; (iii) outliers elimination;...
Article
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmat.2019.103275 Graphene nano-additions to polymer matrices have demonstrated exceedingly better mechanical properties compared to carbon-nanotube modified matrices. Therefore, in the context of mechanically superior high-performance piezo-composites, graphene-modified composite architectures represent an important de...
Article
Lead-free piezoelectric composites with polymeric matrices offer a scalable and eco-friendly solution to sensing and energy harvesting applications. Piezoelectric polymers such as PVDF are particularly interesting because of the possibility to engineer the performance of these materials through addition of higher-performance piezoelectric inclusion...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and damage detection tools has become a popular non-destructive solution to assess the real-time integrity of any kind of structure. This technique is especially well-suited for the condition-based conservation of historical structures, where minimal invas...
Presentation
Full-text available
This work presents an innovative meta-model for fast assessment of dynamic design envelopes of railway bridges based on the Hilbert transform.
Article
Conservation techniques within the framework of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), particularly through dynamic measurements and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA), are becoming popular for condition-based maintenance and decision making in historic structures. Nonetheless, while effective for giving insight into the overall behaviour of structures,...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper proposes the use of monitoring systems based upon the coupled application of Operational Modal Analysis and Ambient Noise Deconvolution Interferometry for the Structural Health Monitoring of historic structures. The potential of this approach is exemplified through three different case studies of Italian historic masonry structures, name...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper presents an enhanced method for damage localization through surrogate-model based model updating and automated operational modal analysis. The localization task is performed by solving an inverse model calibration problem, where the equivalent elastic properties of certain macro-structural elements are identified by continuous minimizati...
Article
Full-text available
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Automated Operational Modal Analysis (A-OMA) has gained increasing importance in the conservation of heritage structures over recent decades. In this context, finite element model updating techniques using modal data constitute a commonly used approach for damage identification. Nevertheless, the large nu...
Article
The inherent vulnerability of masonry structures to seismic events makes Structural Health Monitoring of pivotal importance for the conservation of architectural heritage. In this regard, methods based on Operational Modal Analysis are becoming popular for damage identification. Nonetheless, these techniques may fail at detecting local damages with...
Data
Effect of time-step sampling in the determination of maximum acceleration envelopes. This exhaustive experiment is carried out in order to validate the time-step selected for sampling the analytical signal. Results are compared and validated at resonant and non-resonants speeds. The semi-analytical approach does not require integration step. Th...
Data
In this set of data-plots, the effect of modeling the moving load as 2 lines at the rail paths position (2 rails), of as 1 line at the centerline of the rails is explored. The Rodenillo viaduct is a 5-span continuous concrete-box bridge, for high-speed trains. The span distribution is 36-45-45-45-36 m. The model is 3D and the flexural and torsional...
Data
Complementary material to "Train-speed sensitivity approach for maximum response envelopes in dynamics of railway bridges". JSV 452 (2019) 13-33, doi 10.1016/j.jsv.2019.04.004. Complete envelope analysis of TSS at Rodenillo bridge. 450 plots ordered in a single pdf for fast evaluation of TSS performances at each postprocessing point. Dependence o...
Article
The design of high-speed railway bridges is strongly conditioned by vibrations and resonance amplifications induced by rail traffic. Furthermore, most current dynamic analysis approaches are computationally expensive, what poses an obstacle to the study of structural alternatives at early design stages. In order to address this limitation, this pap...
Article
In this article, a Matlab‐based software environment called Guide Silo Design (GSD) is proposed to help undergraduate students to better understand the complex phenomena involved in the analysis process of silo structures. The software is integrated with two commercial finite element softwares. These are the Open Application Programming Interface (...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a new strategy based on the proper generalized decomposition method to solve the forced vibration problem in 2D layered beams. The approach redefines the problem by approximating the displacement field as a sum of separated functions of x, z and ω and proposes an iterative algorithm that solves three 1D problems at each iteratio...
Conference Paper
p>The proper maintenance of bridges is nowadays fundamental and unavoidable. These structures have to be preserved and technical works are usually essential to ensure its correct preservation. In this respect, it is common to use the finite element method as a numerical technique to assess the structural behaviour of this type of structure. However...
Article
The intrinsic vulnerability of masonry structures to seismic events makes Structural Health Monitoring of the utmost importance for the conservation of the built heritage. The development of piezoresistive bricks, also termed smart bricks, is an innovative technology recently proposed by the authors for the monitoring of such structures. Smart bri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The seismic monitoring of masonry structures is especially challenging due to their brittle resistance behavior. A tailored sensing system could, in principle, help to detect and locate cracks and anticipate the risks of local and global collapses, allowing prompt interventions and ensuring users’ safety. Unfortunately, off-the-shelf sensors do not...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work we investigate the structural response of cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings by means of a multi-scale modelling strategy. In order to determine the mechanical properties of CLT, a computational homogenisation scheme based on the volume averaging of the stress and strain fields over a representative volume element (RVE) of material...
Article
In recent years, self-sensing structural materials have drawn enormous attention of scientific community due to their potential to enable continuous monitoring of the integrity of structures. The new paradigm of smart condition-based maintenance advocates the use of next-generation structures completely or partly constituted by self-sensing materia...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, a bottom-up multiscale modeling approach is developed to estimate the effective elastic moduli of Carbon NanoTube (CNT)-reinforced polymer composites. The homogenization process comprises two successive steps, including an atomistic-based computational model and a micromechanics approach at the nano- and micro-scales, respectively. Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Buckling of slender structures constitutes a hazardous failure mechanism that can yield partial or total collapses. Nonetheless, given that buckling failure is characterized by a highly non-linear and sudden loss of stability, most off-the-shelf monitoring systems fail to detect buckling and very few research works in the literature can be found in...
Article
The unique intrinsic physical properties of Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs) suggest that they are ideal fillers for highperformance composites. Although some experimental studies have revealed the potential of these nanoparticles to tailor the tribological properties of polymer-based composites, the number of theoretical studies on the characterization of...
Thesis
Full-text available
Carbon nanotubes have drawn enormous attention in recent years due to their outstanding multifunctional properties. A constantly growing number of works at the front line of research pursue potential applications of their remarkable physical properties, including elevated load-bearing capacity, piezoresistive properties, high electrical conductivit...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this work we investigate the structural response of cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings by means of a multi-scale modelling strategy. In order to determine the mechanical properties of CLT, a computational homogenisation scheme based on the volume averaging of the stress and strain fields over a representative volume element (RVE) of material...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in the manufacture of micro- and nano-composites have made it possible to produce new multifunctional materials. However, the development of theoretical models that assist their design still remains an open research issue. This paper presents a two-step hierarchical micromechanics approach for the mechanical homogenization of partic...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of new self-sensing cement-based strain sensors allows the development of dense sensor networks for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete structures. These sensors are fabricated by doping cement-matrix mterials with conductive fillers, such as Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs), and can be embedded into str...
Preprint
The availability of new self-sensing cement-based strain sensors allows the development of dense sensor networks for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete structures. These sensors are fabricated by doping cement-matrix materials with conductive fillers, such as Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs), and can be embedded into st...
Article
The main contribution of this work lies in a critical comparison of different mean-field homogenization approaches for the study of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymers with waviness and agglomeration effects. In particular, this paper focuses on the consistency of predictions in terms of diagonal symmetry of the constitutive tensors and comparison...
Article
This paper presents the design of an experimental setup with a reduced number of sensors for the structural health monitoring of the historical bridge of Posadas (Córdoba, Spain), designed by the eminent engineer Eduardo Torroja in 1957. The motivation of this study stems from the need for safeguarding this piece of cultural heritage. In particular...
Article
Carbon-based nanomaterials have drawn the attention of a large section of the scientific community in recent years. Most research has focused on carbon nanotubes after some experimental studies reported outstanding enhancements of the mechanical properties of polymeric matrices doped with small filler concentrations. Nevertheless, some limiting fac...