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Enrico De Martino

Enrico De Martino
Aalborg University (CNAP)

MD, PhD

About

36
Publications
3,678
Reads
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196
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2010 - June 2015
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • Medical Doctor

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Neck pain is a worldwide health problem. Clarifying the etiology and providing effective interventions are challenging for the multifactorial nature of neck pain. As an essential component of cervical spine function, the sensorimotor control system has been extensively studied in both healthy and pathological conditions. Proprioceptive signals gene...
Article
Full-text available
Space agencies are planning to send humans back to the Lunar surface, in preparation for crewed exploration of Mars. However, the effect of hypogravity on human skeletal muscle is largely unknown. A recently established rodent partial weight-bearing model has been employed to mimic various levels of hypogravity loading and may provide valuable insi...
Article
Full-text available
Space agencies are preparing to send humans to the Moon (16% Earth's gravity) and Mars (38% Earth's gravity), however, there is limited evidence regarding the effects of hypogravity on the skeletal system. A novel rodent partial weight-bearing (PWB) model may provide insight into how human bone responds to hypogravity. The aim of this study was to...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced muscle size and accumulation of paraspinal muscle fat content (PFC) have been reported in lumbopelvic muscles after spaceflights and head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. While some information is available regarding reconditioning programs on muscle atrophy recovery, the effects on the accumulation of PFC are unknown. Recently, a device (the Func...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to spaceflight and head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest leads to decreases in the mass of the gluteal muscle. Preliminary results have suggested that interventions, such as artificial gravity (AG), can partially mitigate some of the physiological adaptations induced by HDT bed rest. However, its effect on the gluteal muscles is currently unknown....
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Prolonged bedrest induces accumulation of intramuscular lipid concentration (ILC) in the lumbar musculature; however, spatial distribution of ILC has not been determined. Artificial gravity (AG) mitigates some adaptations induced by 60-day bedrest by creating a head-to-feet force while participants are in a supine position. PURP...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether artificial gravity (AG), induced by short-radius centrifugation, mitigated deterioration in standing balance and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of trunk muscles following 60-day head-down tilt bed rest. Twenty-four participants were allocated to one of three groups: control group (N=8); 30 minutes continuou...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to axial unloading induces adaptations in paraspinal muscles, as shown after spaceflights. This study investigated whether daily exposure to artificial gravity (AG) mitigated lumbar spine flattening and muscle atrophy associated with 60-day head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (Earth-based space analogue). Twenty-four healthy individuals particip...
Article
Peak alpha frequency (PAF) reduces during cutaneous pain, but no studies have investigated PAF during movement-related muscle pain. Whether high-pain sensitive (HPS) individuals exhibit a more pronounced PAF response to pain than low-pain sensitive (LPS) individuals is unclear. As a pain model, twenty-four participants received nerve growth factor...
Article
Background Exercise countermeasures are the main approach taken to protect astronauts from musculoskeletal deconditioning in microgravity (µg). Future exploration class missions will require astronauts to live on the surface of the Moon (0.16g) and Mars (0.38g) in hypogravity where the level of protection is assumed to be insufficient. However, it...
Article
Abstract Objective: Altered balance in nociception in response to noxious stimuli is commonly reported in chronic low back pain (LBP). However, it is unclear whether an improvement in the clinical presentation is contingent on a reduction in pain sensitivity. This study investigated whether the quantitative sensory testing (QST) profile changes in...
Poster
Introduction: Pain, acute injuries/critical medical events, and astronaut performance are major concerns for space agencies. 60-days head-down (6ᵒ) bed rest is a well-accepted analogue to mimic lumbar spine deconditioning, similar to that described in astronauts. Since artificial gravity (AG) can reproduce Earth-like gravity (axial compressive forc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Standing balance is intimately related to control of the trunk muscles. Maintenance of standing balance and coordination of lumbopelvic muscles depend on receiving and integrating accurate information from multiple somatosensory receptors. As a result, prolonged sensory input deprivation induced by exposure to microgravity has been im...
Article
Introduction Exercise with the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) has previously been shown to activate the lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles in non-symptomatic volunteers. This study aimed to determine the effects of a six-week FRED exercise intervention on pain intensity, patient-reported function and LM cr...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced paraspinal muscle size and flattening of spinal curvatures have been documented after spaceflight. Assessment of trunk adaptations to hypogravity can contribute to development of specific countermeasures. In this study, parabolic flights were used to investigate spinal curvature and muscle responses to hypogravity. Data from five trials at...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Lumbar muscles show a decline in size and strength following prolonged exposure to microgravity. However, no studies have specifically investigated the immediate effects of hypogravity on trunk stabilization and, consequently, specific countermeasures are still missing. To gain insight into the immediate effects of hypogravity on trun...
Article
The 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (10 Hz-rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces analgesia, probably by activating the pain modulation system. A newer rTMS paradigm, called theta burst stimulation (TBS), has been developed. Unlike 10 Hz-rTMS, prolonged continuous TBS (pcTBS) mimics endogenous theta rhythms, wh...
Article
Based on reciprocal connections between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and basal-ganglia regions associated with sensorimotor cortical excitability, it was hypothesized that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left DLPFC would modulate sensorimotor cortical excitability induced by muscle pain. Muscle pain was prov...
Poster
Background and aims: Central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms play a key role in the generation and potentiation of muscle pain. Daily intramuscular injections of nerve growth factor (NGF) provide a model to induce experimental muscle hyperalgesia and a novel model to study primary motor cortex excitability (M1) in response to progressively...
Poster
Aims: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sensory evoked potentials (SEPs), means of electrical stimulation of a nerve, are widely used in combination to assess the functionality of the sensory and motor nervous system. However, to date, the reproducibility of combined techniques in the same clinical ses...
Poster
Aim of Investigation: Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a key role in pain perception. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left DLPFC has been previously used to reduce short-lasting experimentally induced pain and reverse cortical sensorimotor adaptation provoked by acute pain. However, the effect of left DLP...
Article
This study investigated the effects of a single exercise session using a device developed for postural muscle training on the function of postural muscles in healthy, pain free individuals. During standardised rapid arm movements, timing of onset of electromyography (EMG) was measured using intramuscular and surface recordings of the transversus ab...
Article
The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the experience and modulation of pain, and may be an important node linking pain and cognition. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC can reduce chronic and experimental pain. However, whether left DLPFC rTMS can influence the development of chronic pain...
Article
Impaired corticomotor function is reported in patients with lateral epicondylalgia, but the causal link to pain or musculotendinous overloading is unclear. In this study, sensorimotor cortical changes were investigated using a model of persistent pain combined with an overloading condition. In 24 healthy subjects, the effect of nerve growth factor...
Article
Changes in excitability of the sensorimotor cortex have been demonstrated in clinical musculoskeletal pain, although the timing is unknown. Eccentric exercise provokes delayed-onset muscle soreness providing a model to study the temporal profile of sensorimotor cortical plasticity during progressively developing muscle soreness. Twelve healthy part...
Poster
Background and aims: Altered excitability of the sensorimotor cortex has been documented in pain conditions, but the temporal profile of these dysfunctions is unknown. Eccentric exercise provokes delayed onset muscle soreness, providing a pain model to study functional plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex in response to muscle hyperalgesia that de...
Article
Background and aims Maladaptive plasticity in neural circuits has been proposed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and has been discussed as a key component of the transition from acute to chronic pain. The induction of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in healthy individuals is one method that can be used to investigate the adaptations of neural c...
Article
Full-text available
Gravitational unloading leads to adaptations of the human body, including the spine and its adjacent structures, making it more vulnerable to injury and pain. The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) has been developed to activate the deep spinal muscles, lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA), that provide inter-segmental...
Poster
Excessive patella-femoral joint stress is considered one of the main causes of patella-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Several authors have recently demonstrated that proximal and distal factors, in particular trunk, hip and ankle kinematics, are impaired in individuals with PFPS when compared with healthy individuals. The objective of this study was...
Article
Full-text available
During a force-matched bilateral task, when pain is induced in one limb, a shift of load to the non-painful leg is classically observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that this adaptation to pain depends on the mechanical efficiency of the non-painful leg. We studied a bilateral plantarflexion task that allowed flexibility in the relative...
Data
Laterality index data for the decreased efficiency experiment. The “laterality index was calculated as: Fz non scaled leg(painful leg)/Fz scaled leg(non painful leg). Note that for some conditions, some participants performed only one contraction with pain. It is because pain decreased <2/10 before the second repetition. (XLSX)
Data
Force data for the decreased efficiency experiment. Data are presented in Newtons. Note that regardless the experimental condition (Baseline—when no pain was present, or Pain—immediately following the induction of pain), the leg in which pain was induced and to which no scaling was applied is referred to as the “painful leg” and the leg for which t...
Data
Force data for the increased efficiency experiment. Data are presented in Newtons. Note that regardless the experimental condition (Baseline—when no pain was present, or Pain—immediately following the induction of pain), the leg in which pain was induced and to which no scaling was applied is referred to as the “painful leg” and the leg for which t...
Data
Laterality index data for the increased efficiency experiment. The “laterality index was calculated as: Fz non scaled leg(painful leg)/Fz scaled leg(non painful leg). Note that for some conditions, some participants performed only one contraction with pain. It is because pain decreased <2/10 before the second repetition. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze the movement-related brain macropotentials (MRBMs) recorded during the execution of two tests of motor imagery: kinaesthetic (internal) and visual (external). Recordings were compared with those obtained performing a GO/NOGO motor test. The GO test required pressure of three keys of a modified keyboard in se...

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Projects (2)
Project
The aim of this project is to develop a simple method of evaluating lumbopelvic deconditioning and reconditioning in astronauts and individuals with lower pain back on Earth. This involves conducting research on NASA and ESA astronauts before and after missions to the ISS, and during prolonged bed rest, in collaboration with ESA's Space Medicine Team.
Project
The postural (or anti-gravity) muscles work to maintain stability of the musculoskeletal system during static and dynamic activities. When gravity is removed, these muscles reduce in size and their function becomes impaired. This musculoskeletal deconditioning can lead to increased risk of injury (e.g. low back pain), and it can be studied using a microgravity model (e.g. astronauts, long duration bed rest). Since 2009, we have been investigating methods for preventing and/or rehabilitating from the musculoskeletal deconditioning seen following postural/anti-gravity muscle deconditioning. This research has developed from mechanistic, or "proof of concept", studies in injury-free participants and in people with low back pain, through to intervention studies (e.g. in low back pain). The key focus of this research has been the development of the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) - a cyclical exercise device that targets the postural/antigravity muscles.