Emmanuel Sander

Emmanuel Sander
University of Geneva | UNIGE · Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences (FPSE)

PhD

About

154
Publications
38,547
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1,223
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
University of Geneva
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2009 - present
Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (154)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Loin d’être une compétence élitiste, la compréhension mathématique est mobilisée dans la vie de chacun pour les calculs de la vie quotidienne, la mesure des longueurs et des quantités, la lecture de graphiques, l’interprétation de toute donnée chiffrée, etc. La nouvelle synthèse du CSEN a pour objectif de favoriser l’appropriation par les élèves de...
Chapter
Teaching and fostering critical thinking skills is being recognized as a key objective within educational settings. This chapter introduces critical thinking in two different ways: first as a philosophical concept and second as a psychological concept. Philosophy and psychology are the disciplines most directly concerned with critical thinking. Phi...
Chapter
Human beings rely on what they know about the world in order to understand it better, and the time has now come for the social sciences to rely on analogy in order better to understand human beings. Analogy is the mechanism underlying the myriad instances of conceptformation, concept-extension, and categorization that we perform every single day. A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates whether the ERPs of 4-years-olds in response to verbal overextensions reflect the encoding of actions through abstract categories. Participants were presented with images of actions (e.g. peeling an orange) while hearing a sentence containing a conventional verb (e.g. peeling), an approximative verb (e.g. undressing), a supe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Depuis, et avec l’impulsion de, l’esprit des Lumières, le développement de la pensée critique en tant que compétence transversale est devenu un enjeu éducatif en France et dans de nombreux pays francophones (Crahay & Marcoux, 2011). Plus encore, aujourd’hui et suite aux derniers faits divers scolaires, il semble crucial de préparer les élèves, en t...
Article
We argue that what we count has a crucial impact on how we count, to the extent that even adults may have difficulty using elementary mathematical notions in concrete situations. Specifically, we investigate how the use of certain types of quantities (durations, heights, number of floors) may emphasize the ordinality of the numbers featured in a pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
General, non-mathematical knowledge about the entities described in an arithmetic word problem may interfere with its encoding. We used behavioral and eye-tracking measures to investigate how the use of specific quantities may foster a cardinal representation of the numbers mentioned in a problem, whereas other quantities may favor an ordinal repre...
Preprint
This study develops and evaluates an intervention aimed at improving flexibility in arithmetic word problems. 9 classes (4th-5th Grades) were divided between experimental, active and passive control groups, and followed this protocol: pre-test, 5 learning sessions for experimental and active control groups, post-test. During learning sessions, both...
Preprint
Is there a fundamental difference between counting years and kilograms? Marbles and centimeters? Floors and euros? Recent evidence suggests that non-mathematical world knowledge irrelated to the mathematical structure of a problem can nevertheless influence its semantic encoding. To tackle this question, we created arithmetic word problems devised...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that what we count has a crucial impact on how we count, to the extent that even adults may have difficulty using elementary mathematical notions in concrete situations. Specifically, we investigate how the use of certain types of quantities (durations, heights, number of floors) may emphasize the ordinality of the numbers featured in a pr...
Article
Full-text available
We propose to assess conceptual knowledge of mathematical notions by having recourse to isomorphic word problems. We assumed that failing to solve isomorphic problems is an indicator of lack of conceptual knowledge. To reach these conclusions, two experiments were conducted among 4th and 5th grade students. In experiment 1, each student had to solv...
Article
Full-text available
Arithmetic problem solving is a crucial part of mathematics education. However, existing problem solving theories do not fully account for the semantic constraints partaking in the encoding and recoding of arithmetic word problems. In this respect, the limitations of the main existing models in the literature are discussed. We then introduce the Se...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we tested the assumption that structural similarity overcomes surface similarity in the retrieval of past events, by observing whether structural similarity alone is a better cue than surface similarity alone. To do so, in four story-recall experiments, we provided the participants with multiple source stories and then with a...
Article
Full-text available
Informal strategies reflecting the representation of a situation described in an arithmetic word problem mediate students’ solving processes. When the informal strategies are inefficient, teaching students to make way for more efficient ways to find the solution is an important educational issue in mathematics. The current paper presents a pedagogi...
Article
Full-text available
Can our knowledge about apples, cars, or smurfs hinder our ability to solve mathematical problems involving these entities? We argue that such daily-life knowledge interferes with arithmetic word problem solving, to the extent that experts can be led to failure in problems involving trivial mathematical notions. We created problems evoking differen...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this ongoing study, we test the dominance of structural similarity alone over surface similarity alone in the retrieval of videotaped situations preserving rich surface details.
Poster
Full-text available
Is there a fundamental difference between counting years and kilograms? Marbles and centimeters? Floors and euros? Recent evidence suggests that non-mathematical world knowledge irrelated to the mathematical structure of a problem can nevertheless influence its semantic encoding (Gamo, Sander & Richard, 2010; Gros, Thibaut & Sander, 2017). The worl...
Article
Full-text available
Similarity is central for the definition of concepts in several theories in cognitive psychology. However, similarity encounters several problems which were emphasized by Goodman in 1972. At the end of his article, Goodman banishes similarity from any serious philosophical or scientific investigations. If Goodman is right, theories of concepts base...
Chapter
Dans un enchaînement de concepts évoqués et transformés par l’expérience, l’activité initie ses propres transformations. L’activité peut-elle alors s’étudier à la lumière des analogies qui la sous-tendent et qu’elle révèle ? Le contexte de l’éducation scolaire sera privilégié pour dégager deux dimensions : le repérage d’analogies sous tendant les a...
Article
Arithmetic word problem solving study falls under both mathematical and language cognition domains and calls upon mathematical and extra-mathematical concepts. Whereas the schema theory, in which schemata mobilize abstract structures, fails to explain the effects of problem reformulations, the mental model theory, assuming that concrete representat...
Book
Full-text available
Avec les progrès extraordinaires de l’imagerie cérébrale, avons-nous l’espoir de percer – enfin – les mystères de l’apprentissage ? Y a-t-il de véritables révolutions pédagogiques à attendre de l’intégration des neurosciences aux sciences de l’éducation ? Certains en sont convaincus et nous annoncent le grand soir pédagogique, favorisant ainsi l’...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, we test the possibility that real-life events induce an abstract category activation in a way that permits structurally-based retrievals. We used a free-recall reminding paradigm where participants had to report any memory that come to mind when faced with a target cue embodying a familiar concept. This method allowed us to consider...
Poster
Full-text available
I have presented this poster at CogSci 2018. The study demonstrates that participants mainly retrieve distant analogs when the target cue embodies a familiar concept and that participants can retrieve any analogs from their own experiences.
Article
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Intuitive conceptions in mathematics guide the interpretation of mathematical concepts. We investigated if they bias teachers’ conceptions of student arithmetic word problem solving strategies, which should be part of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In individual interviews, teachers and non-teaching adults were asked to describe student...
Poster
Full-text available
We investigated what happens when non-mathematical knowledge interferes with mathematical knowledge in arithmetic word problem solving. Adults and expert mathematicians had to evaluate the solutions of basic additive problems. The non-mathematical knowledge evoked by the problems hindered both populations’ success rates and response times when inco...
Article
Ensuring students correctly understand the notion of equality is a fundamental problem in teaching mathematics. Is it possible to teach arithmetic in such a way that students do not misinterpret the equal sign "=" as indicating the result of an arithmetic operation and, consequently, viewing the arithmetic operation symbols (+, -, or x) as systemat...
Poster
Full-text available
Isolating the influence of surface and structural similarities on the recall of stories leads to the superiority of structural similarities.
Conference Paper
Un élève mobilise à l'école des connaissances de natures diverses. Parmi elles, on compte la riche palette de ce qu'il a construit en dehors de l'école. Cela signifie en particulier que lorsqu'une nouvelle notion du programme est introduite par un enseignant, l'élève ne part pas de rien pour la construire, mais tient mobilisable un arsenal de conna...
Presentation
Full-text available
In order to overcome preconceptions and develop more relevant conceptions, we hypothesized that pupils need to build different representations of the same situation through a process of semantic recoding (Sander & Richard, 2005; Hofstadter & Sander, 2013) allowing to reinterpret the situation and to promote cognitive flexibility. Based on this “rec...
Poster
Full-text available
Arithmetic word problems of analogous objective mathematical structure can lead to dramatically different success rates depending on their wording (Hudson, 1983), and transfer between problems can be significantly favored or hindered by the cover stories used (Bassok, Wu & Olseth, 1995). But what promotes the perception of the analogy between diffe...
Poster
Full-text available
How do students develop abstract mathematic concepts at primary school? In which contexts are they able to solve structurally analogous problems? Analogical transfer, namely the ability to transfer a conceptual knowledge learned in a situation to another one that shares the same structure, is one of the main, but also a very difficult educational a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In problem solving situation, cognitive flexibility appears to be a major skill. Fostering cognitive flexibility is therefore a specific stake in mathematics education. This research introduces a learning method to develop mathematical concepts when solving word arithmetic problems. The study was conducted with 8 classes (4 th-5 th Grades) from hig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When solving arithmetic problems, semantic factors influence the representations built (Gamo, Sander & Richard, 2010). In order to specify such interpretative processes, we created structurally isomorphic word problems that could be solved with two distinct algorithms. We tested whether a distinction between cardinal and ordinal quantities would le...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Young children use informal strategies to solve arithmetic word problems. The Situation Strategy First (SSF) framework claims that these strategies prevail even after instruction. The present study was conducted with second grade students in order to investigate the persistence of intuitive, situation-based strategies, on word problems that do not...
Poster
Full-text available
Defensive exclusion has been described by Bowlby as a process resulting from experiences of insecurity through which information that contradicts attachment models in line with parental rules is kept outside of awareness. Consequently, internal working models become outdated and corresponding behavior is no longer adapted to current life circumstan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The predominant view concerning determinants of analogical retrieval is that it is preferentially guided by superficial cues. In order to test the cognitive plausibility of a structural similarities-based retrieval, we constructed a story-recall task in which lifelike scenarios shared structural correspondences. In Experiment 1, we showed that such...
Conference Paper
In order to survive, humans rely upon comparing what’s happening to them now with what happened to them in the past. They exploit the similarity of past experiences to new situations, letting it guide them at all times in this world. This incessant flow of analogies forms the crux of our thoughts. We humans construct categories, extend them, multip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children have misconceptions derived from daily-life knowledge that they tends to project on other fields. These misconceptions prevent them from acquiring scientific reasoning (Fishbein, 1989, Vosniadou, 2008). Our hypotheses is that recategorization can be a useful mechanism to bypass them: re-interpreting the situation to construct a new represe...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent work suggest that semantic factors influence the representations built when reading arithmetic problems (Gamo, Sander & Richard, 2010; Rapp, Bassok, DeWolf & Holyoak, 2015). In order to specify such interpretative processes, we created structurally isomorphic word problems which could all be solved using two distinct algorithms. We hypothesi...
Conference Paper
Les concepts se construisent inéluctablement par le biais d’analogies inconscientes avec des connaissances de la vie quotidienne. Ces dernières, si elle ancrent les notions scolaires dans l'expérience, sont toutefois rapidement limitantes. Des réélaborations scientifiquement fécondes sont favorisées par le recodage sémantique, une forme d’analogie...
Poster
Full-text available
Projet de Mémoire2 ESCRIMS (Esprit Critique en Mathématiques et en Sciences) Prendre en compte les connaissances naïves permet de comprendre les difficultés des enfants à acquérir de nouvelles représentations plus abstraites. Les enfants disposent, en effet, de connaissances naïves aussi bien sur les concepts scientifiques (Vosniadou, 2008) que mat...
Data
Full-text available
We investigated what happens when the spontaneous encoding of a problem is incongruent with its solving strategy. We created word problems from which two distinct semantic representations could be abstracted. Only one of these representations was consistent with the solving strategy. We tested whether participants could recode a semantically incong...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigated what happens when the spontaneous encoding of a problem is incongruent with its solving strategy. We created word problems from which two distinct semantic representations could be abstracted. Only one of these representations was consistent with the solving strategy. We tested whether participants could recode a semantically incong...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conference Paper
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Learning to transfer a solving strategy from one problem to another is one of the most crucial issues of education. Yet, doing so requires making the analogy between the mathematical structures of source and target problems, which necessitates seeing beyond the superficial traits of the problems. We assume that the ability to make such an analogy d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Les concepts scientifiques se construisent d’abord inéluctablement par le biais d’analogies inconscientes avec des connaissances de la vie quotidienne. Ces analogies spontanées ancrent les notions dans l'expérience mais sont rapidement limitantes. Leur adjoindre de nouvelles séries d’analogies choisies pour susciter l’adoption d'une diversité de po...
Article
"Natural syllogisms" are arguments formally identifiable with categorical syllogisms that have an implicit universal affirmative premise retrieved from semantic memory rather than explicitly stated. Previous studies with adult participants (Politzer, 2011) have shown that the rate of success is remarkably high. Because their resolution requires onl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent work has shown that the semantic nature of the elements present in arithmetic problems can promote different types of semantic encoding and thus different kinds of representations (Gamo, Taabane & Sander, 2011 ; Rapp, Bassok & Holyoak, 2015). In order to further specify such interpretative processes, we created problems which could be solved...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Situation Strategy First framework (Brissiaud & Sander, 2010) posits that children persistently rely on the situation described in an arithmetic word problem, thus forming intuitive strategies; such strategies are adequate to solve some problems (Si), whereas other problems may require the use of the relevant arithmetic knowledge (MA). It was o...
Conference Paper
Even before instruction children can solve word problems involving small numbers by simulating the actions and situations described. Recent evidence suggests that children use these intuitive strategies even with higher numbers (Brissiaud & Sander, 2010), which put forward the Situation Strategy First (SSF) framework, positing that the initial repr...
Article
Semantic Challenges for Arithmetic Learning Typologies of arithmetic problems distinguish between different semantic structures belonging to the same mathematical structure, but do not capture the deep entanglement between everyday knowledge and arithmetic. However, arithmetic concepts are anchored on the basis of daily knowledge, sources of analog...
Article
It is now well documented that the syllable is a sublexical processing unit involved in writing words. In the present article, while reviewing the findings that support the role of syllable in writing in neuropsychological studies and in psycholinguistics experiments in adults and children, we address the following issues: Is the syllable involved...
Article
Full-text available
The Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) was developed to assess internal working models (IWMs) of specific relationships in adulthood (e.g., with mother, father, and romantic partner). In an initial effort to validate the AMMI, the interview was administered to participants who were followed from age 4 to 23. ANOVA and contrast tests confirm...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this presentation is to present findings from a pilot study on the generalization of attachment to everyday life situations. Research suggests that early attachment models influence friendships, romantic relationships and even other less intimate relationships. The question is: to what extent do these models generalize? Concordance b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The nature of the quantities involved in arithmetic problems promotes semantic encodings that affect the strategy chosen to solve them (Gamo, Sander, & Richard, 2010). Such encoding effects might prevent positive transfer to problems sharing the same formal mathematical structure (Bassok, Wu, & Olseth, 1995). In this study with 5 th and 6 th grader...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the process of understanding a mathematical problem, representations are induced by the solver at an intermediate level of abstraction that neither coincides with a situation model nor with the abstract mathematical structure. In two experiments, we manipulated the nature of the quantities (e.g., time units, distance units, monetary units, etc.)...
Article
In arithmetic problems solving, the representation of the problem spontaneously induced by the content of the statement is not always compatible with the solving strategy. This study evaluates a learning approach designed to lead pupils to build an alternative representation to the one spontaneously induced. In this paper, we evaluate the efficienc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study fits in a more global project that aims to elaborate a mathematical program for the first year of elementary school (ACE Project supported by the Ministère de l’Education Nationale). The objective is to emphasize the role of a regular and systematic practice of estimation during all the 1rst year of school mathematical learning. This rol...
Article
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In many intellective tasks groups consistently outperform individuals. One factor is that the individual(s) with the best answer is able to convince the other group members using sound argumentation. Another factor is that the most confident group member imposes her answer whether it is right or wrong. In Experiments 1 and 2, individual participant...
Article
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aSPe) – 36/2014 35 Réduire les effets de contenus en résolution de problèmes Sylvie Gamo, Sandra Nogry, pour favoriser la construction d'une représentation alternative Emmanuel Sander Mots Clés : Résolution de problèmes arithmétiques complexes -Effets de contenu – Stratégies – Apprentissage -Transfert analogique -Flexibilité cognitive. Résumé : En...
Article
Cet article vise à améliorer la compréhension du développement du traitement des feed-back dans le raisonnement hypothético-déductif, indépendamment des connaissances ou croyances de l’individu concernant la thématique spécifique de l’énoncé du problème. Pour cela, 108 enfants de 7 à 14 ans ont résolu une version simplifiée du Mastermind pour laque...
Article
La catégorisation tient une place fondamentale dans le fonctionnement cognitif des êtres