Emmanuel Do Linh San

Emmanuel Do Linh San
Fort Hare University | UFH · Department of Zoology and Entomology

B.Sc., M.Sc., D.Sc.

About

214
Publications
94,328
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Introduction
I am a wildlife biologist with current specialization in African small carnivore ecology and conservation. I am supervising students from Honours to Doctoral level and invite funded postdoctoral researchers to join the research team. I am lecturing several courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including Ecology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecological Modelling. I am a member of the IUCN Small Carnivore Specialist Group, an Associate Editor of 2 scientific journals and a reviewer for a wide range of ecology/zoology journals. I recently founded ASCaRIs (www.ascaris.org) to promote research and disseminate knowledge on African small carnivores.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
ASCaRIs (www.ascaris.org)
Position
  • Managing Director
January 2014 - present
Fort Hare University
Position
  • Professor
February 2010 - December 2013
Fort Hare University
Position
  • Head of Department
Education
October 1998 - July 2004
Université de Neuchâtel
Field of study
  • Behavioural Ecology
November 1996 - October 1997
ETH Zurich
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences
November 1992 - April 1997
ETH Zurich
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences

Publications

Publications (214)
Chapter
Small carnivores – here defined as members of the mammalian Order Carnivora with a body mass < 21.5 kg – occur worldwide, including in Oceania, following introductions. They are represented by 210 to 282 species, which corresponds to around 90% of terrestrial carnivores globally. Some species are endemic to one or two countries (sometimes only isla...
Book
Full-text available
This book focuses on the 232 species of the mammalian Order Carnivora with an average body mass < 21.5 kg. Small carnivores inhabit virtually all of the Earth's ecosystems, adopting terrestrial, semi-fossorial, (semi-)arboreal or (semi-)aquatic lifestyles. They occupy multiple trophic levels and therefore play important roles in the regulation of e...
Chapter
Seed dispersal may be a major ecological role of mesocarnivores. However, the general features of seed dispersal by mesocarnivores are not well elucidated. Here, we review the published literature regarding frugivory and seed dispersal by mesocarnivores and briefly summarize the features of seed dispersal. In particular, we focus on the characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Species that respond to ecosystem change in a timely, measurable, and interpretable way can be used as sentinels of global change. Contrary to a pervasive view, we suggest that, among Carnivora, small carnivores are more appropriate sentinels than large carnivores. This reasoning is built around six key points: that, compared to large carnivores, s...
Chapter
Relationships and interactions among predators are multifaceted and intricate, and they affect the fitness and survival of individuals. We followed and watched nine habituated honey badgers, Mellivora capensis, during >5,800 h over a 42-month period to investigate their direct interactions with sympatric carnivorous mammals and birds in the souther...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Cover page of following book by Do Linh San et al. (2022): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352560208_Small_Carnivores_Evolution_Ecology_Behaviour_and_Conservation
Chapter
Full-text available
This Appendix lists the 232 small carnivore species (< 21.5 kg) that are currently recognized by the IUCN (2021). For each species, it provides alternative scientific and common names (when relevant), average body mass, global distribution, number of countries where species are native or have been introduced, as well as information on conservation...
Chapter
Full-text available
This Appendix provides a detailed (but non-exhaustive) list of the main small carnivoran taxa (n = 72) that have been – to date – the subject of discussions as to whether they should be attributed species or subspecies level.
Article
The aardwolf is one of the four members of the family Hyaenidae (order Carnivora). It is referred to as either Proteles cristatus or Proteles cristata in the scientific literature and on animal diversity websites, but only one of these names is correct. In this short note, we seek to rectify the current widespread confusion regarding the scientific...
Article
Full-text available
We review den and resting site terminology used in 121 scientific publications related to species of the subfamily Guloninae (hereafter Martes Complex, sensu Proulx and Aubry 2017). These indicate that the term den has been used both to describe structures used by females to give birth and/or raise their kits, or by both sexes to sleep or rest. The...
Article
Nest sharing in rodents and other vertebrates is believed to be promoted by the gain of thermoregulatory advantages, reproductive imperatives or to be a by-product of other benefits to group living. Here, we studied the patterns of nest box sharing over a yearly cycle in a wild population of the arboreal, nocturnal and heterothermic woodland dormou...
Article
Full-text available
La famille des mangoustes compte 34 espèces, présentes en Afrique et en Asie dans des habitats très variés, de la savane à la forêt tropicale. De la structure sociale complexe des suricates et des mangues rayées, à la vie solitaire des mangoustes à queue courte, cette famille de petits carnivores réserve bien des surprises.
Cover Page
Full-text available
Cover page linked to the following article by Veron et al. (2020): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342978247_Les_mangoustes_Une_famille_a_la_diversite_meconnue_Le_Courrier_de_la_Nature
Article
The diet of the marsh or water mongoose Atilax paludinosus has been well studied in coastal and inland riverine habitats, where crabs often constitute the main prey in terms of frequency of occurrence. We investigated the feeding ecology of a small number of marsh mongooses living next to a small, non-permanent reservoir (Andries Vosloo Kudu Nature...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Cover page of following book by Veron & Jennings (2019): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336231488_Mongooses_of_the_World
Cover Page
Full-text available
White‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hunt either by making quick hawking flights from low...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Globally, human activities have led to the impoverishment of species assemblages and the disruption of ecosystem function. Determining whether this poses a threat to future ecosystem stability necessitates a thorough understanding of mechanisms underpinning community assembly and niche selection. Here, we tested for niche segregation withi...
Conference Paper
Latrines are often used for scent communication by both solitary and group-living animals. Using 44 camera-traps, we investigated how Cape and small-spotted genets (Genetta spp.) use latrines in the Great Fish River Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Data were collected from September 2017 to August 2018 (n = 9,877 trap-days). We captured...
Conference Paper
Small African carnivores (<15 kg) make up 35% of extant small carnivores worldwide, and eight of the world’s 13 terrestrial carnivore families have representative species meeting this criterion in Africa. In spite of this diversity, studies on larger species seem to dominate African carnivore research. To both quantify research bias and highlight k...
Article
Until recently, very little was known of the biology and ecology of the woodland dormouse Graphiurus murinus, a nocturnal and arboreal rodent belonging to the family Gliridae. Here, we aimed to increase our knowledge on its population biology in a riverine Combretum forest of the Albany Thicket Biome, South Africa. Data were collected between Febru...
Technical Report
Full-text available
African Civet is listed as Least Concern because the species has a wide distribution range, is present in a variety of habitats, is relatively common across its range, is present in numerous protected areas, and has a total population believed to be relatively stable. It may, however, be undergoing some localised declines through hunting, including...
Cover Page
Full-text available
White‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hunt either by making quick hawking flights from low...
Chapter
Full-text available
In South Africa, two of the smaller carnivores – caracals Caracal caracal and black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas – are reportedly responsible for most predation on small livestock. However, other species are also implicated in livestock predation in the country including lions Panthera leo, leopards Panthera pardus, cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus, ser...
Cover Page
Full-text available
White‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hunt either by making quick hawking flights from low...
Cover Page
Full-text available
White‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hunt either by making quick hawking flights from low...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Book
Full-text available
Of the 343 species, subspecies and subpopulations recorded from the assessment region, six were Not Evaluated (considered vagrant) and five are Extinct, leaving 331 taxa that were assessed. Overall, 57 taxa are threatened (six Critically Endangered, 20 Endangered, 31 Vulnerable) and 35 are Near Threatened. Proportional to the number of taxa assesse...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) basking in the sun with mouth agape. Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and therefore open their jaws to avoid overheating. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve (South Africa) and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San (www.ascaris.org).
Cover Page
Full-text available
White‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hunt either by making quick hawking flights from low...
Cover Page
Full-text available
After encountering a possibly novel odour, this African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) sniffed and rolled in it, getting the scent on its body, especially around the face and the neck. The tail up indicates arousal or excitement as a result of rolling in the scent. The adaptive value of this behaviour is still unclear; the most plausible explanations pro...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Bush Hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei, sunbathing on a flat rock in Mpala Ranch, Kenya. This species is smaller than the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis, and has darker, grey fur with more obvious white facial markings. Photograph reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San (www.ascaris.org).
Cover Page
Full-text available
Subadult male Flap‐necked Chameleon, Chamaeleo dilepsis, day‐resting in a small bush in Telperion Nature Reserve, South Africa. This species' common name derives from the large and movable flaps that protrude from either side of the upper surface of the neck. The sex can be determined based on the presence of the hemipenal bulges (not visible on th...
Cover Page
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Cover Page
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Female Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, chewing some nutritive vegetation in Telperion Nature Reserve, South Africa. Photograph reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San (www.ascaris.org).
Cover Page
Full-text available
A group (one adult and seven young) of Arid Four‐Striped Mice, Rhabdomys bechuanae, sunbathing on a wood log in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (Marie se draai), South Africa. Photograph reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San (www.ascaris.org).
Cover Page
Full-text available
Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, perched on the back of a Blue Wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, in Telperion Nature Reserve, South Africa. Cattle Egrets remove and consume ticks and flies from large game and cattle; they also catch insects and small vertebrates disturbed by these animals when foraging and travelling. Photograph reproduced by permissi...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Two meerkats, Suricata suricatta, involved in a play‐fighting interaction. Photograph taken in Kalahari Trails Meerkat Sanctuary, South Africa, and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San (www.ascaris.org).
Book
Full-text available
This Special Issue contains three original contributions dealing with badger diet in a human-managed ecosystem, sett site selection in an atypical habitat (peat bog with coal pits) and badger setts' 3D topography, as well as a review of recent ecological studies on European badgers in the Western Carpathian Mountains. It also includes a technical n...
Article
Full-text available
This Special Issue contains three original contributions dealing with badger diet in a human-managed ecosystem, sett site selection in an atypical habitat (peat bog with coal pits) and badger setts' 3D topography, as well as a review of recent ecological studies on European badgers in the Western Carpathian Mountains. It also includes a technical n...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Zorilla is listed as Least Concern as it is fairly common across its wide distribution range, is present in numerous protected areas, and faces no major threats. Threats, such as road mortalities and domestic dogs, may cause local subpopulation declines, but this is not currently suspected to impact on overall population trends. Education and a...
Article
Full-text available
Minimum Number Alive (MNA) is a widely used index of abundance and trappability (% of population trapped during a capture session) in mark-recapture programmes. MNA is a negatively-biased abundance index, and is sensitive to capture probability and the capture session number. This suggests that MNA-trappability will be positively-biased, and that t...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Common Dwarf Mongoose is listed as Least Concern as although its distribution is restricted to the northeast of the assessment region, it is common across its range, sometimes attaining high densities (from 20–42 individuals / km2 in some study sites in Limpopo), and is present in several protected areas. There are no major threats that could c...
Chapter
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The Suricate is listed as Least Concern as it is relatively widespread in the assessment region, is present in several protected areas (notably in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park), and there are currently no major threats to the species. It occurs in habitats and regions that are largely intact and unlikely to be extensively transformed. Climate c...
Chapter
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The Banded Mongoose is listed as Least Concern as, although its distribution is restricted to the northeast of the assessment region, it is generally common in suitable habitat and is present in several protected areas. There are no major threats that could cause range-wide population decline. Accidental persecution through poisoning, controlled bu...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Cape Genet is listed as Least Concern because it has a relatively wide range in South Africa, appears to be common, occurs in human-modified habitats, does not face major threats, and is present in several protected areas across its distribution. Population size and trend estimates are not available for most areas, but it is thought that the po...
Chapter
Full-text available
Selous’ Mongoose is listed as Least Concern since although it is uncommon and likely living at low-density across its range (with possibly fewer than 1,000 mature individuals in the assessment region), it is relatively widespread, and occurs in well-protected savannah woodland and grassland habitats. The expansion of wildlife ranching in Limpopo ma...
Chapter
Full-text available
Meller’s Mongoose is listed as Least Concern since, although it is uncommon and lives at low density across its distribution, the majority of its range encompasses well-protected savannah habitats, such as Kruger National Park. The expansion of wildlife ranching may have created additional suitable habitat, especially bordering Kruger. Although thi...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Honey Badger has a wide habitat tolerance, a catholic diet and a large area of occupancy (AOO) in the assessment region. A range expansion has been recorded over the past 10 years in at least one South African province. Although persecution – both direct for beehive damage and poultry losses, and incidental as bycatch in damage-causing animal c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Caracals are widespread within the assessment region. They are considered highly adaptable and, within their distribution area, are found in virtually all habitats except the driest part of the Namib. They also tolerate high levels of human activity, and persist in most small stock areas in southern Africa, despite continuously high levels of perse...
Chapter
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The Small-spotted Genet is listed as Least Concern as this species has a wide distribution within the assessment region, is locally common, and has a very broad habitat tolerance that includes being commensal with human settlements in urban and rural landscapes. Small-spotted Genets are also present in many protected areas across the region.
Chapter
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The Rusty-spotted Genet is listed as Least Concern as, although it is possible that this species may be undergoing some localised declines in a few areas due to road collisions, direct or accidental persecution by farmers, hunting for skins, meat and trophies, and predation by feral/domestic cats and dogs, it has a wide distribution range, occurrin...
Chapter
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The African Wildcat is listed as Least Concern because it is the most common and widely distributed wild felid within the assessment region. However, extensive hybridisation and introgression with domestic cats across its global distribution range has been recorded. Recent studies suggest lower levels of introgression than expected in South Africa....
Chapter
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This species is listed as Least Concern as it is widespread within the assessment region and present in numerous protected areas and habitats, as long as there are termites available. Aardwolves can occupy open and degraded grassland where there is high termite abundance. The expansion of wildlife ranching may be increasing suitable habitat across...
Chapter
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This species is listed as Least Concern because it is common in conservation areas and occurs widely on farms throughout the assessment region. Bat-eared Foxes are occasionally persecuted mistakenly as damage-causing animals. However, these threats, while suspected to cause local declines periodically, are not expected to be affecting the populatio...
Chapter
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The Cape Fox is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread in the assessment region and has expanded its range over recent decades. It is generally common to fairly abundant across much of its range, although problem animal control activities, especially indiscriminate poisoning and trapping, have resulted in local subpopulation reductions in...
Chapter
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The Side-striped Jackal is listed as Least Concern as it appears to be expanding westwards into the Lowveld of South Africa and thus we infer that the population is increasing or at least stable. The species has been observed in areas where Black-backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas) have either been extirpated or have declined in Mpumalanga. Furthermor...
Chapter
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This enigmatic species occurs at naturally low densities but is also severely threatened by loss of productive habitats and hunting for the traditional medicine trade. Although this species has a wide range, it is not abundant. It is a specialist predator of small mammals and has a high metabolic rate, which means it can only exist in habitats cont...
Chapter
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The African Civet is listed as Least Concern as it is fairly common within the assessment region, inhabits a variety of habitats and vegetation types, and is present in numerous protected areas (including Kruger National Park). Camera-trapping studies suggest that there are healthy populations in the mountainous parts of Limpopo’s Waterberg, Soutpa...
Chapter
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The Black-backed Jackal is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and is widespread. It is considered a generalist canid with an opportunistic lifestyle and occupies most habitats within the assessment region. Black-backed Jackals are the dominant predators of livestock in the assessment region and are thus widely persecuted in an attempt to reduce populati...
Chapter
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Within the assessment region there is no reason to change the status of this species from Least Concern. The Yellow Mongoose is relatively widespread, common and resilient, adaptable to change (whether anthropogenic or not), and is not facing any immediate threats to its distribution or population. Its distribution in Swaziland and Lesotho needs to...
Chapter
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The Woodland Dormouse is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution within the assessment region and presumed large population. It is present in many protected areas, and can co-occur with human habitation. Although the species is thought to occur in naturally low numbers, it is not suspected to be declining as there are no major thre...
Chapter
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Although the Mozambique Thicket Rat was listed as Data Deficient in the 2004 assessment, we list it now as Least Concern as field surveys have revealed its range to extend west beyond the Amathole mountains and could potentially extend into the forests of Somerset East. This species thus has a wide extent of occurrence within the assessment region...
Chapter
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The Cape Grey Mongoose is listed as Least Concern because it is common and adaptable, with a catholic diet, there are no major threats, and it is present in a number of protected areas in its range.
Chapter
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The Slender Mongoose is listed as Least Concern as it is common and widespread in a variety of habitats (including human modified landscapes), there are no major threats that could cause rapid population decline, and it is present in several protected areas (notably Kruger National Park and the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park) across its distribution...
Chapter
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The Karoo Bush Rat is listed as Least Concern because it has a wide distribution within the assessment region, can be abundant in suitable habitat, is present in several protected areas and because there are no identified threats that could cause widespread population decline. However, there are potentially synergistic effects of climate change dry...
Chapter
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The White-tailed Mongoose is listed as Least Concern since it is common through much of its wide range, present even in human-modified habitats, and feeds opportunistically. Therefore, there is little reason to believe that it is currently threatened.
Chapter
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The Water Mongoose is listed as Least Concern since it has a wide distribution range within the assessment region, occurs in many protected areas, and is generally common in suitable habitat. It is relatively tolerant of modified or disturbed habitats, and there is no reason to believe that it is declining at a rate fast enough to warrant listing i...
Chapter
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The Large Grey Mongoose is listed as Least Concern as the species is relatively common, with a very wide diet, there are no major threats, and it is present in a number of protected areas within the assessment region. This species seems to be very adaptable, occupying a large range of habitats in its wide distribution range, but it might be more sp...
Cover Page
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