Emmanuel CHAPRON

Emmanuel CHAPRON
University of Toulouse · GEODE laboratory UMR 5602 CNRS-University Toulouse Jean Jaurès

Professor

About

228
Publications
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Introduction
Emmanuel CHAPRON currently works at the GEODE laboratory, University of Toulouse. Emmanuel does research in subaquatic sedimentary processes, glacial geomorphology, paleoseismology, climatology and human impact on hydrosystems. Current projects are focusing on sedimentary processes in natural and artificial lakes in order to track environmental changes in mid latitude mountain ranges (Pyrenees, Auvergne, Alps, Andes, Kerguelen)

Publications

Publications (228)
Article
In this paper, we evaluate morphological changes related to the Plan d'Arem dam (1970), a run-of-river (RoR) dam located on the Upper Garonne (central Pyrenees), and disentangle its morphological effects from other drivers (post-Little Ice Age [LIA] climate change, changes in agricultural practice, catchment afforestation, upstream damming, and byp...
Article
A quantitative assessment of historical sediment yields (SY) was performed using sediment budgets from lacustrine records located in the Mont Dore and Cezallier volcanic provinces (French Massif Central). A source-to-sink approach combining hydro-acoustic images, organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval and quantitative organic petrography) and radiocarbon...
Article
Geophysical surveys in the Lakes Tazenat, Aydat, Chambon and Lacassou combined with a multiproxy study of sediment cores highlight Late Holocene abrupt environmental changes in the northern part of the French Massif Central (FMC). Dating landslide-induced dust layers and subaqueous slope failures impacting lake basin sedimentary fills suggest regio...
Article
Full-text available
Rock falls and landslides plunging into lakes or small reservoirs can result in tsunamis with extreme wave run-ups. The occurrence of these natural hazards in populated areas have encouraged a recent sharp increase of studies that aim to mitigate their impact on human lives and assess infrastructure lost. This paper amalgamates in a novel fashion a...
Article
In this paper, we evaluate morphological changes related to the Plan d’Arem dam (1970), a run-of-river (RoR) dam located on the Upper Garonne (central Pyrenees), and disentangle its morphological effects from other drivers (post-Little Ice Age [LIA] climate change, changes in agricultural practice, catchment afforestation, upstream damming, and byp...
Article
Full-text available
The glacier evolution from two valleys located near Vicdessos, French Pyrenees, is deciphered from 17 in situ cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating. In the Picot valley, Late Glacial glacier advances were documented during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), while a rock glacier developed or was reactivated during the mid-Holocene. In the upper Médécourbe valley,...
Article
This paper is under review at Société géologique de France and the pre-print is not available.
Conference Paper
Alpine lake sediments in the critical zone have proven their efficiency to record regional climate variability and geohazard history at several time-scales. However, the understanding of lake responses to external environmental factors depends on a precise knowledge of internal lake functioning. High resolution imaging of lake sedimentary infill is...
Article
Full-text available
A high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a 21m sediment sequence of Lake Iseo (Southern Alps, Italy) allowed for the reconstruction of the long-term flood frequency by visual identification of the event layers over the last 12 kyr cal BP. In a previous study that was undertaken on another sediment core from Lake Iseo, these la...
Article
Study of the hydro-sedimentary dynamics of lakes provides key information on hydrological changes. In this work, we investigate Lake Azigza in the Moroccan Middle Atlas, a region that suffers from a scarcity of observational hydrological data necessary for a coherent management of water resources. Sedimentary deposits of Lake Azigza (32°58′N, 5°26′...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A decade of scientific investigation, combining subsurface geophysical mapping techniques and coring operations, highlighted several sedimentary events in volcanic lakes of the French Massif Central 1,2,3. Here, we present a synthesis of recent studies dedicated to lakes located around the Puy-de-Sancy stratovolcano (i.e., Pavin, Chauvet, Aydat, Mo...
Poster
Full-text available
A decade of scientific investigation, combining high-resolution hydro-acoustic profiles and multi-proxy analyses of sediment cores, highlighted several sedimentary events in lakes from volcanic areas across the French Massif Central (FMC). This low to medium seismogenic area is located along the Limagne fault where strong earthquakes occurred in th...
Presentation
Full-text available
Sequences of lake sediments often form long and continuous records that may be sensitive recorders of seismic shaking. A multi-proxy analysis of Lake Bohinj (526m a.s.l) sediments associated with a well-constrained chronology was conducted to reconstruct Holocene seismic activity in the Julian Alps (Slovenia). A seismic reflection survey and sedime...
Article
A 14-m long sedimentary sequence (core PAV12) was collected in the deepest part of Lake Pavin, a maar lake located in the French Massif Central. The PAV12 sedimentary sequence documents the lake's environmental evolution since its formation 7000 years ago. The relationships between the catchment's vegetation cover, erosion processes and changes in...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the societal importance of extreme hydroclimate events, few palaeoenvironmental studies of Scandinavian lake sediments have investigated flood occurrences. Here we present a flood history based on lithological, geochemical and mineral magnetic records of a Holocene sediment sequence collected from contourite drift deposits in Lake Storsjön...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of eight pharmaceutical products (PPs) from various therapeutic classes was studied in urban sediments collected upstream a small dam in Orleans, France. Since PPs are globally distributed contaminants since the 1950s, their spatial and historical distribution was documented in order to better understand the impact of recent urban ma...
Article
Full-text available
Similar to many other regions in the world, glaciers in the southern sub-polar regions are currently retreating. In the Kerguelen Islands (49°S, 69°E), the mass balance of the Cook Ice Cap (CIC), the largest ice cap in this region, experienced dramatic shrinking between 1960 and 2013 with retreat rates among the highest in the world. This observati...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the recent years, Lake Pavin sedimentary basin has been intensively studied by several acoustic surveys (high resolution seismic reflection profiling, multibeam bathymetry) and gravity coring campaigns. This new data set combining acoustic images and multidisciplinary study of sediment cores allows characterizing contrasted subaquatic sedimentar...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we present an up-to-date database of sedimentary sequences retrieved from Lake Pavin during the last 50 years in both oxic and anoxic waters. The detailed history of this mid Holocene crater lake can be reconstructed from the correlation of radiocarbon dated sedimentary sequences retrieved from the deep central basin, a subaquatic p...
Article
High-resolution bathymetrical data from the Lovatnet lake, western Norway, reveal a diverse morphology including traces from historic and prehistoric landslides. Onshore LiDAR and selected seismic profiles support the interpretation. Our data from the lake show significant debris lobes below Ramnefjellet that was the source of the well-known rock a...
Conference Paper
Rock avalanches are one of the most devastating geohazards in Norway. A recent example can be given by the September 1936 rock fall that released ca. 1 million m3 of gneissic bedrock from the Ramnefjell Mountain, 800 m above Lake Lovatnet in inner Nordfjord, western Norway. The rock fall plunged into the lake causing a tsunami with a maximum run-up...
Article
Lake sediments are relevant natural seismographs over long time scale. However, because tectonicevents are not systematically recorded in lake sediments, one forthcoming challenge forpaleoseismology is to better assess lake sensitivity to earthquakes. To this end, a limnogeologicalinvestigation, including hydroacoustic mapping techniques, cores sam...
Article
Full-text available
The French alpine foreland area has been struck by several earthquakes with magnitudes above 5 on Richter scale in recent history. In this paper we document the regional impact of historical and Holocene earthquakes based on the identification of mass wasting deposits in glacial lakes at different settings. Lake Le Bourget and Lake Paladru are situ...
Chapter
This book represents the first multidisciplinary scientific work on a deep volcanic maar lake in comparison with other similar temperate lakes. The syntheses of the main characteristics of Lake Pavin are, for the first time, set in a firmer footing comparative approach, encompassing regional, national, European and international aquatic science con...
Poster
Full-text available
Ce poster présente l’historique des glissements subaquatiques liés à l’activité sismique modérée de la région Auvergne. Une approche régionale a été menée sur quatre systèmes, incluant deux lacs de maar (Pavin et Chauvet), un lac de barrage volcanique (Montcineyre) et un lac glaciaire (Guéry). La caractérisation des remplissages lacustres s’appuie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environ 60 000 seuils, barrages et retenues construites par l'Homme sont au total référencés sur l'ensemble des cours d'eau de métropole. Seuls 10% des ouvrages ont un usage économique bien identifié, mais l'ensemble a provoqué une dénaturation des cours d'eau que ce soit en contexte de plaine ou en moyenne et haute montagne. En amont de leurs rete...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
L'avant-pays alpin dans les environs de Chambéry a été plusieurs fois impacté par des séismes historiques de magnitudes supérieures à 5 sur l'échelle de Richter. Ce travail vise à documenter l'impact régional de séismes historiques et holocènes à partir de l'identification de glissements gravitaires dans les lacs d'origine glaciaire situés au coeur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
France L'érosion des sols est reconnue comme l'un des principaux processus à l'origine de la dégrada-tion physico-chimique des environnements aquatiques. Ce phénomène, qui a été largement décrit dans des régions montagneuses est beaucoup moins quantifié dans les régions de plaine agricole en dépit d'une connectivité optimale entre les sources de ma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Depuis les années 1990, le bassin méditerranéen subit une augmentation des événements de précipitation et de sécheresse extrêmes susceptibles de s’amplifier au cours du XXIe siècle, et dont l’origine est attribuable aux activités anthropiques depuis la révolution industrielle de 1850 (IPCC, 2013). Les résultats issus des modèles climatiques régiona...
Poster
Full-text available
Les Alpes Juliennes sont caractérisées par une activité tectonique importante et souvent destructrice (e.g : Séisme du Frioul, 1976, Mw=6,43, MSK=X, 989 morts, Carulli et Slejko 2005 ). De nombreuses études ont été menées pour mieux comprendre cette activité et quelques bases de données documentent les séismes du dernier millénaire, cependant les a...
Poster
Full-text available
Ce poster présente l’utilisation d’un traceur pédogénétique pour reconstituer l’érosion des sols au cours de l’Holocène récent. Une étude intégrée multi-paramètres est appliquée à quatre systèmes lacustres contrastés d’Auvergne. Les résultats montrent des taux d’érosion des sols variant de 1 à 400 t/km²/an. Les différences inter-sites s’expliquent...
Article
The awareness of the significance of the Southern Ocean in the Earth's climate system has become increasingly obvious. The deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise during warming periods in Antarctica has been attributed to CO2 ventilation from the deep ocean caused by enhanced upwelling around the Antarctic Divergence. It has been hypothesized that, more in...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in agricultural practices impact sediment transfer in catchments and rivers. Long term archives of sediment deposits in agricultural plains of northwestern Europe are rarely available, however, for reconstructing and quantifying erosion and sedimentation rates for the second half of the 20th century. In this context, a multi-parameter analy...
Book
Full-text available
The French alpine foreland area has been struck by several earthquakes with magnitudes above 5 on Richter scale in recent history. In this paper we document the regional impact of historical and Holocene earthquakes based on the identification of mass wasting deposits in glacial lakes at different settings. Lake Le Bourget and Lake Paladru are situ...
Article
Full-text available
The origin of both extreme flood events in Lake Ledro (southern Italian Alps) and coarse sandy layers in two disconnected lakes from the Bassies valley (Lakes Majeur and Sigriou, northern Pyrenees) have been related to the impact of snowmelt processes enhancing erosion of mountainous drainage basins (1, 2) throughout the Holocene. Because of increa...
Article
Full-text available
Water budget is one of the main challenges to paleoclimate researchers in relation to present-day global warming and its consequences for human societies. Associated soil degradation and erosion are thereby becoming a major concern in many parts of the world and more particularly in the Alps. Moreover, humans are considered as geomorphologic agents...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this paper we present a review of a ca. 10-years research effort (1-9) aiming at reconstructing floods dynamics in in French Alps through the Holocene, based on lake sediment records. We will particularly discuss how such geological records can be considered as representative of past climate. This implies a wise interpretation of data in order t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water budget is one of the main challenges to paleoclimate researchers in relation to present-day global warming and its consequences for human societies. Associated soil degradation and erosion are thereby becoming a major concern in many parts of the world and more particularly in the Alps. Moreover, humans are considered as geomorphologic agents...
Data
Magnetic susceptibility (MS) was measured with high resolution (5 mm) on a 9 m long, 14C dated core from Lake Le Bourget (Savoie, France), spanning the last 7200 years. The strong correlation (R=0.85) of the MS with the silicate-borne suite of elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K) and anti-correlation with the carbonate content (R =-0.87) allows it to be us...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north– south transect, data collected in the central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and tempor...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of past natural flood variability and controlling climate factors is of high value, since it supports and refines projections of the future flood behavior under climate warming. In this context, we present a seasonally resolved 2000-year long flood-frequency and -intensity reconstruction from the southern Alpine slope (N-Italy) using annu...