Emmanuel Caux

Emmanuel Caux
Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology | IRAP · MICMAC

PhD

About

351
Publications
19,340
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8,821
Citations
Citations since 2016
67 Research Items
4007 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Additional affiliations
February 1988 - present
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (351)
Article
Aims. Methanol is a ubiquitous species commonly found in the molecular interstellar medium. It is also a crucial seed species for the build-up of chemical complexity in star forming regions. Thus, understanding how its abundance evolves during the star formation process and whether it enriches the emerging planetary system is of paramount importanc...
Article
Context. Methanol masers of Class I (collisionally pumped) and Class II (radiatively pumped) have been studied in great detail in our Galaxy in a variety of astrophysical environments such as shocks and star-forming regions and are they are helpful to analyze the properties of the dense interstellar medium. However, the study of methanol masers in...
Article
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The chemical diversity of low-mass protostellar sources has so far been recognized, and environmental effects are invoked as its origin. In this context, observations of isolated protostellar sources without the influence of nearby objects are of particular importance. Here, we report the chemical and physical structures of the low-mass Class 0 pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methanol is a ubiquitous species commonly found in the molecular interstellar medium. It is also a crucial seed species for the building-up of the chemical complexity in star forming regions. Thus, understanding how its abundance evolves during the star formation process and whether it enriches the emerging planetary system is of paramount importan...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and on the nature of the driving source. Aims. We characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work...
Preprint
Full-text available
Context: Methanol masers of Class I (collisionally-pumped) and Class II (radiatively-pumped) have been studied in great detail in our Galaxy in a variety of astrophysical environments such as shocks and star-forming regions and are helpful to analyze the properties of the dense interstellar medium. However, the study of methanol masers in external...
Preprint
Full-text available
Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protostellar jets are an important agent of star formation feedback, tightly connected with the mass-accretion process. The history of jet formation and mass-ejection provides constraints on the mass accretion history and the nature of the driving source. We want to characterize the time-variability of the mass-ejection phenomena at work in the Cla...
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We report a study of the low-mass Class 0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H ¹³ CO ⁺ ( J = 3–2), CS ( J = 5–4), and CCH ( N = 3–2) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 200...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report a study of the low-mass Class-0 multiple system VLA 1623AB in the Ophiuchus star-forming region, using H$^{13}$CO$^+$ ($J=3-2$), CS ($J=5-4$), and CCH ($N=3-2$) lines as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. The analysis of the velocity fields revealed the rotation motion in the envelope and the velocity gradients in the outflows (about 2...
Article
Full-text available
We are standing at the crossroads of powerful new facilities emerging in the next decade on the ground and in space like ELT, SKA, JWST, and Athena. Turning the narrative of the star formation potential of galaxies into a quantitative theory will provide answers to many outstanding questions in astrophysics, from the formation of planets to the evo...
Article
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398−3359 at scales ranging from 50 to 1800 au, as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H_{2}CO, SO, and C^{18}O line emission, which extends from the source in a direction almost perpendicular to the known act...
Article
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398−3359 at scales ranging from 50 to 1800 au, as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H 2 CO, SO, and C ¹⁸ O line emission, which extends from the source in a direction almost perpendicular to the known activ...
Article
The Heterodyne Receiver for Origins (HERO) is the first detailed study of a heterodyne focal plane array receiver for space applications. HERO gives the Origins Space Telescope the capability to observe at very high spectral resolution (R = 107) over an unprecedentedly large far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths range (111 to 617 μm) with high sensitivity...
Preprint
Full-text available
We have observed the very low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 at scales ranging from 50 au to 1800 au, as part of the ALMA Large Program FAUST. We uncover a linear feature, visible in H2CO, SO, and C18O line emission, which extends from the source along a direction almost perpendicular to the known active outflow. Molecular line emission fro...
Article
The study of hot corinos in solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which therefore represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical compositi...
Preprint
The study of hot corinos in Solar-like protostars has been so far mostly limited to the Class 0 phase, hampering our understanding of their origin and evolution. In addition, recent evidence suggests that planet formation starts already during Class I phase, which, therefore, represents a crucial step in the future planetary system chemical composi...
Article
Context: Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims: The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the...
Article
Aims. The Seeds Of Life In Space IRAM/NOEMA large program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources with a well-known physical structure that covers the various phases of solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed...
Preprint
The SOLIS (Seeds Of Life In Space) IRAM/NOEMA Large Program aims at studying a set of crucial complex organic molecules in a sample of sources, with well-known physical structure, covering the various phases of Solar-type star formation. One representative object of the transition from the prestellar core to the protostar phases has been observed t...
Article
Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the...
Article
Context. C2O and C3O belong to the carbon chain oxides family. Both molecules have been detected in the gas phase towards several star-forming regions, and to explain the observed abundances, ion-molecule gas-phase reactions have been invoked. On the other hand, laboratory experiments have shown that carbon chain oxides are formed after energetic...
Preprint
We have observed the Class I protostellar source Elias 29 with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We have detected CS, SO, $^{34}$SO, SO$_2$, and SiO line emissions in a compact component concentrated near the protostar and a ridge component separated from the protostar by 4\arcsec\ ($\sim 500$ au). The former component is found t...
Article
Context . Detection of deuterated species may provide information on the evolving chemistry in the earliest phases of star-forming regions. For molecules with two isomeric forms of the same isotopic variant, gas-phase and solid-state formation pathways can be differentiated using their abundance ratio. Aims . Spectroscopic databases for astrophysic...
Preprint
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We present multi-epoch continuum observations of the Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293-2422 taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) at multiple wavelengths between 7 mm and 15 cm (41 GHz down to 2 GHz), as well as single-epoch Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations covering the range from 0.4 to 1.3 mm (700 GH...
Article
Full-text available
Isocyanic acid (HNCO), the most stable of the simplest molecules containing the four main elements essential for organic chemistry, has been observed in several astrophysical environments such as molecular clouds, star-forming regions, external galaxies, and comets. In this work, we model HNCO spectral line profiles towards the low-mass solar type...
Preprint
Full-text available
Isocyanic acid (HNCO), the most stable of the simplest molecules containing the four main elements essential for organic chemistry, has been observed in several astrophysical environments such as molecular clouds, star-forming regions, external galaxies and comets. In this work, we model HNCO spectral line profiles toward the low-mass solar type pr...
Article
Full-text available
Ions and electrons play an important role in various stages of the star formation process. By following the magnetic field of their environment and interacting with neutral species, they slow down the gravitational collapse of the proto-star envelope. This process (known as ambipolar diffusion) depends on the ionisation degree, which can be derived...
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We report new interferometric images of cyclopropenylidene, c-C$_3$H$_2$, towards the young protocluster OMC-2 FIR\,4. The observations were performed at 82 and 85 GHz with the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) as part of the project Seeds Of Life In Space (SOLIS). In addition, IRAM-30m data observations were used to investigate the physic...
Article
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Evidence is mounting that the small bodies of our Solar System, such as comets and asteroids, have at least partially inherited their chemical composition from the first phases of the Solar System formation. It then appears that the molecular complexity of these small bodies is most likely related to the earliest stages of star formation. It is the...
Article
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The protonated form of CO2, HOCO⁺, is assumed to be an indirect tracer of CO2 in the millimeter/submillimeter regime since CO2 lacks a permanent dipole moment. Here, we report the detection of two rotational emission lines (40, 4–30, 3 and 50, 5–40, 4) of HOCO⁺ in IRAS 16293-2422. For our observations, we have used EMIR heterodyne 3 mm receiver of...
Article
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IRAS 16293-2422 is a very well studied young stellar system seen in projection towards the L1689N cloud in the Ophiuchus complex. However, its distance is still uncertain with a range of values from 120 pc to 180 pc. Our goal is to measure the trigonometric parallax of this young star by means of H$_2$O maser emission. We use archival data from 15...
Article
Full-text available
Towards the pre-stellar core L1544, the methanol (CH$_3$OH) emission forms an asymmetric ring around the core centre, where CH$_3$OH is mostly in solid form, with a clear peak 4000~au to the north-east of the dust continuum peak. As part of the NOEMA Large Project SOLIS (Seeds of Life in Space), the CH$_3$OH peak has been spatially resolved to stud...
Article
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Although chemical models predict that the deuterium fractionation in N$_2$H$^+$ is a good evolutionary tracer in the star formation process, the fractionation of nitrogen is still a poorly understood process. Recent models have questioned the similar evolutionary trend expected for the two fractionation mechanisms in N$_2$H$^+$, based on a classica...
Article
Full-text available
We report the detection in space of a new molecular species which has been characterized spectroscopically and fully identified from astrophysical data. The observations were carried out with the 30m IRAM telescope. The molecule is ubiquitous as its $J$=2$\rightarrow$1 transition has been found in cold molecular clouds, prestellar cores, and shocks...
Book
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Editor in chief: C. Ferrari; Editors: M. Alves, S. Bosse, S. Corbel, A. Ferrari, K. Ferri\`ere, S. Gauffre, E. Josselin, G. Lagache, S. Lambert, G. Marquette, J.-M. Martin, M.-A. Miville-Desch\^enes, L. Montier, B. Semelin, G. Theureau, S. Vergani, N. Vilmer, P. Zarka; Original file with high resolution figures at SKA-France link: https://ska-franc...
Article
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The "Square Kilometre Array" (SKA) is a large international radio telescope project characterised, as suggested by its name, by a total collecting area of approximately one square kilometre, and consisting of several interferometric arrays to observe at metric and centimetric wavelengths. The deployment of the SKA will take place in two sites, in S...
Article
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Complex organic molecules have been observed for decades in the interstellar medium. Some of them might be considered as small bricks of the macromolecules at the base of terrestrial life. It is hence particularly important to understand organic chemistry in Solar-like star forming regions. In this article, we present a new observational project: S...
Article
The early stages of low-mass star formation are likely to be subject to intense ionization by protostellar energetic MeV particles. As a result, the surrounding gas is enriched in molecular ions, such as HCO$^{+}$ and N$_{2}$H$^{+}$. Nonetheless, this phenomenon remains poorly understood for Class 0 objects. Recently, based on Herschel observations...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Modern versions of the Miller-Urey experiment claim that formamide (NH$_2$CHO) could be the starting point for the formation of metabolic and genetic macromolecules. Intriguingly, formamide is indeed observed in regions forming Solar-type stars as well as in external galaxies. Aims: How NH$_2$CHO is formed has been a puzzle for decades: ou...
Article
We used the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) to image, with an angular resolution of 0.5$''$ (120 au) and 1$''$ (235 au), respectively, the emission from 11 different organic molecules in the protostellar binary NGC1333 IRAS 4A. We clearly disentangled A1 and A2, the two protostellar cor...
Article
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The interstellar delivery of carbon atoms locked into molecules might be one of the key ingredients for the emergence of life. Cyanopolyynes are carbon chains delimited at their two extremities by an atom of hydrogen and a cyano group, so that they might be excellent reservoirs of carbon. The simplest member, HC3N, is ubiquitous in the galactic int...
Article
Full-text available
Context. It is not well known what drives the chemistry of a protostellar envelope, in particular the role of the stellar mass and the protostellar outflows on the chemical enrichment of such environments. Aims.We study the chemical structure of the Class 0 protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A in order to (i) investigate the influence of the outf...
Article
It is not well known what drives the chemistry of a protostellar envelope, in particular the role of the stellar mass and the outflows on its chemical enrichment. We study the chemical structure of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A in order to (i) investigate the influence of the outflows on the chemistry, (ii) constrain the age of our object, (iii) compare it with...
Article
The era of interferometric observations leads to the need of a more and more precise description of physical structures and dynamics of star-forming regions, from pre-stellar cores to protoplanetary discs. The molecular emission can be traced in multiple physical components such as infalling envelopes, outflows and protoplanetary discs. To compare...
Article
The Class 0 protostar, L483, has been observed in various molecular lines in the 1.2 mm band at a sub-arcsecond resolution with ALMA. An infalling-rotating envelope is traced by the CS line, while a very compact component with a broad velocity width is observed for the CS, SO, HNCO, NH$_2$CHO, and HCOOCH$_3$ lines. Although this source is regarded...
Article
Nitrogen, one of the most abundant elements in the Universe is a fundamental element of molecules which are crucial for life. We present here the modelling of the emission of two of the simplest nitrogen-bearing molecules, CN and NO, with a non-LTE radiative transfer code in IRAS16293-2422, a class 0 low-mass protostar. In this model, we assumed IR...
Article
Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a simple molecule containing the four main atoms essential for life and can be considered as a prebiotic molecule. To model the HNCO emission in the IRAS16293-2422 class 0 low-mass protostar, we used a new set of HNCO collisional coefficients with ortho-H 2 and para-H 2 , computed from a set of rotational excitation quenchi...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclic-C3HD (c-C3HD) is a singly deuterated isotopologue of c-C3H2, which is one of the most abundant and widespread molecules in our Galaxy. We observed IRAS 16293-2422 in the 3 mm band with a single frequency setup using the EMIR heterodyne 3 mm receiver of the IRAM 30m telescope. We observed seven lines of c-C3HD and three lines of c-C3H2. Obser...
Article
Full-text available
We have resolved for the first time the radial and vertical structure of the almost edge-on envelope/disk system of the low-mass Class 0 protostar L1527. For that, we have used ALMA observations with a spatial resolution of 0.25″× 0.13″ and 0.37″× 0.23″ at 0.8 mm and 1.2 mm, respectively. The L1527 dust continuum emission has a deconvolved size of...
Article
Context. Cyanopolyynes are chains of carbon atoms with an atom of hydrogen and a CN group on either side. They are detected almost everywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM), as well as in comets. In the past, they have been used to constrain the age of some molecular clouds, since their abundance is predicted to be a strong function of time. Fina...