Emmanuel Benard

Emmanuel Benard
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE) | ISAE · Department of Design, Control and Operation of Aerospace vehicles

PhD

About

140
Publications
45,122
Reads
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926
Citations
Introduction
Ass. Professor in Aircraft Design at the Department of Aircraft and Space Vehicles Design - ISAE-SUPAERO. 20 years of experience in Aerodynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, and Aircraft Design. 2016 - 2022: CEDAR Chair for Eco-Design of Aircraft Sponsored by Airbus Toulouse. 2014 - 2017:Contributor to MIDLELAB (ANR&DelairTech sponsored) and SKYSCANNER (RTRA sponsored) - Design of long endurance UAV PhD in Aerodynamics in 1998.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Supaéro, Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE)
Position
  • Ass. Prof.
Description
  • Aircraft design Micro UAV Applied Aerodynamics
January 2016 - June 2019
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE)
Position
  • Professor
September 2010 - December 2015
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE)
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3914.vid Aircraft operational performance is one of the key drivers to airline profitability and punctuality. Along with safety and technical performance, aircraft operational performance needs to be projected from the early stages of development to design an aircraft that can fully meet the e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distributed electric propulsion is a fertile research topic aiming to increase the wing aerodynamic efficiency by distributing the thrust over the wing span. The blowing due to distributed propulsors shall increase the wing lift coefficient for a given planform area and flight speed. This should bring several advantages as wing area, drag, and stru...
Article
In the wake of ”flygskam” movement that emerged in Sweden a couple of years ago many voices recently raised denounce the environmental footprint of aviation. Even if the real impact of the sector could appear rather limited the critics reveal the necessity to propose cleaner aircraft to both meet public expectations and environmental goals. Because...
Article
Aircraft operational performance is a key driving factor to flight punctuality and airline profitability. The ability of a system to meet its operational requirements in terms of reliability, availability and costs is termed as ’Operability’. It is of high importance for aircraft manufacturers to project operability during the early stages of devel...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-0168.vid The paper introduces the EU funded project CS2-U-HARWARD, started, in response to the call JTI-CS2-2019-CFP10-THT-07: Ultra-High Aspect ratio wings, aiming at the use of innovative aerodynamic and aeroelastic designs in a multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary optimal design approach to fa...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-0726.vid Increasing the wing aspect ratio appears as a straightforward way to improve aerodynamic performance of transport aircraft by reducing the lift-induced drag component. However, it comes at the price of a direct negative impact on the wing structural weight which is necessary to sustai...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of reducing the environmental footprint of tomorrow’s aviation, Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) has become an increasingly interesting concept. With the strong coupling between disciplines that this technology brings forth, multiple benefits are expected for the overall aircraft design. These interests have been observed not on...
Article
In 2019, aviation was responsible for 2.6% of world CO2 emissions as well as additional climate impacts such as contrails. Like all industrial sectors, the aviation sector must implement measures to reduce its climate impact. This paper focuses on the simulation and evaluation of climate scenarios for air transport. For this purpose, a specific too...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2411.vid This paper addresses the topic of conceptual design of a regional aircraft with hybrid electric propulsion based on hydrogen fuel cells. It aims at proving the interest in the fuel cell technology for a regional aircraft of the 70-80 seat class to reduce its environmental impact. Firs...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2428.vid In the context of necessary reduction of the environmental footprint of aviation, the concept of More Electric Aircraft (MEA) appears to be one of the leading research directions to increase the future airliners performance and thus reduce their energy consumption and emissions. Howev...
Preprint
In 2019, aviation was responsible for 2.6% of the world CO2 emissions as well as additional climate impacts such as contrails. Like all industrial sectors, the aviation sector must implement measures to reduce its climate impact. This paper focuses on the simulation and the evaluation of climatic scenarios for the aviation industry. For this purpos...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, digitalisation of aircraft, of their operations and their support became a crucial component for all the market players of the aeronautical industry. This technical field occupies an increasingly significant place, due to the generation of a substantial volume and an extensive variety of operational data. This new trend suggests taking th...
Article
Full-text available
To face the increasing environmental footprint of commercial aviation, industrial and research efforts have been focusing on exploring unconventional configurations and new propulsion paradigms, mostly based on electric technology. Such explorations require Overall Aircraft Design that has to be performed in an integrated multidisciplinary design e...
Article
Full-text available
In the frame of the European objectives in terms of CO2 emissions, the aeronautics is looking for a technological rupture to achieve them, in particular, the aircraft design domain pursuits this through the research of innovative architectures. One of these innovative configurations currently being explored includes the hybrid electric energy sourc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aircraft operability characterizes the ability of an aircraft to meet operational requirements in terms of reliability , availability, risks and costs. Any operational interruption such as a delay of flight can have significant impact on airline flight schedule and operating cost. Aircraft operability is therefore considered a major requirement by...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid-electric aircraft are a potential way to reduce the environmental footprint of aviation. Research aimed at this subject has been pursued over the last decade; nevertheless, at this stage, a full overall aircraft design procedure is still an open issue. This work proposes to enrich the procedure for the conceptual design of hybrid aircraft fo...
Conference Paper
In the past years, air traffic has continuously increased, with an impact on the emissions level. Thus it has become a major issue for the aeronautical field to face its responsibilities and seek for solutions to lower its environmental footprint. To cope with this problem, research is focusing on the study of unconventional configurations that dep...
Article
This paper presents the development of a code, called GEBTAero, dedicated to very flexible aircraft (VFA) aeroelasticity and especially the evaluation of aeroelastic tailoring effect on critical speeds. GEBTAero is an open source code consisting in a tightly coupling between a geometrically exact beam theory -and a finite state induced flow unstead...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hybrid electric aircraft are a potential way to reduce the environmental footprint of aviation. Research aimed at this subject has been pursued over the last decade; nevertheless, at this stage a full overall aircraft design procedure is still an open issue. This work proposes to enrich the procedure for the conceptual design of hybrid aircraft fo...
Article
The present investigation addresses two key issues in aerodynamic performance of a propeller–wing configuration, namely linear and nonlinear predictions with low-order numerical models. The developed aerodynamic model is targeted to be used in the preliminary aircraft design loop. First, the combination of selected propeller model, i.e. blade eleme...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses energy-harvesting from atmospheric turbulence for small unmanned aerial vehicles, theoretically through simulations and practically through experimental flights. A comparison between different scenarios for flight within sinusoidal wind profile is presented. A significant improvement in performance with active control of elevat...
Article
Fixed-wing small, unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs) usually fly in atmospheric boundary layers that are often under the influence of turbulent environments. Inspired by nature's flyers, an application of an energy-harvesting flight strategy for increasing the energy state of the aircraft is presented. This paper provides basic longitudinal flight dy...
Article
Full-text available
The aviation's goal for the next decades is to drastically reduce emissions, but to achieve this goal a breakdown in aircraft design has to be considered. One of the most promising concepts is the Blended Wing-Body, which integrates aerodynamics, propulsion and structure, and has a better aerodynamics efficiency, thanks to the reduction of the wett...
Article
Full-text available
One of the major challenges of Mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight is the unsteady interaction with turbulent environment while flying in lower levels of atmospheric boundary layer. Following inspiration from nature we expose a new system for angle of attack estimation based on pressure measurements on the wing. Such an equipment can be used for re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Blended Wing Body (BWB) configuration is seen by many as one of the possible future protagonists of Civil Aviation, both for its potential benefits in terms of Aerodynamics performances and fuel consumption and for the possibility of incorporating Aero-Propulsive integration technology. However, the design of such an innovative aircraft does no...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The enhancement of high altitude drone endurance compels to design very flexible high-aspect-ratio composite airframe vulnerable to destructive fluid/structure interaction like flutter or torsional divergence. Extensive research has been conducted to increase critical speed without being at the expense of weight balance, one of the promising soluti...
Article
Fixed-wing miniature aerial vehicles usually fly at low altitudes that are often exposed to turbulent environments. Gust soaring is a flight technique of energy harvesting in such a complex and stochastic domain. The presented work shows the feasibility and benefits of exploiting a nonstationary environment for a small unmanned aerial vehicle. A lo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The enhancement of high altitude drone endurance compels to design very flexible high aspect ratio composite airframe vulnerable to destructive fluid/structure interaction like flutter or torsional divergence. Aeroelastic tailoring , a specific configuration of laminated composite layup, appears to be a promising way to increase critical speed with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fixed-wing mini aerial vehicles usually fly at low altitudes often exposed to turbulent environments. Due to limited size, mini UAVs are being constrained with capacity of carrying payload and degraded performance due to low-Re flight. Energy harvesting from atmospheric turbulence represents an opportunity for small UAVs to enhance their performanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to reduce CO2 emissions, a disruptive concept in aircraft propulsion has to be considered. As studied in the past years hybrid distributed electric propulsion is a promising option. In this work the feasibility of a new concept aircraft, using this technology, has been studied. Two different energy sources have been used: fuel based engine...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the flow pattern behaviour by using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) approach. The square profile was chosen in purpose to have a better understanding of the behaviour which is relevant to the engineering applications. Numerical simulation was performed on various turbulence models with the range of Reynolds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper opens an exciting new opportunity of new aircraft concepts specifically targeting to have higher aerodynamic efficiency than conventional designs through the synergistic interaction between the propeller and the wing. Previous literature on propeller and wing performance analysis methods provide a platform on theory description behind th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the major challenges of Mini-UAV flight is unsteady interaction with turbulent environment while flying in lower levels of atmospheric boundary layer. Following inspiration from nature we expose a new system for angle of attack estimation based on pressure measurements on the wing. Such an equipment can be used for real-time estimation of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Solar powered HALE drones pose further challenges in terms of aerodynamic and structural design. This results in highly flexible high aspect ratio composite wing particularly vulnerable to destructive fluid/structure interaction such as torsional divergence or flutter. The aims of this study is to enhance aeroelastic performance using the anisotrop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La faible puissance embarquée des drones solaires exige de très hautes performances aérodynamiques et structurales qui aboutissent à la conception de cellules composites très légères avec des ailes à grand allonge-ment. Ces aéronefs sont par conséquent très souples et donc sensibles aux interactions fluide/structure comme la divergence statique ou...
Presentation
Full-text available
In the domain of small sized-UAVs, endurance is acknowledged to be a key utility factor. Yet, their reduced size and volume induce limitations on their operational endurance, such that various directions of research have been investigated to address this issue. One of them focuses on harvesting energy from the UAV surrounding environment, by taking...
Conference Paper
The work presented in this paper is carried out under the Skyscanner project with the aim to study a fleet of coordinated mini-drones that will adaptively sample cumulus-type clouds, over periods of the order of one hour. One of the objectives of this project is to optimise the design of long endurance mini UAVs for use in atmospheric research. For...
Article
A passive twist control is considered as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of a proprotor developed for convertible Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). In this paper, adaptation of the proprotor geometry in accordance to flight configurations is achieved by induced twist generated by the inherent structural coupling effect in anisotropic com...
Article
Dynamic soaring is a flying technique which extracts energy from an environment where wind gradients form, such as the air-sea interface above oceans that sees such gradients developing through multiple and combined phenomena. Models of wind-wave interactions are analysed in terms of their influence on the induced wind field, before selecting a pur...
Poster
Full-text available
MAV or Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicules are taking an increasing place in everyday life. MAV are already used in many areas like the police, the army or the television and maybe soon for delivery services. An absolute acoustic furtivity is required for specific missions like reconnaissance or surveillance. Quietness is also important for sound recor...
Article
Full-text available
The active control of the leading-edge separation on the suction surface of a stalled airfoil (NACA 0012) at a Reynolds number of 106 based on the chord length is investigated through a computational study. The actuator is a steady or unsteady jet located on the suction surface of the airfoil. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are...
Article
Dynamic Soaring is a flying technique which extracts energy from an environment where wind gradients form, with the potential to increase the endurance of small unmanned vehicles. The feasibility to use dynamic soaring flight is questioned here; it requires the identification of energy-extraction mechanisms as well as accurate understanding of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
MAV or Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicules are taking a very important place in everyday life. These are already used in many areas like the police, the army or the television and maybe soon for delivery services. An absolute acoustic furtivity is required for specific missions like reconnaissance or surveillance. Quietness is also important for sound...
Article
Full-text available
A passive twist control is considered as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of a proprotor developed for convertible Micro Air Vehicles. The varied operation conditions suggest different twist distributions for hover and forward flight with the constraint of identical planform. In this work, adaption of the proprotor geometry is ach...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Application of drag reduction technology based on laminar flow in a commercial environment is still being hindered by unanswered questions regarding its operational reliability. The encounter of ice crystals, as occurring in cirrus cloud, is known to result in performance degradations or even a temporary complete loss of laminar flow. Actually occu...
Article
Full-text available
Asystematic study of the effect of the Reynolds number on the fluid dynamics and turbulence statistics of pulsed jets impinging on a flat surface is presented. It has been suggested that the influence of the Reynolds number may be somewhat different for a jet subjected to pulsation when compared to an equivalent steady jet. A comparative study of b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A passive twist control is considered as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of a proprotor developed for convertible Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) is implemented to predict the performance of proprotors at low Reynolds numbers. Using this model...
Conference Paper
Application of drag reduction technology based on laminar flow in a commercial environment is still being hindered by unanswered questions regarding its operational reliability. The encounter of ice crystals, as occurring in cirrus cloud, is known to result in performance degradations or even a temporary complete loss of laminar flow. Actually occu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the present study, a passive twist control is considered as a potential way to improve the overall flight efficiency for proprotor of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). This paper will focus on the aerody-namic performance and deformation behaviour of a flexible laminate blade. Incorporated with a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Study of a Flexible UAV Proprotor 48 th APPLIED AERODYNAMICS SYMPOSIUM Saint-Louis, FRANCE, 25-27 MARCH 2013 Fazila MOHD-ZAWAWI (1) , Sebastien PROTHIN (2) , Peng LV (3) , Emmanuel BENARD (4) , Jean-Marc MOSCHETTA (5) , Joseph MORLIER (6) (1)-(5) Université de Toulouse, ISAE, 10 av. Edouard Belin -BP 54032 -31055 Toulouse Cedex 4, France (6) Univer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the evaluation of design techniques, both for the propulsive performance and for the structural behavior of a composite ?exible proprotor. A numerical model was developed using a combination of aerodynamic model based on Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT), and structural model based on anisotropic beam ?nite element,...
Conference Paper
For a correct understanding of the behavior of a propeller at incidence an analytic, numerical and experimental study has been performed. The experimental tests were carried out in the UAV dedicated wind tunnel at ISAE, named SabRe . Hot film anemometer was used to characterize the propeller wake. Also a first approach from an analytic point of vie...