# Emmanouil MarkoulakisHellenic Mediterranean University · Electronics Engineering

Emmanouil Markoulakis

PhD

New Publication "The superluminous vacuum" why the vacuum appears as nothing

## About

162

Publications

109,170

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

264

Citations

Introduction

New Article: "The superluminous vacuum" why the vacuum appears as nothing and being superluminal energy (i.e. Dark Energy). As what are my research interests or fields? As long they are covered by my immediate discipline, whatever spikes my interest. Go to https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0146-2621 for my Biography

Additional affiliations

September 1998 - April 2019

**Technological Educational Institute of Crete**

Position

- Researcher

Description

- Electrical and Computer Engineer/Lab Instructor/Researcher

## Publications

Publications (162)

A novel ferromagnetic unipole array prototype and vortex magnetization configuration that emulates (i.e. quasiparticle, synthetic) macroscopically a stable Dirac magnetic monopole at room temperature. In the last figure of the article at the end, the induced unique signature waveform patterns were recorded for the first time, of magnetic monopoles...

Summary: Real time display with the ferrolens of homogeneous magnetic fields like that of Helmholtz coils.
_________________________________________________________________________________________Highlights:
• For Helmholtz coils at 20mT field strength and above.
• Comparison of non-homogeneous and homogeneous magnetic fields display with the fer...

The Standard Model and Quantum Mechanics studies the quantum world as a collection of probabilistically interacting particles and does not tell us what a single isolated particle like the electron is, thus its intrinsic detailed field mechanics and how these are generating its intrinsic property values like charge, spin, magnetic moment and handedn...

For the first time it is revealed that what we call as "empty" free space or vacuum space is actually an unknown superluminal state of energy condensate where the not known quanta vibrate at faster than light speed c which creates the apparent effect of nothingness in our spacetime.
The author is almost certain by now that the apparent "weird" beh...

Using our recently published electron's charge electromagnetic flux manifold fiber model of the electron, described by analytical method and numerical simulations, we show how the fine structure constant is embedded as a geometrical proportionality constant in three dimensional space of its charge manifold and how this dictates the first QED term o...

We argue here about the possibility of the 2012 detection of the Higgs Boson from ATLAS LHC detector announced at 4 th of July of the same year by its predicted and observed decay to two γ-photons emission, to be actually also experiment proof for a superluminal vibrating massless graviton string-particle as the quanta of gravity and the fabric of...

What if vacuum free space is actually a totally different thing from what it appears to be? What if dark energy and dark matter are not the only hidden things in our universe but a whole different dark spacetime dimension sector that is hidden and made not directly observable to us? In this scenario dark energy and dark matter would reside in the s...

We outline describe a mechanism where in our hypothesized vacuum cold gravitons condensate model as the quanta of the fabric spacetime, interact in a chain reaction cascade domino effect which is described as lossless and force magnifying due to an energy additive process of all the gravitons in the chain and therefore leading to an accelerated exp...

We argue why dark matter cannot be classified as matter and briefly touch upon what it actually could be and the implications.

The 3D shape of the charge of an electron! [1] [2] ----------------------
References:
[1] E. Markoulakis, E. Antonidakis, Fine Structure Constant Model Demonstrates the Electron Elementary Charge of Having an Intrinsic Manifold, J. Appl. Math. Phys. 10 (2022) 2923–2939. doi:10.4236/jamp.2022.1010196. https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2022.1010196 ----...

We investigate and propose herein that the observed tiny background fixed with expansion, zero-point vacuum energy (ZPE) of free space which is by many intervened with the concept of dark energy as a driver for the accelerated expansion in our universe does not need to be explained as a fine tuned 120 orders of magnitude product of quantum fields c...

Why this experiment although impressive and many congratulations cannot be used as an analogue to EM propagation current theoretical understanding.
However, it is also demonstrating that our theory is possible to be incomplete and that longitudinal propagation is actually present but we did not directly discover it yet because its subtle effects,...

Everyone assumes that the dark matter quanta must be massive in order to have the gravitational influence observed but what if the quanta of dark matter is the one and only particle that generates gravity without being massive but massless?...

We argue herein that the Planck-Einstein energy equation is not directly applicable for the special case of spin-2 elementary particles without knowing their effective spin-1 Compton wavelength value. A special case for spin-2 particles adaptation of this equation is proposed.

As a non expert you have certainly heard in the media and also read possible in the literature about the wave-particle duality of elementary quantum particles, superposition of the particle thus being in all the places possible simultaneously etc., like the electron and so on and that it should be taken as a physical fact of quantum nature without...

By using our previous research of a possible intrinsic superluminal property of the vacuum and hidden universal energy reservoir we calculate here the remaining lifetime of our spacetime and universe.

In our previous series of work concerning a superluminous vacuum consisting by a "sea" of superluminal vibrating non tachyonic gravitons condensate we calculated a possible oscillation speed for the Dark Energy component of the proposed graviton particle energy manifold as well as an upper size limit for the radius R g of the graviton manifold (i.e...

In our previous work of a superluminous vacuum consisting by a "sea" of superluminal vibrating non tachyonic gravitons condensate we calculated a possible oscillation speed for the Dark Energy component of the proposed graviton particle energy manifold. We herein continue the quantitative analysis and calculate an upper size limit for the radius Rg...

A single elementary quanta proposed that integrates all three, ZPE of the vacuum, dark energy and quantum gravity. The elementary particle of spacetime.

Solve the double-slit experiment mystery and provide for the first time experiment evidence and physical logical explanation of what is really taking place. It is proposed the whole single particle at a time double-slit experiment using electrons to be performed in a glass chamber filled with a fluorescent gas medium and the individual trajectories...

We have estimated herein a possible value of dark energy interaction speed in our universe that however must be superluminal in order to explain the cosmological constant problem.

Inflation theory could not be the actual solution to the Cosmological Horizon Problem?
The bottom line of what is proposed herein is that all galaxies in our observable universe have more or less the same age and were created more or less simultaneously. The Big Bang did not happen at a single point singularity but by a phase transition of a fini...

We hereby display two independent research-wise blind folded calculations of the fine structure constant using different angles in attacking the problem by two different novel models that however produced the same result which leads to the inescapable conclusion that 'empty' vacuum space must be intrinsically a quantized medium in nature.----------...

We hereby display two independent research-wise blind folded calculations of the fine structure constant using different angles in attacking the problem by two different novel models that however produced the same result which leads to the inescapable conclusion that 'empty' vacuum space must be intrinsically a quantized medium in nature.

We make a hypothesis that gravitons if exist are actually the fundamental quanta consisting vacuum space and that these must behave as quantum black holes and are in a superluminous vibration zitterbewegung state.

We clarify here in this short report that in our previous publications of "A ½ spin fiber model for the electron", physical model of a possible EM flux manifold of the charge of the electron, the S parameter mentioned inside the analysis and simulations of the model is actually the known in the literature dimensionless g-factor of the electron whic...

We discuss the possibility of what we call as vacuum space to be actually a medium and made up of from a possible Planck length sized sub particle and why this must be in a superluminous energy state.

That is an observable momentary lift up of the spinning top from the table surface when twisted by the right hand of a person counter clockwise (CCW) and the same effect is not observed for the clockwise (CW) spinning sense of the spinning top.

In the hunt of dark matter over the last 50 years, everybody seems to assume that the only gravitational interacting with normal matter and light so called dark matter must be massive. However, although gravity is tightly connected and interlinked with the local presence of matter-mass in space this is not always the case and you can have a gravita...

We calculate according to our ½ spin fiber model for the electron and independent research findings of Vernon Cooray et. Al 2022, classically the theoretical value of vacuum space density. The result is ρ(Λ) ≈ 4.196x10^67 J/m^3 thus 46 orders of magnitude lower than the QED estimate of about 10^113 J/m^3. This reduces the vacuum catastrophe discrep...

We explain using our recently published work of a novel physical flux manifold model for the electron what is the weak interaction among these massive particles where normal charge is not necessary for this type of interaction since it happens also on the chargeless neutrinos which however possesses an isospin charge according to the standard model...

A more detailed novel topological description of the Cooper pairs mechanism of BSC theory for superconductivity as electromagnetic flux vortex rings which also resolves an experimental discrepancy observed in BSC theory that predicts that Cooper destruction occurs proportional with temperature increase below the critical temperature Tc and therefor...

We explore the possibility using also our previous published work of a possible electron charge manifold fiber model, that Dirac magnetic monopoles to be responsible for the creation of the electron particles during the early Universe and Big Bang. This would also explain why today there are no Dirac magnetic monopoles found in nature because they...

We here outline describe how classical gravity of matter can be possible translated from general relativity at the quantum level to quantum electrodynamics or even classical electrodynamics by showing that gravity is possible generated by the incoherent random spin magmatic moment vectors fluctuations and their random orientation in space of subato...

Using our recently published electron's charge electromagnetic flux manifold fiber model of the electron we show how the fine structure constant is embedded as a geometrical proportionality constant in three dimensional space of its charge manifold and how this dictates the first QED term one-loop contribution of its anomalous magnetic moment makin...

According to the Standard Model the electron is a dimensionless point charge and massive particle therefore its charge and mass cannot have any shape (i.e. manifold) and consequently any physical size when interacting with its environment and their origin is only intrinsic in nature. Nevertheless, the term intrinsic as in the case describing its ot...

Even today this is by many not fully understood and cause for misinterpretations and misunderstanding thus non-intuitive. However, this is because this postulate comes with a condition that is little know or made clear. As soon this condition described herein is understood everything becomes clear in Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) concerning th...

Using our previous published findings of the possible charge electromagnetic flux manifold of the electron we outline describe here how the electromagnetic and in generalization the electroweak force can be unified with the strong force of the quarks inside the nucleus of the atom showing that both are different formations (i.e. manifolds) of intri...

Although a non-ferromagnetic material D.C. current carrying conductor wire, common used like copper, aluminum or silver which share the same relative magnetic permeability value with air or vacuum μr~1 and the magnetic field generated by the current outside the wire on air can be calculated by the application of the Ampere's circuital law for infin...

A relative easy way to test if dark matter has negative mass is proposed.

Two novel experiments never tried before in the literature as far we know are proposed which however can have a negative or null result. That is why we propose to anyone experienced to try to implement these experiments. Experiment one will measure the signal velocity in a homogeneous magnetic field when this is disturbed by an electromagnetic puls...

From our previous research of a possible charge flux model of the electron, that can however adopted for any charged fermion, we have shown that the charge flux model of each fermion is dictated by the Fine Structure Constant value describing the force it mediates. Therefore, for the electromagnetic force and the electron, the charge flux morpholog...

We all know how successfully the classical Galton board's binomial distribution for large number of balls n, thrown sequentially (i.e. one ball at the time) approximates the normal statistical distribution (Gaussian curve) and therefore also classically emulates the Single-Slit single photon diffraction experiment. With a 50% chance it shows that a...

Does the "electron cloud" effective mathematical description wave probability function of an electron orbital in an atom, has any physical substance? We show how this quantum mechanical description corresponds to the physical actual charge flux manifold of the bound electron inside the atom.

Why does the proton have the same elementary charge value e as the electron?

Is the "beyond the standard model" of physics actually a matter of finding new particles or more likely about of finding a better complementary theory and model?

Supplementary mateterial [28] of the Published Article: A ½ spin fiber model for the electron.

Video Presentation of paper: A ½ spin fiber model for the electron.

Chiral charge flux physical representation of the electron of its QFT left-chiral electron e(L) and right-chiral electron e(R) effective components used in describing the Higgs mechanism of how the physical electron elementary particle gains its mass via the Higgs field.

We explain classically using our previously published spin-½ fiber model for the electron how the electron interacts with the Higgs field and Higgs Bosons and gain its mass.

Appendix of published article :
Markoulakis, E., & Antonidakis, E. (2022). A ½ spin fiber model for the electron. International Journal of Physical Research, 10(1), 1-17. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14419/ijpr.v10i1.31874.
On RG: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358131052_A_12_spin_fiber_model_for_the_electron

We derive a physical interpretation showing clearly and without any doubt remaining that the fine structure constant of the electron is a geometric proportionality constant of its magnetic dipole flux charge radius to its electric charge flux radius in 3D space.

We calculate an effective mechanically induced spin rotation per minute (RPM) value of a sphere ferrite electrical insulator magnet with 5mm diameter, that will emulate classically the intrinsic spin gyromagnetic ratio of an isolated electron and that could be used in a Stern-Gerlach apparatus experiment to investigate if the known quantum behavior...

Macroscopic Stern-Gerlach Emulation Experiment
Design of an experiment that can prove if the electrons are actual classically spinning.
The spin rotation rpm of the 5mm diameter ferrite sphere magnets were calculated to emulate the intrinsic spin gyromagnetic ratio of the electron γ:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyromagnetic_ratio#For_an_isolat...

The Lorentz magnetic force equation which assumes that magnetism is created only by moving charges was derived before it was proven that the electron a so called dimensionless point elementary charge possesses an intrinsic magnetic dipole moment. So if the own elementary charge is magnetic what charge is moving? The charge of the elementary charge?...

We discuss why magnetism phenomenon must be as well as electric phenomenon, both intrinsic phenomenon of the electron known as electromagnetism.

A novel derivation of the magnetic dipole charge qμ₍ₑ₎ of the electron is presented relating the intrinsic spin magnetic dipole moment of the electron particle directly with its electric charge and the speed c of light.

We discuss the possibility that magnetism is not an exclusive emergent (side effect) phenomenon of electron charge translational motion but actually originates from the intrinsic property of spin magnetic dipole moment of the electron similar as electric phenomenon originates from the intrinsic property of the charge of the electron.

We show how the 3D volume of the dressed bare mass (i.e. discrete field the particle carries) of an elementary particle even for zero bare mass dimensionless point particles like the photon, is correlated to the maximum speed it can travel through spacetime.

For the first time a detailed confined energy manifold for each elementary particle of the Standard model (SM) is given and described. @The Author.

Significance and Novelty & Research Highlights of the published Article: "A ½ spin fiber model for the electron" found in RG, linked below.

We discuss the possibility making a novel observation and correlation of recent experimental data of the fine structure constant measured value in topological defects materials like Spin Ice and the phenomenon observed in these systems of Geometrical Frustration, that the fine structure constant is actually a geometrical proportionality constant of...

LIST OF ANIMATION LINKS INSIDE THE ARTICLE:
"A ½ spin fiber model for the electron" found in Research Gate.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358131052_A_12_spin_fiber_model_for_the_electron ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Official Journal home page o...

Besides the curl is there any other difference between an electric flux line and a magnetic flux line?

Showing the irreducible and invariant, prime physical correlation of the Fine Structure Constant α, as a topological proportionality constant of our proposed spin relativistic electromagnetic flux manifold model for the free isolated electron at rest with no translational motion. ©The Author.

Abstract: Showing the deeper physical correlation of the Schwinger equation with the
fine structure constant and the electron’s proposed by us novel electromagnetic flux
manifold model. ©The Author.

We show alternatively to Quantum Field Theory (QFT) that the magnetic moment of the ½ spin elementary particle neutrino is an intrinsic property of this particle and not being due an extrinsic interaction with the photon field as suggested by QFT. ©The Author.

We give a most comprehensive physical explanation of why light slows down inside a transparent medium like glass and why this slow down in speed is only apparent and the speed of photons inside the medium remain fixed at c, the speed of light in a vacuum, travelling through the vacuum space between the atoms of the glass. ©The Author. Keywords: ref...

We all know about the aligned orientation of the magnetic moments of the unbound electrons in permanent magnets. However, no one seems to care about the orientation of the magnetic moments of the free moving electrons in a conductor wire? Is it that not a fundamental question? I don't think so...

The spatial quantization of electron intrinsic spin at its two and only discrete values (-1/2)ħ spin down and (+1/2)ħ spin up at the z-axis under the influence of an external magnetic field B is explained using classical mechanics and the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The key for deciphering this centuries old riddle was the realization of the unified...

A semi-classical explanation of the origin of the Uncertainty Principle demonstrated by the sequential Stern-Gerlach experiment.

We introduce the idea and show that this could be made possible to electrostatically charge electrically conductive materials or even dielectrics due to the photoelectric effect by irradiating them with X-rays and make them interact via static electricity with other dielectric or conductive materials. Specifically, we show how this is possible usin...

It is shown analytically when vacuum space is modeled as a transmission line for the transmission of light at speed c, the characteristic inductance L₀ and characteristic capacitance C₀ values for the transmission line can be directly assigned to the values of vacuum space permeability μ₀ and permittivity ε₀ respectively. © The Author

Exploring the intrinsic mechanics of the electron. Document on display is a Preprint (Accepted version). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Please cite the Published Version of Record as: Markoulakis, E., & Antonidakis, E. (2022). A ½ spin fiber model for the electron. Internat...

This research work employs deep-learning neural-networks in aiming to unveil the possible existence of a relation between mean rates of seismic activity among consecutive large seismic events and their interim time-intervals. The research is conducted in possibly discrete seismic areas of the steady flow of input strain energy, identified in the so...

We demonstrate how and why an electron's 4π full rotation returning to its initial state quantum characteristic measured in the lab frame is a special relativity effect. Keywords: Intrinsic quantum mechanics, electron spin, fermions, special relativity. ©The Authors 2021.

There must be an equilibrium between the magnetic attraction and the charge repulsion?

Trying to give an unambiguous explanation and clarification of these concepts in particle physics which have proven to cause a lot of confusion.

Our observations of magneton with Ferrolens shows evidence pointing to such magneton entity, and more evidently in recent results with the synthetic vacuum unipole experiments. Physics formalism ansatz novel model analyses demonstrate how vacuum quanta may have sufficient energy for vacuum genesis, by constructing eigen spinors of zero_point microb...

An experiment was carried out to demonstrate the capabilities of the ferrolens as a quantum magnetic flux viewer real-time physical device and scientific tool and also to study magnetic fields of condensed matter ferromagnets compared with magnetic fields inside electrical air solenoids. Visual results comply with the known predictions of classical...

An experiment of how to test if kinematic SR time dilation has an actual effect on matter. ©The Author 2021.

We discuss the option that the interactions mechanics among particles are probabilistic but the particles itself, intrinsic mechanics are deterministic in nature. ©The Author, 2021.

Outline description of why this new field of research is potentially important for the future of beyond the the SM high energy physics research.

A possible answer could be, that if there is such a thing like a vacuum quanta consisting all space as a medium then if this were to be left-handed it would prefer and sustain the creation of stable left-handed matter (showing preference) thus normal matter and would suppress or cancel out the creation of right handed-matter thus mainly antimatter.

Without understanding the topology of elementary particles we are heading currently into a big wall and abrupt stop in discovering new physics beyond the Standard Model. The normal matter SM starts to get uncontrolled inflated again. That is a bad omen and shows that we go to the wrong direction in my opinion.

A possible loophole in EPR experiment.

Anomalous magentic dipole moment of electron due polarized quantum vacuum and dark matter virtual particles.
©copyright Emm Markoulakis HMU 2021. No permission for any use. Active publication material.

My first postdoc planned publication.
Scheduled for the end of 2022 and the first quarter of 2023.
Invited co-authors: Dr. Rajan Iyer

The discrepancy of the 120 orders of magnitude between the predicted value of the cosmological constant (dark energy) and the actual very small measured value also known as "Vacuum Catastrophe", is because the part of the energy that is apparently missing, is in a superluminal phase state within our Universe. ©copyright Emmanouil Markoulakis HMU 20...

Our present theoretical formalism inferred that in our proposed model of “magnetic quagmire” having dipole mixing with monopoles, perhaps transitorily {possibly forming general condensate} leads space-time varying magneto fields; however, electric fields may be arising only in time. This will point to the possibility that magnetic action progenitor...

©copyright Emmanouil Markoulakis Hellenic Mediterranean University 2020. Experiment related to the quantum magnetic optic flux viewer ferrolens (Ferrocell) showing that it does NOT display the classical, on air, N-S vector magnetic field of a ferromagnet but instead the net Quantum Magnet Field (QMF) of inside the ferromagnet’s bulk material. Speci...

This two following video presentations explain for good, based on my research and publications what we see on the ferrolens of the net Quantum Magnet field inside a ferromagnet which differs in curl and vorticity from its outside classical vector field of a permanent magnet and how this essentially 2D projection (although there is also some hologra...

SUSY will not be discovered because it is not in the form of new "shadow" particles as theorized but instead embedded in the inner energy flow structure of fundamental particles.

QE non-locality postulated to be a EM wave phase velocity transmitted disturbance. Copyright©Emmanouil Markoulakis Hellenic Mediterranean University 2020

©copyright Emmanouil Markoulakis Hellenic Mediterranean University 2020. Experiment related to the quantum magnetic optic flux viewer ferrolens (Ferrocell) showing that it does NOT display the classical, on air, N-S vector magnetic field of a ferromagnet but instead the net Quantum Magnet Field (QMF) of inside the ferromagnet’s bulk material. Speci...

Measurements Data of the Experiments with BEL Professional 1mg Electronic Scale.
copyright©Emmanouil Markoulakis HMU 2020
No permission for any use. Active Publication Material.

Copyright©Emmanouil Markoulakis Hellenic Mediterranean University 2020. This video presentation was made to clarify and address in my opinion some major misconceptions (e.g. magnetic isopotential lines!!?) about the operation of the ferrolens and what it displays of the field of permanent magnets which can be found in various media over the public...

-------UPDATE: Also I have made a video presentation that will farther clarify things: https://tinyurl.com/v4ppmor . A clickable link is in the comments section------------- Review Article: This article was made as a review and my response to an anonymous video currently circulating on the public domain internet as a research topic concerning the o...

Simulink simulation file of the published article:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338412682_A_Simulated_Frequency_Based_Electric_Single_Phase_Power_Consumption_Digital_Metering_Method