Emma Wiik

Emma Wiik
Bangor University

PhD

About

36
Publications
6,676
Reads
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336
Citations
Citations since 2016
28 Research Items
318 Citations
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Introduction
I am a numerical ecologist with experience in conservation, freshwater ecology, and science-to-policy communication. My research has encompassed payments for ecosystem services, eutrophic hardwater CO2 fluxes, and ecological upheaval in hardwater "marl" lakes. I am interested in applied research into human-ecosystem relationships and impact, and always look to help nature as much as I can.
Additional affiliations
April 2017 - present
Bangor University
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Statistical analysis of social and environmental outcomes of Payment for Ecosystem Services schemes in Bolivia & Madagascar (livelihood, behaviours, deforestation, water protection)
January 2017 - April 2017
University of Southampton
Position
  • Science author
Description
  • Lead author summarising UK/NERC Arctic Research Programme (2010-2016) results and their implications on UK policy to the Government.
March 2015 - November 2016
University of Regina
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Statistical analysis of (palaeo)limnological temporal series; undergraduate supervision; eutrophication impacts on hardwater lake ecology; historical changes in N:P loading and microbial nitrogen cycling; seasonality, nutrients, and d13C in streams.
Education
September 2005 - June 2008
University of Dundee
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
We explore the oft-repeated claim that river water quality in Great Britain is “better now than at any time since the Industrial Revolution”. We review available data and ancillary evidence for seven different categories of water pollutants: (i) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) sewage-associated organic pollutan...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation science needs more high-quality impact evaluations, especially ones that explore mechanisms of success or failure. Randomized control trials (RCTs) provide particularly robust evidence of the effectiveness of interventions (although they have been criticized as reductionist and unable to provide insights into mechanisms), but there hav...
Article
Neoclassical economic interpretations of Payment for Environmental Services (PES), which assume that participants weigh up costs and benefits, are making room for more complex analyses. However, there is still little evidence of how PES programmes interact with existing motivations to conserve, the extent to which funded conservation is additional,...
Article
Full-text available
Despite calls for greater use of randomized control trials (RCTs) to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions; such experimental evaluations remain extremely rare. Payments for environmental services (PES) are widely used to slow tropical deforestation but there is widespread recognition of the need for better evidence of effectiveness. A...
Article
Full-text available
Despite calls for greater use of randomized control trials (RCTs) to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions; such experimental evaluations remain extremely rare. Payments for environmental services (PES) are widely used to slow tropical deforestation but there is widespread recognition of the need for better evidence of effectiveness. A...
Article
Full-text available
• Limnological theory posits that phosphorus (P) limits primary production in freshwater lakes, in part because fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) can compensate for limitations in nitrogen (N) supply to phytoplankton. However, quantitative estimates of the degree to which N2 fixation satisfies planktonic N demand are rare. • Here we used biweek...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic macrophytes play a key role in providing habitat, refuge and food for a range of biota in shallow lakes. However, many shallow lakes have experienced declines in macrophyte vegetation in recent decades, principally due to eutrophication. As changes in macrophyte composition and abundance can affect overall ecological structure and function...
Article
Spatiotemporal variation in climate and weather, allochthonous carbon loads, and autochthonous factors such as lake metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration) interacts to regulate atmospheric CO2 exchange of lakes. Understanding this interplay in diverse basin types at different timescales is required to adequately place lakes into the global car...
Article
Full-text available
“Arctic greening” will alter vegetation quantity and quality in northern watersheds, with possible consequences for lake metabolic balance. We used paleolimnology from six Arctic lakes in Greenland, Norway, and Alaska to develop a conceptual model describing how climate‐driven shifts in terrestrial vegetation (spanning herb to boreal forest) influe...
Article
Neoclassical economic interpretations of Payment for Environmental Services (PES), which assume that participants weigh up costs and benefits, are making room for more complex analyses. However, there is still little evidence of how PES programmes interact with existing motivations to conserve, the extent to which funded conservation is additional,...
Article
Full-text available
Hardwater lakes are common in human-dominated regions of the world and often experience pollution due to agricultural and urban effluent inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N). Although these lakes are landscape hotspots for CO2 exchange and food web carbon (C) cycling, the effect of N enrichment on hardwater lake food web functioning and C c...
Data
Statistical results for temporal patterns in mesocosm plankton dynamics and C cycling. Repeated -measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) of the effects of urea amendments (0, 1, 3, 8, or 18 mg N L-1 week-1) on variables related to biological production. Tukey’s HSD post hoc analyses indicate differences among treatments, and given probability leve...
Data
Hypothetical mechanism by which addition of urea stimulates heterotrophic microbial production. (DOCX)
Data
Map of Wascana Lake and experiment location. a) continental location, b) gross drainage basin (1400 km2) and lake location, and c) depth contour map with the location of the mesocosm experiment (hatched area) and two long term monitoring sites (x). (TIF)
Data
Temporal patterns in mesocosm plankton dynamics. Effects of urea on (a) phytoplankton abundance (Chl a), (b) gross primary production (GPP), (c) bacterial density, (d) bacterial C consumption (BCC; production + respiration), (e) GPP:BCC, and (f) dissolved oxygen concentration (DO). Experimental enclosures received urea amendments of 0 (black circle...
Data
Temporal patterns in mesocosm limnological conditions. Limnological conditions during July, August, and September mesocosm experiments including concentrations of (a) total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), (b) total dissolved (TDP), (c) soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), (d) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), (e) water transparency as Secchi disk depth, and...
Data
Temporal patterns in mesocosm inorganic carbon dynamics. Effects of urea on (a) pH, (b) dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (DIC), (c) partial pressure of CO2 in the water column (pCO2; dashed line indicates equilibrium with the atmosphere), and (d) net air-water CO2 flux (positive values above dashed line represent influx). Experimental enclo...
Data
Statistical results for temporal patterns in mesocosm limnological conditions. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) of the effects of urea amendment (0, 1, 3, 8, or 18 mg N L-1 week-1) on limnological conditions in mesocosms. Tukey’s HSD post hoc analyses indicate differences among treatments, and given probability levels (P) are prese...
Data
Data underlying experimental analyses. (XLSX)
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive summary ================ • The Arctic environment is facing rapid changes as temperatures there are rising twice as fast as the global average. Trees and shrubs are spreading northward, the ice-free season is lengthening, and sea ice is rapidly diminishing in extent. These changes have strong effects on biodiversity and local communities,...
Article
Full-text available
“Arctic greening” will alter vegetation quantity and quality in northern watersheds, with possible consequences for lake metabolic balance. We used paleolimnology from six Arctic lakes in Greenland, Norway, and Alaska to develop a conceptual model describing how climate‐driven shifts in terrestrial vegetation (spanning herb to boreal forest) influe...
Conference Paper
Hardwater lakes in the North American Prairies exhibit high pH (>8) which enhances influx of CO2. At the scale of years-to-decades, variation in pH is the principle control of atmospheric CO2 exchange in systems rich in dissolved inorganic carbon. However, pH and pCO2 can also vary substantially over 24 h, suggesting important metabolic control of...
Conference Paper
Eutrophication and its concomitant effects have been identified as one of the greatest threats to global freshwater environments. To monitor the impact of eutrophication, it is important to have a range of tools to measure its impact on lake ecosystem health and set appropriate restoration targets. Instrumental monitoring approaches, although accur...
Article
Full-text available
Lakes are active processors and collectors of carbon (C) and thus recognized as quantitatively important within the terrestrial C cycle. Better integration of palaeolimnology (lake sediment core analyses) with limnological C budgeting approaches has the potential to enhance understanding of lacustrine C processing and sequestration. Palaeolimnology...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication is the most pressing threat to highly calcareous (marl) lakes in Europe. Despite their unique chemistry and biology, comprehensive studies into their unimpacted conditions and eutrophication responses are underrepresented in conservation literature. A multi-indicator palaeolimnological study spanning ca. 1260–2009 was undertaken at C...
Article
Full-text available
Highly calcareous (marl) lakes are infrequent but important freshwater ecosystems, protected under the EU Habitats and Species Directive. Chara lakes have been considered resistant to eutrophication owing to the self-stabilising properties of charophyte meadows. However, the opposite is suggested by the large-scale biodiversity declines in marl lak...
Article
Full-text available
Methods for ecological status assessment of high-alkalinity lakes under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) differ between continental Europe and the UK. In the UK, marl lakes, i.e. carbonate-precipitating lakes, are placed in a separate category in which metrics account for the naturally low phosphorus content and sensitive macrophyte communities...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication remains one of the foremost environmental issues threatening the quality of surface waters yet comparatively little is known of the timing, magnitude and characteristics of nutrient-related changes in highly calcareous (marl) lakes. This review focuses on marl lake ecology and chemistry, their known responses to eutrophication, and a...
Article
Full-text available
This is the final report to Natural England on the project “Palaeolimnological evidence for eutrophication in Malham Tarn (SSSI), North Yorkshire”. The aim is to seek palaeolimnological evidence for eutrophication in Malham Tarn both to complement and cross-validate contemporary and other historical evidence for such at the site, as well as to esta...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Looking at CO2 flux estimates between alkaline lakes and atmosphere while taking CED into consideration. Wondering about the theoretical/measured relationships between CO2 diffusion, wind and CED, and wondering whether CED can be so intense that diffusion actually exceeds diffusion at higher wind speeds in the absence of CED. Haven't yet found a reference that would suggest this.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Everything in one place, for starters. Or, as close as possible to one place. For the benefit of Malham Tarn's health. Photos and historical information, and resources not authored by this team, are being collated at https://figshare.com/projects/Malham_Tarn/79841
Project
The Sêr Cymru National Research Network for Low Carbon, Energy and Environment (NRN-LCEE) is a £7M research initiative to support excellent research into the interactions between land, water, the provision of food and energy production. The Network is funded by the Welsh Government and Higher Education Funding Council for Wales through the Sêr Cymru Programme. The NRN-LCEE funds Fellowships and PhD studentships embedded into 8 interdisciplinary Research Clusters. It also funds Fellowships for researchers returning to academia after a career break. These projects address diverse research challenges from marine renewables through to diary production - all are focused on the sustainable management of natural resources. In addition, the NRN-LCEE oversees a research development fund and organises public lectures, workshops and other events aimed at bringing NRN-LCEE expertise to Wales. More information about the NRN-LCEE can be found at www.nrn-lcee.ac.uk
Project
Determine how influx of nitrogen regulates the structure and function of phosphorus-rich freshwater and saline lakes. Our research combined 25 years of monitoring, bioassays, mesocosm experiments, whole-lake manipulations, models and paleolimnology to quantify the unique, interactive and hierarchical effects of nitrogen on eutrophic lakes in western Canada and around the world.