Emma Sprooten

Emma Sprooten
Radboud University | RU · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour

Ph.D.

About

146
Publications
24,931
Reads
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6,450
Citations
Introduction
Emma Sprooten currently works at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University. Emma does research in Neuropsychology, Clinical Psychology and Biological Psychology.
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - January 2015
Hartford Hospital
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2012 - January 2015
Yale University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2008 - June 2012
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Full-text available
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case-control differences in the patterns of task-related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder-specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis...
Article
Identifying genes that contribute to white matter microstructure should provide insights into the neurobiological processes that regulate white matter development, plasticity and pathology. We detected five significant SNPs using genome-wide association analysis on a global measure of fractional anisotropy in 776 individuals from large extended ped...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Several lines of evidence indicate that white matter integrity is compromised in bipolar disorder, but the nature, extent, and biological causes remain elusive. To determine the extent to which white matter deficits in bipolar disorder are familial, the authors investigated white matter integrity in a large sample of bipolar patients, u...
Article
Bipolar disorder is a familial psychiatric disorder associated with reduced white matter integrity, but it is not clear whether such abnormalities are present in young unaffected relatives and, if so, whether they have behavioral correlates. We investigated with whole brain diffusion tensor imaging whether increased genetic risk for bipolar disorde...
Article
The insula and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) share functional , histological, transcriptional, and developmental characteristics , and they serve higher cognitive functions of theoretical relevance to schizophrenia and related disorders. Meta-analyses and multivariate analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans indicate that gra...
Preprint
Introduction: Human brain structure and function, as measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is heritable. The genetic associations are highly polygenic and pleiotropic, complicating translation of genetic association studies to concrete biological processes. We recently proposed genomic independent component analysis (ICA) to reduce a lar...
Preprint
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate neuropsychiatric disorders to be highly polygenic. Polygenicity refers to the additive influence of multiple genes on variation in a disorder. GWAS have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, each explaining a very small par...
Preprint
The dense co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders questions the categorical classification tradition and motivates efforts to establish dimensional constructs with neurobiological foundations that transcend diagnostic boundaries. In this study, we examined the genetic liability for eight major psychiatric disorder phenotypes under both a disorder-sp...
Article
Full-text available
Background Variation in the longitudinal course of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coincides with neurodevelopmental maturation of brain structure and function. Prior work has attempted to determine how alterations in white matter (WM) relate to changes in symptom severity, but much of that work has been done in smaller cr...
Preprint
Background The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis coordinates brain development and post-developmental function. Thyroid hormone variations, even within the normal range, have been associated with the risk of developing common psychiatric disorders, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Materials and methods To get new insi...
Article
Full-text available
Human brain structure changes throughout the lifespan. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we identified common genetic variants that affect rates of brain growth or atrophy in what is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association...
Article
Full-text available
While pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line intervention for ADHD, its mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated. We here seek to identify the white matter tracts that mediate MPH's effect on beta oscillations. We implemented a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, where boys diagnosed with ADHD under...
Article
Full-text available
The amplitude of activation in brain resting state networks (RSNs), measured with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, is heritable and genetically correlated across RSNs, indicating pleiotropy. Recent univariate genome-wide association studies (GWASs) explored the genetic underpinnings of individual variation in RSN activity. Yet u...
Article
A landmark study by Filippini et al., where authors reported an increased default mode network (DMN) co‐activation during rest in young APOE ε4‐carriers, failed to replicate [1,2]. The rise of genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has shown there is a significant polygenic contribution of common genetic variants to AD,...
Preprint
Full-text available
General factors capturing the shared genetics in psychiatric (genomic p-factor) and cognitive traits (genomic g-factor), and more recently in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain networks, have contributed to our increased understanding of the etiologies in their respective domains. Yet it remains unclear whether genera...
Preprint
Background: Variation in the longitudinal course of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coincides with neurodevelopmental maturation of brain structure and function. Prior work has attempted to determine how alterations in white matter (WM) relate to changes in symptom severity, but much of that work has been done in smaller c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with white matter (WM) microstructure. Our objective was to investigate how WM microstructure is longitudinally related to symptom remission in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Methods: We obtained diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from 99 participants at two ti...
Conference Paper
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that could persist into adulthood with known abnormalities in brain structure. Genetics also play an important role in the etiology of the disorder and could affect the disorder trajectory. In this study, we investigated the prediction power of brain image and genomic...
Article
Structural and functional alterations of the brain in persons genetically at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are crucial in unravelling AD development. Filippini et al. found that the default mode network (DMN) is already affected in young APOE ε4-carriers, with increased co-activation of the DMN during rest and increased hippocampal task activat...
Article
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important factor for prenatal neurodevelopment whereby its neurotrophic actions can be regulated through maternal-fetal interactions. We explored if maternal 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with clinical and cognitive measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in ty...
Article
Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered functioning in multiple cognitive domains and neural networks. This paper offers an overarching biological perspective across these. We applied a novel strategy that extracts functional connectivity modulations in the brain across one ( P single ), two ( P mix ) or three ( P...
Article
A significant proportion of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show persistence into adulthood. The genetic and neural correlates of ADHD in adolescents versus adults remain poorly characterized. We investigated ADHD polygenic risk score (PRS) in relation to previously identified gray matter (GM) patterns, neurocogniti...
Preprint
Full-text available
The amplitude of activation in brain resting state networks (RSNs), measured with resting-state functional MRI, is heritable and genetically correlated across RSNs, indicating pleiotropy. Recent univariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explored the genetic underpinnings of RSNs, but do not describe their pleiotropic nature. In this study,...
Article
Full-text available
Different psychiatric disorders and symptoms are highly correlated in the general population. A general psychopathology factor (or “P-factor”) has been proposed to efficiently describe this covariance of psychopathology. Recently, genetic and neuroimaging studies also derived general dimensions that reflect densely correlated genomic and neural eff...
Article
Full-text available
Reversal learning deficits following reward and punishment processing are observed across disruptive behaviors (DB) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and have been associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, it remains unknown to what extent these altered reinforcement sensitivities are linked to the co-occurrence o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction. The last decade has seen a surge in well powered genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex behavioural traits, disorders, and more recently, of brain structural and functional neuroimaging features. However, the extreme polygenicity of these complex traits makes it difficult to translate the GWAS signal into mechanistic biolo...
Article
Aging is associated with the accumulation of somatic mutations in post‐mitotic neurons. While this idea is not new, recent advances in single‐cell sequencing techniques have now made it possible to not only unequivocally prove that these mutations occur but also to estimate their occurrence rates. Here, we aimed to investigate whether somatic mutat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Filippini et al. reported an increased default mode network (DMN) co‐activation during rest in young APOE ε4‐carriers [1]. This work has been of substantial importance, often used to illustrate the trajectory of DMN alterations in APOE ε4‐carriers from young adults and normal aging to mild cognitive impairment and AD. However, this study only asses...
Article
Full-text available
Aging, the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), may lead to the accumulation of somatic mutations in neurons. We investigated whether somatic mutations, specifically in longer genes, are implicated in AD etiology. First, we modeled the theoretical likelihood of genes being affected by aging‐induced somatic mutations, dependent on thei...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with white matter (WM) microstructure. Our objective was to investigate how WM microstructure is longitudinally related to symptom remission in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Method We obtained diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from 99 participants at two time poi...
Preprint
Background While pharmacological treatment with Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line intervention for ADHD, its mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated. In a previous MEG study, we demonstrated that MPH in ADHD normalizes beta depression in preparation to motor responses (1). We here seek to identify the white matter tracts that mediate MPH...
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI). ADHD has been related to differences in white matter (WM) microstructure. However, much remains unclear regarding the nature of these WM differences, and which cl...
Article
Full-text available
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with altered brain anatomy in neuroimaging studies. However, small and heterogeneous study samples, and the use of region-of-interest and tissue-specific analyses have limited the consistency and replicability of these effects. We used a data-driven multivariate approach to investi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and associated with altered brain structural and functional patterns. Data fusion analyses on brain imaging and genetics, one of which is parallel independent component analysis (pICA), enable the link of genomic factors to brain patterns. Due to the small to modest effect sizes of common genetic vari...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to investigate, partly because diagnosis lags behind the insidious pathological processes. Therefore, identifying AD neuroimaging markers and their genetic modifiers may help study early mechanisms of neurodegeneration. We aimed to identify brain regions of the highest vulnerabi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human brain structure changes throughout our lives. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental, and neurodegenerative diseases. While heritable, specific loci in the genome that influence these rates are largely unknown. Here, we sought to find common genetic variants that affect rates of b...
Article
Full-text available
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adult...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating the contribution of biology to human cognition has assumed a bottom-up causal cascade where genes influence brain systems that activate, communicate, and ultimately drive behavior. Yet few studies have directly tested whether cognitive traits with overlapping genetic underpinnings also rely on overlapping brain systems. Here, we repor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Neuroimaging studies have associated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with altered brain anatomy. However, small and heterogeneous study samples, and the use of region-of-interest and tissue-specific analyses have limited the consistency and replicability of these effects. The present study uses a fully data-driven multivar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI). ADHD has been related to differences in white matter (WM) microstructure. However, much remains unclear regarding the nature of these WM differences, and which cl...
Article
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction which has also been reported in offspring of individuals with BD (BDoff). However, it remains unclear whether cognitive underperformance in BDoff is associated with the presence of history of subclinical syndromes associated with risk for BD. To address this knowledge gap we assessed ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Investigating the contribution of biology to human cognition has assumed a bottom-up causal cascade where genes influence brain systems that activate, communicate, and ultimately drive behavior. Yet few studies have directly tested whether cognitive traits with overlapping genetic underpinnings also rely on overlapping brain systems. Here, we repor...
Preprint
Pharmacological progress, basic science and medical practice can benefit from objective biomarkers that assist in early diagnosis and prognostic stratification of diseases. In the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the clinical presentation of early stage dementia may not fulfill any diagnostic criteria for years, and quantifying structural brain c...
Article
Full-text available
In MRI scans of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), reductions in brain volume are often apparent. However, it is unknown whether such brain abnormalities are influenced by genetic determinants that partially overlap with those underlying AN. Here, we used a battery of methods (LD score regression, genetic risk scores, sign test, SNP effect concor...
Article
White matter microstructure is affected by immune system activity via the actions of circulating pro‐inflammatory cytokines. Although white matter microstructure and inflammatory measures are significantly heritable, it is unclear if overlapping genetic factors influence these traits in humans. We conducted genetic correlation analyses of these tra...
Article
Full-text available
It remains unknown whether migraine headache has a progressive component in its pathophysiology. Quantitative MRI may provide valuable insight into abnormal changes in the migraine interictum and assist in identifying disrupted brain networks. We carried out a data-driven study of structural integrity and functional connectivity of the resting brai...
Article
Background Abnormal myelination has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism for schizophrenia. Ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers unprecedented spatial resolution and is ideally suited for the in vivo examination of schizophrenia-associated abnormalities in intracortical myelin. Methods Twenty-two healthy individuals and 17...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulth...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intracortical myelin is a key determinant of neuronal synchrony and plasticity that underpin optimal brain function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates the examination of intracortical myelin but presents with methodological challenges. Here we describe a whole-brain approach for the in vivo investigation of intracortical mye...
Code
Code associated with mauscript: "Depth-dependent intracortical myelin organization in the living human brain determined by in vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging" Emma Sprooten, Rafael O’Halloran, Juliane Dinse, Won Hee Lee, Dominik Andeas Moser, Gaelle Eve Doucett, Morgan Goodman, Hannah Krinsky, Alejandro Paulino, Alexander Rasgon,...
Article
Full-text available
The regional distribution of white matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia remains poorly understood, and reported disease effects on the brain vary widely between studies. In an effort to identify commonalities across studies, we perform what we believe is the first ever large-scale coordinated study of WM microstructural differences in schizop...
Article
Full-text available
Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brai...
Article
Background: Mood disorders are familial psychiatric diseases, in which patients show reduced white matter (WM) integrity. We sought to determine whether WM integrity was affected in young offspring at high-familial risk of mood disorder before they go on to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: The Bipolar Family study is a prospecti...
Article
The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider th...