Emma Sheehan

Emma Sheehan
University of Plymouth | UoP · Marine Institute

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65
Publications
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Globally, nations are designating marine protected areas to recover and protect habitats and species. With targets to protect 30% of marine areas by 2030, the effectiveness of MPAs to protect designated space is important. In Lyme Bay (south‐west UK), two co‐located MPAs have each adopted different management styles to exclude mobile demersal fishi...
Article
Fisheries are in decline worldwide, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are being advocated as tools that can not only protect and restore biodiversity but also improve fisheries sustainability and protect fisher livelihoods. To understand the role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in underpinning commercial fisheries, this study demonstrates the econ...
Article
Full-text available
Kelp forests and seagrasses are important carbon sinks that are declining globally. Rewilding the sea, through restoring these crucial habitats, their related biodiversity and ecosystem contributions, is a movement and concept, gathering pace in the United Kingdom and globally. Yet understanding of the economic costs and benefits for setting areas...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management has highlighted the importance of studying ecosystem functions and services, and the biological traits that drive them. Yet, ecosystem services and the associated benefits that they provide are rarely the motive for creating marine protected area (MPA). Therefore, many MPA monitoring projects do not ex...
Article
The European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) support high value commercial and recreational fisheries, however the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) of the northern Atlantic stock (ICES divisions 4.b–c, 7.a, and 7.d–h) has rapidly declined to an unsustainable level. The decline in SSB has been attributed to high fishing pressure combined with poor recruitme...
Article
Full-text available
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creat ive Commo ns Attri bution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract 1. Designated using a Statutory Instrument in 2008, Lyme Bay marine-protected area (MPA) is the UK's first and largest example of an amb...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are employed as tools to manage human impacts, especially fishing pressure. By excluding the most destructive activities MPAs can rewild degraded areas of seabed habitat. The potential for MPAs to increase ecosystem resilience from storms is, however, not understood, nor how such events impact seabed habitats. Extreme...
Technical Report
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The aim of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) is to increase scientific exchange and efficiency of benthal renewable energy related research. In 2019–2021, the group discussed guidelines for data collection and methodologies and developed an integrated example dataset on benthos data of marine renewable...
Technical Report
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The ICES/IUCN-CEM FEG Workshop on Testing OECM Practices and Strategies (WKTOPS) investigated how to evaluate areas with spatial fisheries measures in place as other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) in line with Convention on Biological Diversity definitions, specifically the extent to which area-based fisheries management measure...
Article
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With a growing human population and the need to protect our oceans from overfishing, there is a requirement for society to source alternative means of sustainable protein. Mussel aquaculture has rapidly expanded in many countries serving as an important supply of protein, but its development has been limited due to competition for coastal space and...
Article
This study is an insight into the spatial use and economic performance of a fishery and linked fisher wellbeing across economic, social and health domains over a 12-year timescale pre- and post-Marine Protected Area (MPA) designation. Since the MPA designation, there has been an increase in vessels using static gear inside and outside the MPA, with...
Article
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The ecosystem effects of all commercial fishing methods need to be fully understood in order to manage our marine environments more effectively. The impacts associated with the most damaging mobile fishing methods are well documented leading to such methods being removed from some partially protected areas. In contrast, the impacts on the ecosystem...
Article
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The sprawl of marine construction is one of the most extreme human modifications to global seascapes. Nevertheless, its global extent remains largely unquantified compared to that on land. We synthesized disparate information from a diversity of sources to provide a global assessment of the extent of existing and projected marine construction and i...
Article
Multi-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly designated towards achieving global conservation targets. To develop effective management, the impact of permitted activities must be understood. Potting for shellfish occurs on temperate rocky reefs globally with impact not fully quantified. This UK-based study used underwater video to quant...
Technical Report
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Project ROPE (Response of predators to Protection and Enhancement), funded by the European Maritime & Fisheries Fund (EMFF) and implemented by University of Plymouth aims to improve understanding of the movements of commercially and recreationally important fish and crustaceans in the Lyme Bay region of South Devon and Dorset. Project ROPE applies...
Article
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Given the recent trend towards establishing very large marine protected areas (MPAs) and the high potential of these to contribute to global conservation targets, we review outcomes of the last decade of marine conservation research in the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), one of the largest MPAs in the world. The BIOT MPA consists of the atol...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the opportunities and challenges of collaborative and participatory working across a range of stakeholders groups – scientists, fishers, and the local community – to address issues of social, environmental and economic sustainability within coastal fishing communities. Using key concepts in ‘social learning for sustainability...
Article
Full-text available
• Most research on anadromous fishes has been invested in their freshwater life‐phases, resulting in a relatively sparse understanding of their spatial ecology during marine life‐phases. However, understanding the marine dispersal of anadromous fishes is essential to identify threats and to implement conservation measures that fully encompass their...
Article
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Healthy marine ecosystems provide a wide range of resources and services that support life on Earth and contribute to human wellbeing. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are accepted as an important tool for the restoration and maintenance of marine ecosystem structure, function, health and ecosystem integrity through the conservation of significant spe...
Article
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Engineered structures in the open ocean are becoming more frequent with the expansion of the marine renewable energy industry and offshore marine aquaculture. Floating engineered structures function as artificial patch reefs providing novel and relatively stable habitat structure not otherwise available in the pelagic water column. The enhanced phy...
Article
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Moorings can have a detrimental impact on seagrass, fragmenting the meadows, resulting in the habitat degradation. To reduce contact of the moorings with the seabed we attached small floats along the chain of a traditional swing mooring and monitored the ecological impacts of this modified mooring, with reference to a standard swing mooring, in a s...
Article
The spatial extent of animal movement is a key consideration when designing conservation measures, such as marine protected areas. Methods to assess territory size in the marine environment, however, are labour intensive and/or expensive. Here, we explore a novel method to investigate the spatial ecology of territorial fishes by examining their rea...
Preprint
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A paper investigating the value of the UK approach to protecting features in Marine Protected Areas, rather than moving to protecting the whole of sites, investigating management, legal opportunities and current governance mechanisms to put this in place.
Article
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Within atolls, deep water channels exert significant control over local hydrodynamic conditions; which are important drivers of planktonic distributions. To examine planktonic responses to oceanography, this study tested the effect of proximity and exposure to deep oceanic flushing through these channels on water properties and planktonic assemblag...
Article
In Focus: Hamel, J.‐F., Sun, J., Gianasi, B. L., et al. (2019). Active buoyancy adjustment increases dispersal potential in benthic marine animals. Journal of Animal Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12943 Effective ecosystem‐based fisheries and conservation management relies on the accuracy of population structure and connectivity models....
Article
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Emma V. Sheehan, Danielle Bridger, Llucia Mascorda Cabre, Amy Cartwright, David Cox, Sian Rees, Luke Holmes and Simon Pittman of the University of Plymouth explain the ecological and social benefits of offshore bivalve farming. https://fstjournal.org/features/33-2/offshore-bivalve-farming
Article
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Detecting the effects of introduced artificial structures on the marine environment relies upon research and monitoring programs that can provide baseline data and the necessary statistical power to detect biological and/or ecological change over relevant spatial and temporal scales. Here we report on, and assess the use of, Baited Remote Underwate...
Article
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Offshore marine renewable energy installations (MREI) introduce structure into the marine environment and can locally exclude destructive, bottom trawl fishing. These effects have the potential to aid restoration of degraded seabed habitats but may be constrained by timescales of ecological succession following MREI construction, and the removal of...
Article
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Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are rapidly expanding in size and number as society strives to maintain electricity generation whilst simultaneously reducing climate-change linked CO2 emissions. MREDs are part of an ongoing large-scale modification of coastal waters that also includes activities such as commercial fishing, shipping, ag...
Article
Northeast coral gardens provide vital breeding and feeding habitats for fishes of conservation and commercial importance. Such habitats are increasingly at risk of destruction as a result of over fishing, ocean warming, acidification and marine litter. A key cause for concern regarding the vulnerability of coral gardens to damage from any source is...
Article
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Extensive development and construction in marine and coastal systems is driving a phenomenon known as “ocean sprawl”. Ocean sprawl removes or transforms marine habitats through the addition of artificial structures and some of the most significant impacts are occurring in sedimentary environments. Marine sediments have substantial social, ecologica...
Article
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Human activities have fundamentally altered the marine environment, creating a need for effective management in one of Earth's most challenging habitats. Remote camera imagery has emerged as an essential tool for monitoring at all scales, from individuals to populations and communities up to entire marine ecosystems. Here we review the use of remot...
Article
Under Article 6(2) of the European Union Habitats Directive competent authorities are required to take appropriate steps to avoid deterioration and significant disturbance to the qualifying interests of European sites such as SACs. Conservation of seagrass at these sites therefore requires a baseline of the status of the feature, a knowledge of nat...
Article
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Managing ecological systems, which operate over large spatial scales is inherently difficult and often requires sourcing data from different countries and organizations. The assumption might be made that data collected using similar methodologies are comparable but this is rarely tested. Here, benthic video data recorded using different towed under...
Article
The common starfish Asterias rubens has a long-lived pelagic larva that is considered to be the driver for the wide dispersal of this species, as adult A. rubens are thought to be limited to slow movement. Unexplained mass beach strandings of A. rubens have been witnessed during strong wind and tide conditions. Here, we describe a new observation,...
Article
Megalomma lanigera is recorded for the first time in British waters. Specimens were discovered during a 2012/2013 benthic study of maerl beds in Falmouth Harbour in Cornwall.
Article
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An experimental trial to mitigate dredging impact was undertaken within Falmouth Harbour, UK, removing a surface layer of dead maerl for storage on a barge and allowing the channel to be deepened before re-laying the maerl. The resilience (resistance and recovery) of the habitat and faunal assemblage to this disturbance was assessed. Six sites each...
Technical Report
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The third annual meeting of the working group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Ener- gy developments was attended by 15 experts, representing seven countries (Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, United Kingdom (England and Scotland) and the Nether- lands; with remote input from Poland and Sweden) and was held on 21–25 April 2015 in Oban, Scotland/U...
Technical Report
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The 2014 annual meeting of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy developments was attended by 19 experts, representing nine countries (Bel- gium, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Nether- lands) and was held in Tallinn, Estonia during March. The meeting was co-chaired by Jennifer Dannheim (Alfre...
Article
Long-standing concerns about the effects of scallop dredging and demersal trawling on high diversity mudstone reef and cobble habitats in Lyme Bay, southwest England, were addressed by the exclusion of bottom towed fishing gear from a 206 km(2) area in July 2008. A consortium led by Plymouth University Marine Institute was funded by the UK Departme...
Article
Full-text available
Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management...
Article
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Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can either protect all seabed habitats within them or discrete features. If discrete features within the MPA are to be protected humans have to know where the boundaries are. In Lyme Bay, SW England a MPA excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206km(2) to protect rocky reef habitats and the associated species. The s...
Conference Paper
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Wave Hub is a Marine Renewable Energy Installation (MREI) in the UK. The hub for devices to plugin to the grid was connected to a cable that was deployed and buried with boulders in 2010. Initially this study assessed the species assemblages present at Wave Hub in the context of the ecological processes they generate and the services they deliver t...
Data
Table 1 contains a list of all taxa enumerated from the video analysis during the epibenthic assessment of the renewable tidal energy site in Guernsey, UK.
Article
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Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is...
Article
1. Harvesting green crabs Carcinus maenas for bait is a popular fishery in south-west UK estuaries, which are important habitats for shorebirds. The fishery involves laying roof tiles or PVC guttering into sediments; crabs seeking refuge bury beneath the tiles and are collected by fishers during low tide. 2. By observing foraging birds in tiled and...
Article
Innovative survey method using a high-definition video camera mounted on a towed flying array helps to find sites capable of supporting renewable energy generation while also protecting seabed habitats. While the harnessing of renewable energy from the sea is of global importance in the context of addressing climate change, we need to do what it ta...
Article
Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It is well documented that bottom towed fishing gear can negatively and substantially influence benthic communities through changes in species composition, trophic structure and habitat complexity (de Groot & Lindeboom, 1994; Dayton et al., 1995; Kaiser & Spencer, 1996; Blyth et al., 2004; Hiddink et al., 2006). Such effects caused by fishing gear...
Article
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Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Insta...
Article
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Harvesting of intertidal invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a global problem for estuary and coastal managers, with significant effects on sediments and associated infauna. Crab-tiling is a method of collection for the shore crab Carcinus maenas, which is then used as angling bait. This fishery operates in estuarine mudflats at a commercial s...
Article
Laying artificial materials on the shore to create refugia that attract crustaceans is a ‘fishing’ technique known mainly from South America and the UK. In the UK, thismethod of fishing is known as ‘crab-tiling’,which involves laying of roof tiles, pieces of guttering or car tyres (‘crab-tiles’) intertidally in estuaries to provide habitat for Carc...
Article
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1. The evidence for anthropogenically induced climate change is overwhelming with the production of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels being a key driver. In response, many governments have initiated programmes of energy production from renewable sources. 2. The marine environment presents a relatively untapped energy source and offshore in...
Article
Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies....
Article
The provision of artificial shelters for the collection of crabs, known as crab-tiling, and the subsequent harvesting of the soft "peeler" crabs for angling bait, are associated with trampling disturbance of intertidal mudflats in the United Kingdom. Recovery of meiofauna communities following crab-tiling activity was investigated on an intertidal...