Emma Carroll

Emma Carroll
University of Auckland · School of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

78
Publications
25,233
Reads
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1,258
Citations
Citations since 2016
63 Research Items
1124 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
October 2018 - present
University of Auckland
Position
  • Fellow
March 2016 - March 2018
University of St Andrews
Position
  • Marie Curie Research Fellow
January 2014 - January 2016
University of St Andrews
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of high resolution population genetic techniques, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), in combination with recent advances in particle modelling of larval dispersal in marine organisms, can deliver powerful new insights to support fisheries conservation and management. In this study, we used this combination to investigate the popu...
Article
Full-text available
The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on Earth, yet little is known about the processes driving patterns of genetic diversity in its inhabitants. Here, we investigated the macro- and microevolutionary processes shaping genomic population structure and diversity in two poorly understood, globally distributed, deep-sea predators: Cuvier’s beaked whal...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in habitat availability and prey abundance are predicted to adversely influence survival and reproduction of wildlife in the Southern Ocean. Some populations of southern right whale (SRW; Eubalaena australis) are showing dramatic changes in habitat use. Surveys were undertaken in the austral winters of 2020 and 2021 at the key nursery and s...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key goal of the Society for Marine Mammalogy is the effective communication of scientific information, and its broader societal implications, to a range of audiences. This is conducted in the 'universal language of science', English, which allows scientists to communicate ideas and permits access to a huge body of scientific knowledge. However, o...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the foraging ecology of animals gives insights into their trophic relationships and habitat use. We used stable isotope analysis to understand the foraging ecology of a critically endangered marine predator, the Māui dolphin. We analysed carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of skin samples (n = 101) collected from 1993 to 2021 to invest...
Chapter
Culture, the sharing of behaviors or information within a community acquired through some form of social learning from conspecifics, represents a “second inheritance system”. This assertion, while still controversial, is a clear indication that culture and the study of social learning in animals is no longer a taboo subject. Some of the strongest e...
Chapter
GeneticsGeneticsand genomicsEcological genomics tools are providing unprecedented insights into the hidden social lives of baleen whales, from parentageParentage to diet to defining population segments. GeneticGenetics information reveals simple yet critical information about individual whales, from their sex to their age to their kin. Integrating...
Article
Social media content is increasingly being validated and used as a valuable source of data within conservation science. Metadata obtained from social networking sites (SNS) can supplement knowledge and data gaps in traditional ecological monitoring programs by increasing the spatiotemporal extent of sampling. Here we consider SNS in the context of...
Article
Historical exploitation, and a combination of current anthropogenic impacts, such as climate change and habitat degradation, impact the population dynamics of marine mammalian megafauna. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) are large cetaceans recovering from hunting, whose reproductive and population growth rate appear to be impacted by climate change. W...
Article
Full-text available
The application of Very-High-Resolution (VHR) satellites to survey cetaceans has gained considerable tractionover the last decade. Large whale species in particular lend themselves to detection by VHR imagery of ~0.50mresolution or less. Processing of satellite images can be manually intensive, and consequently artificial intelligencemethods are un...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of the genetic connectivity of manta ray populations and the drivers that shape genetic structure is still limited. This information is crucial to identify the spatial boundaries of discrete populations and guide decisions on units to conserve. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess the...
Article
Full-text available
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are showing strong recovery from commercial whaling in the western South Atlantic. In this region, humpback whales migrate annually from their winter breeding grounds off the coast of Brazil to their summer feeding grounds near to the Polar Front, an area that includes the waters of South Georgia and the Sou...
Article
Full-text available
The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is the most widely distributed pinniped, occupying a wide variety of habitats and climatic zones across the Northern Hemisphere. Intriguingly, the harbour seal is also one of the most philopatric seals, raising questions as to how it colonised virtually the whole of the Northern Hemisphere. To shed light on the ori...
Article
Large filter-feeding animals are potential sentinels for understanding the extent of microplastic pollution, as their mode of foraging and prey mean they are continuously sampling the environment. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the total and mode of exposure (environmental vs trophic). Here, we explore microplastic exposure and in...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract available in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The deep sea has been described as the last major ecological frontier, as much of its biodiversity is yet to be discovered and described. Beaked whales (ziphiids) are among the most visible inhabitants of the deep sea, due to their large size and worldwide distribution, and their taxonomic div...
Technical Report
Full-text available
https://www.doc.govt.nz/globalassets/documents/conservation/native-animals/marine-mammals/maui-hectors-dolphins/maui-abundance/maui-dolphin-abundance-2021.pdf
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Southern right whales (SRW) are capital breeders that use stored energy reserves to sustain themselves and their calves on nursery areas. With successful calving events declining in some SRW populations, it has been hypothesized that nutritional stress in adult females causes reproductive failure or death of calves shortly after birth. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Southern right whale vocalizations were recorded concurrently with visual observations off the sub-Antarctic Island of South Georgia, and the characteristics of these calls were described. Calls were also compared to those of humpback whales at South Georgia, to determine how the two species might reliably be distinguished acoustically. The souther...
Article
Full-text available
A key goal of conservation is to protect biodiversity by supporting the long-term persistence of viable, natural populations of wild species. Conservation practice has long been guided by genetic, ecological and demographic indicators of risk. Emerging evidence of animal culture across diverse taxa and its role as a driver of evolutionary diversifi...
Article
Full-text available
The massive impact that open-boat historical whaling (18th to 20th centuries) had on whale populations has been traditionally estimated from records of oil and baleen plate production. However, an unknown proportion of hunted whales were struck, wounded, eventually killed, but lost, and not included in these records, suggesting that whaling impact...
Article
Rapid anthropogenic environmental change is expected to impact a host of ecological parameters in Southern Ocean ecosystems. Of critical concern are the consequences of these changes on the range of species that show fidelity to migratory destinations , as philopatry is hypothesized to help or hinder adaptation to climate change depending on the ci...
Article
Around 176500 whales were killed in the sub-Antarctic waters off South Georgia (South Atlantic) between 1904 and 1965. In recent decades, whales have once again become summer visitors, with the southern right whale (SRW) the most commonly reported species until 2011. Here, we assess the distribution, temporal pattern, health status and likely prey...
Article
Full-text available
Microplastics receive significant societal and scientific attention due to increasing concerns about their impact on the environment and human health. Marine mammals are considered indicators for marine ecosystem health and many species are of conservation concern due to a multitude of anthropogenic stressors. Marine mammals may be vulnerable to mi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report of the August 2020 expedition to the Auckland Islands Maungahuka to study the recovery and feeding ecology of southern right whales tohorā (Eubalaena australis)
Article
Metapopulation theory assumes a balance between local decays/extinctions and local growth/new colonisations. Here we investigate whether recent population declines across part of the UK harbour seal range represent normal metapopulation dynamics or are indicative of perturbations potentially threatening the metapopulation viability, using 20 years...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Over 170,000 whales were killed in the sub-Antarctic waters of South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur, SG, South Atlantic) from 1904 to 1965. In recent decades, whales are regular summer visitors, with the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliea) most commonly reported. A 23-day cetacean survey was condu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report of the Workshop. Please use the following citation: Carroll EL, Charlton C, Vermeulen E, Clarke P and J. A. Jackson (Eds). 2020. Roadmap to success for the International Whaling Commission - Southern Ocean Research Partnership (IWC-SORP) Theme 6 - the Right Sentinel for Climate Change: linking southern right whale foraging ecology to demogra...
Article
Full-text available
Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) migrate between Austral-winter calving and socialising grounds to offshore mid- to high latitude Austral-summer feeding grounds. In Australasia, winter calving grounds used by southern right whales extend from Western Australia across southern Australia to the New Zealand sub-Antarctic Islands. During the...
Article
Full-text available
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-...
Article
Inferring and quantifying recent barriers to connectivity is increasingly important for conservation and management in a world undergoing rapid environmental change. Traditional measures of genetic differentiation can take many generations to reflect a new barrier to connectivity. Although methods that use the linkage disequilibrium signal in mixed...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the rich social lives of animals benefits international conservation efforts
Article
Full-text available
All three extant right whales [Eubalaena australis (Southern; SRW), glacialis (North Atlantic; NARW), and japonica (North Pacific; NPRW)] were heavily exploited, and the status of the two northern hemisphere species remains precarious. Recently, limited gains made by the NARW have been reversed and urgent changes to management approaches are needed...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the ecosystem dynamics that underpin the year-round presence of a large generalist consumer, the Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni brydei), we use a DNA metabarcoding approach and systematic zooplankton surveys to investigate seasonal and regional changes in zooplankton communities and if whale diet reflects such changes. Twenty-four...
Article
Full-text available
Until the 1990s, beaked whales were one of the least understood groups of large mammals. Information on northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) and Baird’s beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) was available from data collected during whaling, however, little information existed on the smaller species other than occasional data gleaned from...
Article
Understanding how dispersal and gene flow link geographically separated the populations over evolutionary history is challenging, particularly in migratory marine species. In southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalaena australis), patterns of genetic diversity are likely influenced by the glacial climate cycle and recent history of whaling. Here we use...
Article
Full-text available
The decreasing cost and increasing scope and power of emerging genomic technologies are reshaping the field of molecular ecology. However, many modern genomic approaches (e.g., RAD-seq) require large amounts of high quality template DNA. This poses a problem for an active branch of conservation biology: genetic monitoring using minimally invasive s...
Article
The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks in European harbour seals Phoca vitulina are among the largest mass mortality events recorded in marine mammals. Despite its large impact on harbour seal population numbers, and 3 decades of studies, many questions regarding the spread and temporal origin of PDV remain unanswered. Here, we s...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic erosion is a major threat to biodiversity because it can reduce fitness and ultimately contribute to the extinction of populations. Here, we explore the use of quantitative metrics to detect and monitor genetic erosion. Monitoring systems should not only characterize the mechanisms and drivers of genetic erosion (inbreeding, genetic drift,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emerging genomic technologies are reshaping the field of molecular ecology. However, many modern genomic approaches (e.g., RAD-seq) require large amounts of high quality template DNA. This poses a problem for an active branch of conservation biology: genetic monitoring using minimally invasive sampling (MIS) methods. Without handling or even observ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emerging genomic technologies are reshaping the field of molecular ecology. However, many modern genomic approaches (e.g., RAD-seq) require large amounts of high quality template DNA. This poses a problem for an active branch of conservation biology: genetic monitoring using minimally invasive sampling (MIS) methods. Without handling or even observ...
Article
Full-text available
The True’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly known member of the Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the northern hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a few stranding records from the southern hemisphere suggest a wider and antitropical distribution, ext...
Data
Gervais’ beaked whales in a group of four whales breaching repetitively in the Canary Islands, recorded by Roland Gockel (MEER)
Data
Underwater video of True’ beaked whales recorded off the Azores by R Edler within the Master Mint program (report 8 Table 1)
Article
Full-text available
Since the decimation of the southern right whale Eubalaena australis population in New Zealand by whaling, research on its recovery has focused on the wintering ground at the Auckland Islands, neglecting potentially important wintering habitat at Campbell Island. For the first time in 20 years we conducted an expedition to sub-Antarctic Campbell Is...
Article
Full-text available
The dramatic increase in the application of genomic techniques to non-model organisms (NMOs) over the past decade has yielded numerous valuable contributions to evolutionary biology and ecology, many of which would not have been possible with traditional genetic markers. We review this recent progression with a particular focus on genomic studies o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing has become a popular approach to genotyping non-model organisms for ecological and evolutionary studies. However, there is difficulty in predicting how many variable loci will be recovered for a given protocol, combination of restriction enzymes and/or size selection criteria. Here we undertake a pil...
Data
Table S1 Key biological parameters estimated for the New Zealand southern right whale over ‘catch maximum’ and ‘catch minimum’ population modelling scenarios, with no Nfloor constraint imposed (male and female recaptures and population model fitted to relative abundance). Table S2 shows posterior medians and 95% probability intervals for key biolog...
Data
Text S1 describes the population model construction in detail. Text S2 describes how the prior distribution for each catch history was constructed.
Article
Full-text available
Accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. This is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. Assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The True´s beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly studied member of the speciose Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the North Hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a small number of stranding records from the Southern Hemisphere suggest a wider distribution,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The True´s beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly studied member of the speciose Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the North Hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a small number of stranding records from the Southern Hemisphere suggest a wider distribution,...
Article
Full-text available
Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosit...
Data
Capture histories for southern right whales first captured as calves during field trips to the Auckland Islands, New Zealand Subantarctic in 1995–1998 and 2006–2009. (INP)
Data
DNA profiles for southern right whales first captured as calves and recaptured in at least one subsequent year, during field trips to the Auckland Islands, New Zealand Subantarctic in 1995–1998 and 2006–2009. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Fidelity to migratory destinations is an important driver of connectivity in marine and avian species. Here we assess the role of maternally directed learning of migratory habitats, or migratory culture, on the population structure of the endangered Australian and New Zealand southern right whale. Using DNA profiles, comprising mitochondrial DNA (m...
Article
Full-text available
Capture−recapture studies offer a powerful tool to assess abundance, survival and population rate of change (λ). A previous capture−recapture study, based on DNA profiles, esti- mated that the IUCN-listed Endangered Oceania population of humpback whales had a super- population size of 4329 whales (95% confidence limits, CL: 3345, 5315) and λ = 1.03...
Article
We investigate model Mt,α for abundance estimation in closed-population capture-recapture studies, where animals are identified from natural marks such as DNA profiles or photographs of distinctive individual features. Model Mt,α extends the classical model Mt to accommodate errors in identification, by specifying that each sample identification is...
Article
Full-text available
Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ an...