Emma Camp

Emma Camp
University of Technology Sydney | UTS · Faculty of Science

Doctor of Philosophy

About

69
Publications
12,785
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1,001
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - October 2015
University of Essex
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing anthropogenic pressure on coral reefs is creating an urgent need to understand how and where corals can proliferate both now and under future scenarios. Resolving environmental limits of corals has progressed through the accurate identification of corals’ ‘realised ecological niche’. Here we expand the ecological niche concept to account...
Article
Coral reefs in Malaysia have been degraded by environmental and anthropogenic stressors, and enthusiasm for coral propagation aimed at site restoration is rapidly growing as a local management tool. However, coral propagation activities in the region are in their infancy and little data currently exists to guide and inform effective practices. We t...
Article
Coral propagation via nurseries and out-planting practices has increased worldwide in the last decade to improve stakeholder-led stewardship aimed at retaining or rehabilitating local reef site health. Until 2017/18, stewardship activities by the tourism industry on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) have been restricted to operations such as corallivore...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial members of the coral holobiont play an important role in determining coral fitness. However, most knowledge of the coral microbiome has come from reef-building scleractinian corals, with far less known about the nature and importance of the microbiome of octocorals (subclass Octocorallia), which contribute significantly to reef biodiversi...
Article
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Background Elements are the basis of life on Earth, whereby organisms are essentially evolved chemical substances that dynamically interact with each other and their environment. Determining species elemental quotas (their elementome) is a key indicator for their success across environments with different resource availabilities. Elementomes remain...
Article
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The Symbiodiniaceae are a taxonomically and functionally diverse family of marine dinoflagellates. Their symbiotic relationship with invertebrates such as scleractinian corals has made them the focus of decades of research to resolve the underlying biology regulating their sensitivity to stressors, particularly thermal stress. Research to-date sugg...
Article
Reducing the global reliance on fossil fuels is essential to ensure the long-term survival of coral reefs, but until this happens, alternative tools are required to safeguard their future. One emerging tool is to locate areas where corals are surviving well despite the changing climate. Such locations include refuges, refugia, hotspots of resilienc...
Article
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Efforts to manage coral reef declines are increasingly turning towards in situ propagation of corals to aid reef recovery. Understanding the factors that influence ‘success’ throughout the propagation process is therefore critical to ensure efforts are viable and cost-effective, yet the extent to which propagation practices potentially impact the u...
Article
Active chlorophyll a fluorometry is a well‐established tool for noninvasively diagnosing coral functional state, but has not yet been developed as a rapid phenotyping (functional screening) platform as for agriculture and forestry. Here, we present a proof‐of‐concept using Light‐Induced Fluorescence Transient‐Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (LIFT‐...
Article
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It has been proposed that an effective approach for predicting whether and how reef-forming corals persist under future climate change is to examine populations thriving in present day extreme environments, such as mangrove lagoons, where water temperatures can exceed those of reef environments by more than 3°C, pH levels are more acidic (pH < 7.9,...
Article
The discharge of plastic waste and subsequent formation and global distribution of microplastics (MPs) has caused great concern and highlighted the need for dedicated methods to characterise MPs in complex environmental matrices like seawater. Single particle inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (SP ICP-MS) is an elegant method for the ra...
Article
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Symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular algae (Symbiodiniaceae) fuels the growth and productivity of corals reefs. Capacity for Symbiodiniaceae to fix inorganic carbon (Ci) and translocate carbon compounds to the host is central to coral health, but how these processes change for corals thriving in environmental extremes remains larg...
Article
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Coral reefs are deteriorating worldwide prompting reef managers and stakeholders to increasingly explore new management tools. Following back-to-back bleaching in 2016/2017, multi-taxa coral nurseries were established in 2018 for the first time on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) to aid reef maintenance and restoration at a “high-value” location–Opal R...
Article
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Climate change threatens the survival of sclerac-tinian coral from exposure to concurrent ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation; how corals can potentially adapt to this trio of stressors is currently unknown. This study investigates three coral species (Acropora muricata, Acrop-ora pulchra and Porites lutea) dominant in an extreme mangrov...
Article
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Coral reefs are one of the most biodiverse and economically important ecosystems in the world, but they are rapidly degrading due to the effects of global climate change and local anthropogenic stressors. Reef scientists are increasingly studying coral reefs that occur in marginal and extreme environments to understand how organisms respond to, and...
Article
Dinoflagellates within the family Symbiodiniaceae are widespread and fuel metabolism of reef‐forming corals through photosynthesis. Adaptation in capacity to harvest and utilize light, and “safely” process photosynthetically generated energy is a key factor regulating their broad ecological success. However, whether such adaptive capacity similarly...
Article
Symbiodiniaceae are a diverse family of marine dinoflagellates, well known as coral endosymbionts. Isolation and in vitro culture of Symbiodiniaceae strains for physiological studies is a widely adopted tool, especially in the context of understanding how environmental stress perturbs Symbiodiniaceae cell functioning. While the bacterial microbiome...
Article
Re‐attaching or out‐planting coral as fragments, colonies and on larval settlement devices to substrates is a major bottleneck limiting scalabilty and viability of reef restoration practices. Many attachment approaches are in use, but none that are low‐cost, opportunistic, rapid but effective, for integration into existing tour operations on the Gr...
Article
Graphical Abstract Highlights d Marine heatwaves lead to rapid coral mortality and microbial biofilm formation d Microbial metabolic activity results in rapid dissolution of the coral skeleton d Dissolution reduces skeletal hardness and density and increased porosity In Brief Due to climate change, coral reefs are now being subjected to extreme mar...
Article
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High-latitude coral communities are distinct from their tropical counterparts, and how they respond to recent heat wave events that have decimated tropical reefs remains unknown. In Australia, the 2016 El Niño resulted in the largest global mass coral bleaching event to date, reaching as far south as Sydney Harbour (~ 34°S). Coral bleaching was obs...
Article
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The Caribbean and Western Atlantic region hosts one of the world's most diverse geopolitical regions and a unique marine biota distinct from tropical seas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. While this region varies in human population density, GDP and wealth, coral reefs, and their associated ecosystem services, are central to people's livelihoods....
Article
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Global threats to reefs require urgent efforts to resolve coral attributes that affect survival in a changing environment. Genetically different individuals of the same coral species are known to exhibit different responses to the same environmental conditions. New information on coral physiology, particularly as it relates to genotype, could aid i...
Article
Corals continuously adjust to short-term variation in light availability on shallow reefs. Long-term light alterations can also occur as a result of natural and anthropogenic stressors, as well as management interventions such as coral transplantation. Although short-term photophysiological responses are relatively well understood in corals, little...
Article
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Repeat marine heat wave‐induced mass coral bleaching has decimated reefs in Seychelles for 35 years, but how coral‐associated microbial diversity (microalgal endosymbionts of the family Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities) potentially underpins broad‐scale bleaching dynamics remains unknown. We assessed microbiome composition during the 2016...
Article
Coral nursery and out‐planting practices have grown in popularity worldwide for targeted restoration of degraded “high value” reef sites, and recovery of threatened taxa. Success of these practices is commonly gauged from coral propagule growth and survival, which fundamentally determines the return‐on‐effort critical to the cost‐effectiveness and...
Article
Coral reefs are in a state of rapid global decline via environmental and climate change, and efforts have intensified to identify or engineer coral populations with increased resilience. Concurrent with these efforts has been increasing use of the popularised term “Super Coral” in both popular media and scientific literature without a unifying defi...
Article
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Light availability is considered a key factor regulating the thermal sensitivity of reef building corals, where excessive excitation of photosystem II (PSII) further exacerbates pressure on photochemical pathways already compromised by heat stress. Coral symbionts acclimate to changes in light availability (photoacclimation) by continually fine-tun...
Article
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Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that...
Article
Full-text available
Coral communities are increasingly found to populate non-reef habitats prone to high environmental variability. Such sites include seagrass meadows, which are generally not considered optimal habitats for corals as a result of limited suitable substrate for settlement and substantial diel and seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions rela...
Article
Full-text available
Polyp bailout is an established but understudied coral stress response that involves the detachment of individual polyps from the colonial form as a means of escaping unfavourable conditions. This may influence both the mortality and asexual recruitment of coral genotypes across a range of species. It has been observed in response to numerous stres...
Data
Table of qualitative observations of polyp bailout in control and heat-treated mesocosms Indicated is the peak daytime temperature (± 0.5°C) of the four treated mesocosms, the accumulated heat stress corals are exposed to and any observations during the four day bleaching period, including at the beginning and end of polyp bailout.
Article
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are deteriorating under climate change as oceans continue to warm and acidify and thermal anomalies grow in frequency and intensity. In vitro experiments are widely used to forecast reef-building coral health into the future, but often fail to account for the complex ecological and biogeochemical interactions that govern reefs. Conseque...
Article
Full-text available
Polyp bailout is an established but understudied coral stress response that involves the detachment of individual polyps from the colonial form as means of escaping unfavourable conditions. This may influence both the mortality and asexual recruitment of coral genotypes across a range of species. It was first described by Goreau & Goreau (1959) and...
Article
Full-text available
Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driving changes in ocean chemistry at unprecedented rates resulting in ocean acidification, which is predicted to impact the functioning of marine biota, in particular of marine calcifiers. However, the precise understanding of such impacts relies on an analytical system that determines the mechanisms an...
Article
Full-text available
Corals are acclimatized to populate dynamic habitats that neighbour coral reefs. Habitats such as seagrass beds exhibit broad diel changes in temperature and pH that routinely expose corals to conditions predicted for reefs over the next 50–100 years. However, whether such acclimatization effectively enhances physiological tolerance to, and hence p...
Article
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Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driving acidification in parallel with warming of the oceans. Future ocean acidification scenarios have the potential to impact coral growth and associated reef function, although reports suggest such affects could be reduced in adjacent seagrass habitats as a result of physio-chemical buffering. To...
Article
Full-text available
Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driving acidification in parallel with warming of the oceans. Future ocean acidification scenarios have the potential to impact coral growth and associated reef function, although reports suggest such affects could be reduced in adjacent seagrass habitats as a result of physio-chemical buffering. To...
Article
Full-text available
Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownf...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are threatened worldwide, with environmental stressors increasingly affecting the ability of reef-building corals to sustain growth from calcification (G), photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). These processes support the foundation of coral reefs by directly influencing biogeochemical nutrient cycles and complex ecological interactio...
Article
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Anemonefishes have an obligate association with host sea anemones and normally occur in conspecific groups. Occasionally, heterospecific social groups are observed (Fautin and Allen 1997). Here, we report the highest documented frequency of heterospecific cohabitation in the world. Observations on coral reefs around Hoga Island (Southwest Sulawesi,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Present-day non-reef environments which house corals can provide an opportunity to study the impacts of environmental change on the productivity and structure of coral reefs. This is of key importance as such systems commonly experience conditions that are predicted to be the standard experienced by future reefs, e.g. low and variable pH. Several a...
Thesis
It is predicted that ocean acidification (OA) threatens coral reefs worldwide, by lowering seawater pH which in turn compromises essential metabolic processes such as carbonate genesis of corals. Inshore waters however, experience different spatial and temporal carbonate chemistry variability, raising questions over the future impact of OA within t...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are damaged by natural disturbances and local and global anthropogenic stresses. As stresses intensify, so do debates about whether reefs will recover after significant damage. True headway in this debate requires documented temporal trajectories for coral assemblages subjected to various combinations of stresses; therefore, we report r...
Article
Populations of the economically and ecologically important Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus Bloch, 1792, have declined to the point of being declared "endangered" by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Beyond existing efforts to reduce top-down pressure from overfishing, especially on spawning aggregations, recovery of Nassa...
Presentation
Full-text available
There is growing evidence demonstrating that climate change, notably increased frequency and intensity of thermal anomalies combined with ocean acidification, will negatively impact the future growth and viability of many reef systems, including those in the Caribbean. One key question that remains unanswered is whether or not there are management...
Presentation
Full-text available
The geographic isolation, absence of significant anthropogenic impacts, compressed spatial scale, and habitat diversity of Little Cayman combine to make it a natural laboratory for elucidating the dualistic impacts of various climatic events. These events both impart ecosystem disturbances and aid in the subsequent recovery of coral reef habitats....
Article
This study investigated the frequency and timing of physical impacts SCUBA divers have with the coral reefs in Key Largo, and whether these impacts are accidental or deliberate. Our study looks at the timing of diver interactions and how these can be managed. We also investigated the importance of diver conservation education and the value of conse...