Emily Willoughby

Emily Willoughby
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

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17
Publications
6,700
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1,359
Citations

Publications

Publications (17)
Article
In a longitudinal sample of 2593 individuals from Minnesota, we investigated whether individuals with IQs ≤ 90 who completed college experienced the same social and economic benefits higher-IQ college graduates did. Although most individuals with IQs ≤ 90 did not have a college degree, the rate at which they completed college had increased approxim...
Article
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Estimates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of unrelated individuals capture effects of inherited variation (direct effects), demography (population stratification, assortative mating) and relatives (indirect genetic effects). Family-based GWAS designs can control for demographic and indirect genetic effects, but large-scale family datase...
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Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using population samples (population-MR) have provided evidence for beneficial effects of educational attainment on health outcomes in adulthood. However, estimates from these studies may have been susceptible to bias from population stratification, assortative mating and indirect genetic effects due to...
Article
Where do our political attitudes originate? Although early research attributed the formation of such beliefs to parent and peer socialization, genetically sensitive designs later clarified the substantial role of genes in the development of sociopolitical attitudes. However, it has remained unclear whether parental influence on offspring attitudes...
Article
While adoption studies have provided key insights into the influence of the familial environment on IQ scores of adolescents and children, few have followed adopted offspring long past the time spent living in the family home. To improve confidence about the extent to which shared environment exerts enduring effects on IQ, we estimated genetic and...
Article
Although the correlation between general cognitive ability (g) and performance on speeded cognitive tasks is well-established, there is need for a better understanding of how successive stages of processing contribute to this relationship. Previous research suggests that g is primarily associated with the rapidity of decision-making rather than per...
Article
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Similarities between parent and offspring are widespread in psychology; however, shared genetic variants often confound causal inference for offspring outcomes. A polygenic score (PGS) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can be used to test for the presence of parental influence that controls for genetic variants shared across gener...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a longitudinal sample of 2593 individuals, we investigated the frequency individuals with IQs ≤ 90 completed college and whether these individuals experienced the same social and economic benefits higher-IQ college graduates did. Although the majority of individuals with IQs ≤ 90 did not have a college degree, approximately one in three women an...
Preprint
Where do our political attitudes come from? Early research into the etiology of socially relevant beliefs attributed their origin primarily to the social world in which we develop. The observation that similar beliefs are reflected in our family and immediate social environments suggested that children learn these beliefs through the process of soc...
Article
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Objective College attainment is one of the few phenotypes to have substantial variance accounted for by environmental factors shared by reared‐together relatives. The shared environment is implicated by the consistently strong parent‐to‐offspring transmission of college attainment. The mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. We use...
Article
We investigated intergenerational educational and occupational mobility in a sample of 2,594 adult offspring and 2,530 of their parents. Participants completed assessments of general cognitive ability and five noncognitive factors related to social achievement; 88% were also genotyped, allowing computation of educational-attainment polygenic scores...
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African schizophrenia genetic variants The genetics of schizophrenia have predominately been studied in populations of European and Asian descent. However, studies in Africans, who host the greatest degree of human genetic diversity, have lagged. Examining the exomes of more than 1800 Xhosa individuals from South Africa, about half of which have be...
Article
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The fact that genes and environment contribute differentially to variation in human behaviors, traits and attitudes is central to the field of behavior genetics. Perceptions about these differential contributions may affect ideas about human agency. We surveyed two independent samples (N = 301 and N = 740) to assess beliefs about free will, determi...
Article
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Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development p...
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To the Editor What separates the best physicians from their peers? A recent Viewpoint argued that EQ may be more important than the surrogates of IQ traditionally used for physician selection.¹ Although few would argue that kindness, empathy, and emotional sensitivity are unimportant qualities, the question of whether Medical College Admission Test...
Preprint
The fact that genes and environment contribute differentially to variation in human behaviors, traits and attitudes is central to the field of behavior genetics. Perceptions about these differential contributions may affect ideas about human agency. We surveyed two independent samples (N = 301 and N = 740) to assess beliefs about free will, determi...

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