Emily L Williams

Emily L Williams
Leeds Beckett University | LEEDS MET · Carnegie School of Sport

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

34
Publications
7,489
Reads
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514
Citations
Citations since 2016
24 Research Items
489 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Leeds Beckett University
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2012 - August 2015
Edge Hill University
Position
  • GTA / PhD student

Publications

Publications (34)
Article
To date, no review has focused specifically on the potential modulating role of environmental temperature on the effects of exercise on cognitive function. Despite this, a range of occupations and performance contexts exist (e.g., military personnel, emergency services, sport) where the maintenance of cognitive function in environmentally challengi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of heat exposure on physical and cognitive performance during an intermittent exercise protocol so as to reflect the incremental fatigue experienced during team sports. Twelve well-trained male team sport players completed an 80-minute cycling intermittent sprint protocol (CISP), alongside computerized vigilance...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of barriers in the steeplechase increases energy cost and makes successful pacing more difficult. This was the first study to analyze pacing profiles of successful (qualifiers for the final/Top 8 finalists) and unsuccessful (non-qualifiers/non-Top 8 finalists) Olympic steeplechasers across heats and finals, and to analyze differences b...
Article
Objectives Two studies investigated expert-novice differences in information-seeking behaviour, cognitions and performance during cycling time trials (TT). Study 1 examined trained and novice cyclist’s cognitions whilst performing a TT, using a Think Aloud (TA) protocol and eye-tracking techniques. Study 2 investigated expertise differences during...
Article
Resistance exercise is a widely-used method of physical training in both recreational exercise and athletic populations. The use of training partners and spotters during resistance exercise is widespread, but little is known about the effect of the presence of these individuals on exercise performance. The purpose of the current study was to invest...
Article
Objectives Three studies involved the investigation of concurrent cognitive processes and pacing behaviour during a 16.1 km cycling time trial (TT) using a novel Think Aloud (TA) protocol. Study 1 examined trained cyclist's cognitions over time whilst performing a real-life 16.1 km time trial (TT), using TA protocol. Study 2, included both trained...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during acute altitude exposure, contributing toward the decline in physiological and cognitive function in this environment. This study evaluated the effects of nitrate (NO3−) supplementation on NO bioavailability, physiological and cognitive function, and exercise performance at moderate and ve...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To use eye-tracking technology to directly compare information acquisition behavior of experienced and novice cyclists during a self-paced 10 mile (16.1 km) time-trial. Method: Two groups of novice (N=10) and experienced cyclists (N=10) performed a 10-mile self-paced time-trial (TT) on two separate occasions during which a number of feedb...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Purpose This study evaluated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on physiological functioning and exercise performance in trained runners/ triathletes conducting short and longer distance treadmill running time-trials (TT). Method Eight trained male runners or triathletes completed four exercise performance tests compri...
Article
Much research has referred to the complexity of research methods modules within undergraduate degree programmes. Less attention has been paid to the objective understanding of alignment between research methods and final year dissertations. This study explored relationships across Sport and Exercise Science (SES) and Sports Therapy (ST) programmes...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study investigated cognitions of cyclists during a competitive time trial (TT) event using Think Aloud (TA) protocol analysis. Design: Single group, observational design. Method: Fifteen male and three female cyclists from the North West of England verbalised their thoughts throughout an outdoor competitive 16.1 km cycling TT (Leve...
Article
Objectives: This study investigated cognitions of cyclists during a competitive time trial (TT) event using Think Aloud (TA) protocol analysis. Design: Single group, observational design. Method: Fifteen male and three female cyclists from the North West of England verbalised their thoughts throughout an outdoor competitive 16.1 km cycling TT (Leve...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory based cycling time trials (TT) are widely used by both researchers and practitioners, as a method of assessing cycling performance in a controlled environment. Assessments of performance often use TT durations or distances between 20 min and one hour and in the UK the 10 mile (16.1 km) TT is the most frequently used race distance for tra...
Conference Paper
This study evaluated the effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation on exercise performance in trained males conducting short and longer duration self-paced treadmill running time-trials (TT). Eight male runners or triathletes (age: 28.3 ± 5.8 years, body mass: 74.7 ± 10.1 kg, height: 179.1 ± 2.4 cm, V̇O2max: 62.3 ± 8.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) c...
Article
This study determined variability in time-to-peak pH after consumption of 300 mg kg(-)(1) of sodium bicarbonate. Seventeen participants (mean ± SD: age 21.38 ± 1.5 years; mass 75.8 ± 5.8 kg; height 176.8 ± 7.6 cm) reported to the laboratory where a resting capillary sample was taken. Then, 300 mg kg(-1) of NaHCO3 in 450 ml of flavoured water was in...
Article
Full-text available
Little is currently known regarding competitor influence on pacing at the start of an event and in particular the subsequent effect on the remaining distance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of starting pace on the physiological and psychological responses during cycling time trials (TT) utilizing an innovative app...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Feedback deception is used to explore the importance of expectations on pacing strategy and performance in self-paced exercise. The deception of feedback from a previous performance explores the importance of experience knowledge on exercise behaviour. This study aimed to explore the acute and residual effects of the deception of previo...
Article
Full-text available
The provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of dece...
Article
Studies have established that supplementation of nitrate increases nitrous oxide which in turn improves exercise performance. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrate ingestion on performance of bench press resistance exercise till failure. Twelve recreationally active (age, 21 ± 2yrs, height, 177.2 ± 4.0 cm, weight, 82.49 ± 9....
Article
Deceptive manipulations of performance intensity have previously been investigated in cycling time trials (TT), but used different magnitudes, methods and task durations. This study examines previously employed magnitudes of deception, during 16.1 km TT and explores as yet unexamined psychological responses. Fifteen trained cyclists completed five...
Article
Full-text available
The psychological construct of affect is proposed to significantly contribute to pacing decisions during exercise. Borg's Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale, another important regulator of work-rate, is criticised as an inadequate measure of the multiple perceptual responses experienced. This study aimed to examine power output distribution...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycli...
Article
Athletes anticipatorily set, and continuously adjust pacing strategies prior to and during events, in order to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the endpoint of exercise, whilst preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integra...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of an optimal pacing strategy during exercise is to enhance performance whilst ensuring physiological limits are not surpassed, which has been shown to result in a metabolic reserve at the end of the exercise. There has been debate surrounding the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain how pace is regulated, with more recent...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The aim of the project is to analyse pacing behaviour in distance running and race walking.
Project
Currently writing up a lab study which has compared the thoughts of trained and untrained cyclists performing a 16.1km time trial and further looking at the relationships between thought processes and performance data.