Emily Sanford

Emily Sanford
Johns Hopkins University | JHU · Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences

Bachelor of Arts


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Skills and Expertise


Publications (7)
Full-text available
The Approximate Number System (ANS) allows humans and non-human animals to estimate large quantities without counting. It is most commonly studied in visual contexts (i.e., with displays containing different numbers of dots), although the ANS may operate on all approximate quantities regardless of modality (e.g., estimating the number of a series o...
Dogs are thought to evaluate humans’ emotional states, and attend more to crying people than humming people (Custance & Mayer, 2012). However, it is unclear whether dogs would go beyond focusing attention on humans in need by providing more substantive help to them. This study used a trapped-other paradigm, modified from use in research on rats (Be...
Full-text available
We investigated whether the surface area and convex hull of a dot stimulus could explain responses to numerosity in the same stimuli. We found that people responded differently when they attended to the number of dots than if they were attending to the size or spacing of the same stimuli.


Cited By
    • Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur (IIESS UNS-CONICET)
    • Oregon State University
    • National Scientific and Technical Research Council
    • Universität Bern
    • Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), CONICET - UNS; Departamento de Biología Bioquímica y Farmacia-Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Bahía Blanca, Argentina