Emily Latch

Emily Latch
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | UWM · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

78
Publications
17,576
Reads
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1,788
Citations
Introduction
My lab works on a variety of wild critters, employing genetic and genomic tools and statistical genetic methods to address questions in vertebrate population genetics, evolutionary ecology, and wildlife conservation and management.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2008 - July 2014
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2007 - August 2008
Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
June 1999 - August 2004
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Population Genetics
August 1995 - May 1999
Cedar Crest College
Field of study
  • Genetic Engineering

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent non-model species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats, and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for th...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are diverse in mammal hosts, infecting five mammalian orders in the Old World, but were long considered absent from the diverse deer family (Cervidae) and from New World mammals. There was a description of a Plasmodium parasite infecting a single splenectomized white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus...
Article
Wildlife management strategies are often designed around a population's demographic goals, but such strategies also can inadvertently impact genetic variation. For species like bison Bison bison, where management includes the regular removal of individuals to maintain restricted population sizes on constrained landscapes, management actions can be...
Article
Individual-based landscape genetic methods have become increasingly popular for quantifying fine-scale landscape influences on gene flow. One complication for individual-based methods is that gene flow and landscape variables are often correlated with geography. Partial statistics, particularly Mantel tests, are often employed to control for these...
Article
Full-text available
Highly mobile species that thrive in a wide range of habitats are expected to show little genetic differentiation across their range. A limited but growing number of studies have revealed that patterns of broad-scale genetic differentiation can and do emerge in vagile, continuously distributed species. However, these patterns are complex and often...
Article
Full-text available
Background Standing genetic variation is important especially in immune response-related genes because of threats to wild populations like the emergence of novel pathogens. Genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is crucial in activating the adaptive immune response, is influenced by both natural selection and histori...
Article
Biodiversity can be boosted by colonization of new habitats, such as remote islands and separated continents. Molecular studies have suggested that recently evolved organisms probably colonized already separated continents by dispersal, either via land bridge connections or crossing the ocean. Here we test the on-land and trans-marine dispersal hyp...
Article
Researchers have long debated which estimator of relatedness best captures the degree of relationship between two individuals. In the genomics era, this debate continues, with relatedness estimates being sensitive to the methods used to generate markers, marker quality, and levels of diversity in sampled individuals. Here, we compare six commonly u...
Article
Understanding speciation mechanisms requires disentangling processes that promote and erode population‐level divergence. Three hypotheses are raised that contemporary population structure is mainly shaped by refugial isolation, gene flow or both. Testing these hypotheses requires range‐wide phylogeography and integrative analyses across scales. Her...
Preprint
Over the past 50 years conservation genetics has developed a substantive toolbox to inform species management. One of the most long-standing tools available to manage genetics - the pedigree - has been widely used to characterize diversity and maximize evolutionary potential in threatened populations. Now, with the ability to use high throughput se...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 50 years conservation genetics has developed a substantive toolbox to inform species management. One of the most long‐standing tools available to manage genetics ‐ the pedigree ‐ has been widely used to characterize diversity and maximize evolutionary potential in threatened populations. Now, with the ability to use high throughput se...
Article
Full-text available
Population genetic studies in non-model systems increasingly use next-generation sequencing to obtain more loci, but such methods also generate more missing data that may affect downstream analyses. Here we focus on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which has been widely used to explore and visualize population structure with mean-imputed miss...
Preprint
Researchers have long debated which genomic estimator of relatedness best captures the degree of relationship between two individuals. In the genomics era, this debate continues, with relatedness estimates being sensitive to the method used to generate genomic markers (e.g., reduced-representation sequencing, whole genome resequencing), marker qual...
Preprint
Over the past 50 years conservation genetics has developed a substantive toolbox to inform species management. One of the most long-standing tools available to manage genetics-the pedigree-has been widely used to characterize diversity and maximize evolutionary potential in threatened populations. Now, with the ability to use high throughput sequen...
Article
Catastrophic population declines due to disease often lead to fragmented remnant populations and loss of gene flow. Managers are left to determine appropriate conservation actions to recover and maintain population persistence. The recent utilization of genomic data to assist in species recovery now allows us to combine genome‐wide surveys of diffe...
Article
Full-text available
Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) are federally threatened due to eradication campaigns, habitat destruction, and outbreaks of plague. Today, Utah prairie dogs exist in small, isolated populations, making them less demographically stable and more susceptible to erosion of genetic variation by genetic drift. We characterized patterns of genetic...
Article
Full-text available
Though mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) persist in robust populations throughout most of their North American distribution, habitat loss, unregulated hunting and other factors have reduced their historical range in México. Two of the six putative subspecies inhabiting México’s deserts and Baja California peninsula are of conservation concern, occupy...
Article
Full-text available
Fencing wildlife populations can aid wildlife management goals, but potential benefits may not always outweigh costs of confinement. Population isolation can erode genetic diversity and lead to the accumulation of inbreeding, reducing viability and limiting adaptive potential. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data collected from 640 whi...
Article
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White‐nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has driven alarming declines in North American hibernating bats, such as little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). During hibernation, infected little brown bats are able to initiate anti‐Pd immune responses, indicating pathogen‐mediated selection on the major hi...
Article
Full-text available
Captive populations play a vital role in conservation, supporting both in situ and ex situ conservation projects. A healthy, self‐sustaining captive population serves as valuable insurance against extinctions and a source of individuals for reintroduction into the wild. Genetic and genomic data can advance conservation and management across a range...
Chapter
PRIOR TO 1980, genetic techniques were not typically used in wildlife biology. Since then, straightforward and rather inexpensive genetic techniques emerged that have been directly applied to wildlife studies. Recently, dramatic advances in DNA sequencing technology and computing power have expanded the amount of the genome that can be examined, gr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Secondary contact between closely related lineages can result in a variety of outcomes, including hybridization, depending upon the strength of reproductive barriers. By examining the extent to which different parts of the genome introgress, it is possible to infer the strength of selection and gain insight into the evolutionary trajec...
Chapter
Humans have long relied on ungulates for food, clothing, manual labor, and transportation. Ungulates were among the first species to be domesticated and managed in the wild, but more than one-third of species are currently of conservation concern. Starting in the late twentieth century, ungulate research and management began employing genetic tools...
Article
Overhunting and widespread land use change nearly caused the extinction of North American bison (Bison bison) by the late 1800s. Recovery efforts focused on preserving the remaining individuals and establishing federally managed conservation herds to build more sustainable populations. Today, bison in conservation herds are maintained in small, iso...
Article
Full-text available
We compare the two main classes of measures of population structure in genetics: (1) fixation measures such as FST, GST, and θ, and (2) allelic differentiation measures such as Jost's D and entropy differentiation. These two groups of measures quantify complementary aspects of population structure, which have no necessary relationship with each oth...
Article
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Identifying and monitoring locally adaptive genetic variation can have direct utility for conserving species at risk, especially when management may include actions such as translocations for restoration, genetic rescue, or assisted gene flow. However, genomic studies of local adaptation require careful planning to be successful, and in some cases...
Article
Full-text available
Reintroduction programs have been pivotal in augmenting populations of fishers (Pekania pennanti (Erxleben, 1777)) and re-establishing them to their former range in North America. The majority of reintroduction efforts in fishers have been considered demographically successful, but reintroductions can alter genetic population structure and success...
Article
Full-text available
Translocations are a tool widely used by wildlife managers, yet their impact is often insufficiently evaluated. Most translocation studies only assess the initial establishment phase, and the majority of long-term persistence studies to date have only tracked female fecundity. Male genetic integration for mitigative translocations have as of yet no...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat associations are a function of habitat preferences and dispersal capabilities, both of which can influence how species responded to Quaternary climatic changes and contemporary habitat heterogeneity. Predicting resultant genetic structure is not always straightforward, especially in species where high dispersal potential and habitat prefere...
Article
Full-text available
Reintroduction is an effective tool for restoring endangered populations. There is increasing concern, however, that demographic restoration may not equate with genetic restoration. We examine the demographic-genetic contrast in the context of one of the world's most successful carnivore population restorations. Beginning in 1982, a total of 835 ri...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape genetics is a powerful tool for conservation because it identifies landscape features that are important for maintaining genetic connectivity between populations within heterogeneous landscapes. However, using landscape genetics in poorly understood species presents a number of challenges, namely, limited life history information for the...
Article
Full-text available
Human-altered environments often challenge native species with a complex spatial distribution of resources. Hostile landscape features can inhibit animal movement (i.e., genetic exchange), while other landscape attributes facilitate gene flow. The genetic attributes of organisms inhabiting such complex environments can reveal the legacy of their mo...
Article
Individual-based landscape genetic methods have become increasingly popular for quantifying fine-scale landscape influences on gene flow. One complication for individual-based methods is that gene flow and landscape variables are often correlated with geography. Partial statistics, particularly Mantel tests, are often employed to control for these...
Article
The current spatial distribution of genetic lineages across a region should reflect the complex interplay of both historical and contemporary processes. Postglacial expansion and recolonization in the distant past, in combination with more recent events with anthropogenic effects such as habitat fragmentation and overexploitation, can help shape th...
Article
Full-text available
Population genetics has fueled a substantial growth in studies of dispersal, a life-history trait that has important applications in ecology and evolution. Mammals typically exhibit male-biased gene flow, so this pattern often serves as a null hypothesis in empirical studies. Estimation of dispersal using population genetics is not without biases,...
Article
Full-text available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are growing in popularity as a genetic marker for investigating evolutionary processes. A panel of SNPs is often developed by comparing large quantities of DNA sequence data across multiple individuals to identify polymorphic sites. For non-model species, this is particularly difficult, as performing the neces...
Data
Genome location, outlier-analysis in LOSITAN and Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) data of the 1068 polymorphic SNPs identified in O. hemionus and O. virginianus. Only SNPs that were genotyped in at least 90% of individuals were included in the analysis. The chromosomal position of each SNP on the Bos taurus genome assemblies UDM3.0 and BTAU4.0 is inclu...
Article
The addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is a critically endangered antelope that is currently maintained in zoos through regional, conservation breeding programs. As for many captive species, incomplete pedigree data currently impedes the ability of addax breeding programs to confidently manage the genetics of captive populations and to select appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the effects of landscape features on genetic variation is essential for understanding how landscapes shape patterns of gene flow and spatial genetic structure of populations. Most landscape genetics studies have focused on patterns of gene flow at a regional scale. However, the genetic structure of populations at a local scale may be...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of hybrid zones have revealed an array of evolutionary outcomes, yet the underlying structure is typically characterized as one of three types: a hybrid zone, a hybrid swarm or a hybrid taxon. Our primary objective was to determine which of these three structures best characterizes a zone of hybridization between two divergent lineages of m...
Article
Novel populations pose unusual challenges for wildlife managers because knowledge regarding the source of these populations is essential to develop sound management approaches. One example that illustrates the complexity of this issue is the small population of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) identified in northeastern Illinois in the 1970s...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat fragmentation and overtrapping are thought to have resulted in severe population declines for fisher (Martes pennanti) across the northeastern United States, and by the end of the 1930s only 3 remnant populations remained. Subsequent trapping cessation, extensive reintroduction programs, and natural recolonization have helped fishers to rec...
Article
Throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century and early portion of the twentieth century, there were widespread declines in wildlife species in North America due to unregulated harvest for commercial, regulatory, and private uses as well as dramatic changes in land-use practices (Moulton&Sanderson 1999). Despite recognition of the grave situ...
Article
Full-text available
A symposium entitled 'Applied Ecological Genetics: Molecular Approaches in Natural Resource Conservation' was held at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana from 5 to 8 October 2008. The purpose of the symposium was to bring together researchers from disparate fields of molecular ecology, evolutionary biology and genomics to address ways to app...
Article
Full-text available
Quaternary climatic oscillations greatly influenced the present-day population genetic structure of animals and plants. For species with high dispersal and reproductive potential, phylogeographic patterns resulting from historical processes can be cryptic, overshadowed by contemporary processes. Here we report a study of the phylogeography of Odoco...
Article
On the Aliulik Peninsula (AP) of Kodiak Island, Alaska, 70% of male Sitka black-tailed deer (SBTD; Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) are bilaterally cryptorchid (both testes fail to descend; male is sterile). Both genetic and environmental factors have been proposed as possible causes of this problem. We investigated the possibility that population ge...
Article
Full-text available
The selection of an appropriate source population may be crucial to the long-term success of reintroduction programs. Appropriate source populations often are those that originate from the same genetic lineage as native populations. However, source populations also should exhibit high levels of genetic diversity to maximize their capacity to adapt...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of genetic markers now are available for use in the management and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used to address questions at levels ranging from the individual to the subspecies, and with issues ranging from species-wide evolution to forensics. Genetic studies involvin...
Article
Full-text available
Two subspecies of bighorn sheep currently occur in Arizona: the desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana, O. c. nelsoni) and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis). In central Arizona (Game Management Unit 23 (GMU 23)), bighorn sheep colonized an area along the Salt River; however, the source of this population was enigmatic. Althoug...
Article
The lack of adequate documentation of wildlife translocations, particularly details regarding the source stock used, have potentially serious implications for wildlife management. Poor documentation of translocations may lead to unintentional mixing of distinct types, potentially causing problems for future management, design of harvest programs, a...
Article
Traditional population genetic analyses typically seek to characterize the genetic substructure caused by the nonrandom distribution of individuals. However, the genetic structuring of adult populations often does not remain constant over time, and may vary relative to season or life-history stages. Estimates of genetic structure may be biased if s...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional methods for characterizing genetic differentiation among populations rely on a priori grouping of individuals. Bayesian clust