Emily Ho

Emily Ho
Oregon State University | OSU · Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences (NES)

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174
Publications
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Publications (174)
Article
Dr. Bruce Ames was a pioneer in understanding the role of oxidative stress and DNA damage, and in the 1990s began to make connections between micronutrient deficiencies and DNA damage. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human health and a key component for the function of numerous cellular processes. In particular, zinc plays a critical role in...
Article
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Robust evidence shows that phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, are associated with numerous health benefits. The anti-cancer properties of these foods are attributed to bioactive isothiocyanates (ITCs) and indoles, phytochemicals generated from biological precursor compounds called glucosinolates. ITCs, and particularly sulfo...
Article
Full-text available
Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane and iberin, derived from glucosinolates (GLS) in cruciferous vegetables, are known to prevent and suppress cancer development. GLS can also be converted by bacteria to biologically inert nitriles, such as sulforaphane-nitrile (SFN-NIT) and iberin-nitrile (IBN-NIT), but the role of the gut microbiome in this pro...
Article
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Background Exercise is increasingly recognized as an effective strategy to improve cancer prevention and prognosis. Several biological mechanisms mediating these benefits have been proposed, but the role of epigenetics remains largely unknown. Since epigenetics is highly susceptible to lifestyle factors, we hypothesized that exercise could affect t...
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Age-related T cell dysfunction contributes to immunosenescence and chronic inflammation. Aging is also associated with a progressive decline in zinc status. Zinc is an essential micronutrient critical for immune function. A significant portion of the older populations are at risk for marginal zinc deficiency. The combined impact of dietary zinc def...
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Full-text available
Background: Lymphoma (LSA) is a common malignancy in dogs. Epigenetic changes are linked to LSA pathogenesis and poor prognosis in humans, and LSA pathogenesis in dogs. Sulforaphane (SFN), an epigenetic-targeting compound, has recently gained interest in relation to cancer prevention and therapy. Objective: Examine the impact of oral supplementa...
Article
Objectives Whereas phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables have demonstrated health benefits, the data linking intake of these vegetables to health outcomes are inconsistent. These inconsistencies may stem from methodological limitations in accurately assessing cruciferous vegetable exposure. Goals of this study were to explore the use o...
Article
Objectives Aging is associated with progressive immune dysfunction, including impaired adaptive response, increased susceptibility to infection, and reduced vaccination efficacy. Aging is also associated with chronic inflammation that correlated with the promotion of many age-related diseases. Zinc is an essential micronutrient critical for immune...
Article
Objectives Zinc is an essential micronutrient critical for a variety of cellular processes, including immune function. In US, 12% of the population do not consume the EAR for zinc. In older populations the prevalence of inadequate zinc intake increases to ∼40%. Moreover, zinc levels are also often depressed in aged individuals, even when consuming...
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatic beta cells produce and release insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of diabetes mellitus. Zinc deficiency and inorganic arsenic exposure both independently associate with the development of diabetes, although the effects of their combination on pancreatic beta cell h...
Article
Full-text available
The negative health impact of zinc deficiency overlaps significantly with arsenic exposure, and is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Arsenic contamination in the groundwater often co-exists in regions of the world that are prone to zinc deficiency. Notably, low zinc status shares many hallmarks of arsenic exposure, including incr...
Conference Paper
There continues to be interest in targeting epigenetic ‘readers, writers and erasers’ for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. A mechanistic understanding is frequently lacking, however, for the synergy observed when combining deacetylase and bromodomain inhibitors. We identified cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 (CCAR2) as an early ta...
Conference Paper
p>There continues to be interest in targeting epigenetic ‘readers, writers and erasers’ for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. A mechanistic understanding is frequently lacking, however, for the synergy observed when combining deacetylase and bromodomain inhibitors. We identified cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 (CCAR2) as an early...
Article
Previous studies suggest compounds such as sulforaphane (SFN) derived from cruciferous vegetables may prevent prostate cancer development and progression. This study evaluated the effect of broccoli sprout extract (BSE) supplementation on blood histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, prostate RNA gene expression, and tissue biomarkers (histone H3 lysi...
Article
There continues to be interest in targeting epigenetic 'readers, writers and erasers' for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. A mechanistic understanding is frequently lacking, however, for the synergy observed when combining deacetylase and bromodomain inhibitors. Here we identify cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 (CCAR2) as an early...
Article
Full-text available
The role of epigenetic alterations during cancer has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of mechanisms leading to cancer susceptibility. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the precursor glucosinolate, glucoraphanin (GFN), which is found in cruciferous vegetables...
Article
Scope: Several lines of evidence suggest that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables is beneficial to human health. Yet, underlying mechanisms and key molecular targets that are involved with achieving these benefits in humans are still not fully understood. To accelerate this research, we conducted a human study to identify potential molecular...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cruciferous vegetables have been associated with the chemoprevention of cancer. Epigenetic regulators have been identified as important targets for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with sulforaphane (SFN), a chemical from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, inhibits epigenetic regulators such as histon...
Article
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) produced during high-temperature cooking have been studied extensively in terms of their genotoxic/genetic effects, but recent work has implicated epigenetic mechanisms involving non-coding RNAs. Colon tumors induced in the rat by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) have altered microRNA (miRNA) signatu...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes indiv...
Data
Arsenic does not alter copper, iron, magnesium and selenium abundance in embryos. Data are the mean (± SEM) amount of the indicated element as determined by ICP-OES, in zinc adequate or zinc deficient embryos continuously exposed to 0, 50, or 500 ppb arsenic starting at 6 hpf and collected at 120 hpf. Data is representative of at least three indepe...
Data
Hypoactivity of zinc deficient and arsenic exposed embryos caused by decreased movement in the dark. Embryos were collected from zinc adequate or zinc deficient fish, exposed to 0, 50, or 500 ppb arsenic from 6–120 hpf and analyzed for larval activity. Locomotor activity of embryos at 120 hpf were measured by larval photomotor response assay and al...
Data
Arsenic and zinc deficiency does not alter znt1, znt2, znt4, znt5, znt6, znt8, znt9 and mtf-1 mRNA levels in embryos. Bars represent mean (± SEM) mRNA levels of indicated zinc transporters and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (mtf-1) at 120 hpf in zinc adequate (white bars) or zinc deficient (grey bars) embryos exposed to 0, 50, or 500 ppb a...
Data
qPCR primers. Primers utilized for quantification of mRNA levels are given. (PPTX)
Data
Arsenic and zinc deficiency does not alter zip3, zip4, zip6, zip7, zip9, zip10, zip11 and zip13 mRNA levels in embryos. Bars represent mean (± SEM) mRNA levels of indicated zinc importers at 120 hpf in zinc adequate (white bars) or zinc deficient (grey bars) embryos exposed to 0, 50, or 500 ppb arsenic. Data represent an average of 7–8 replicates p...
Data
Heatmap of developmental toxicity. Embryos were collected from zinc adequate or zinc deficient fish, exposed to 0, 50, or 500 ppb arsenic from 6–120 hpf and analyzed for the indicated developmental malformation or mortality. Data are plotted as percent incidence of each endpoint relative to total embryos evaluated at a given condition. Data are fro...
Data
Amount of zinc, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and selenium in diet, adult fish and embryos. Data are mean values obtained by ICP-OES measurement in zinc adequate or zinc deficient diet, adult fish, and embryos. Diet samples are μg of the element / g of diet (n = 23). Adult samples are μg of the element / g of body weight (n = 35). Embryo samples...
Article
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) produced during high-temperature cooking have been studied extensively in terms of their genetic effects, but recent work has implicated epigenetic mechanisms involving non-coding RNAs. We reported that colon tumors induced in the rat by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) have altered microRNA (miRNA)...
Data
Appendix S1 Experimental procedure.
Data
Fig. S1 Pre‐incubation with rapamycin have better effects on Nrf2 expression and inhibition of cell senescence. Fig. S2 Overexpression of Nrf2 in MEFs recues the NQO1 expression (A). Fig. S3 Measurement of p16 in skin fibroblasts and MEFs using different antibodies. Fig. S4 Rapamycin‐induced autophagy in MEF cells is dependent on Nrf2. Fig. S5...
Article
Androgen receptor (AR) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that plays a central role in normal prostate physiology as well as in prostate cancer biology (PCa). Phytochemicals like 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) have emerged as promising therapeutic agents against PCa. DIM has been shown to influence both AR activity and other epigenetic regulat...
Article
Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2017, 61, 1600769. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201600769 Pseudogenes have been viewed, historically, as nonfunctional DNA sequences with close homology to other functional protein-coding genes. NmrA-like redox sensor 2 (NMRAL2P) is a novel functional pseudogene, the first to be identified both as a direct transcriptional target of Nrf2,...
Article
Age-related declines in long- and short-term memory show relationships to decreases in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which may involve inflammation. This study was designed to determine effects of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, on cognitive function and NMDA receptor expression across aging. Male C57BL/6 mice (ages 5, 14,...
Article
Scope: The anticancer agent sulforaphane (SFN) acts via multiple mechanisms to modulate gene expression, including the induction of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent signaling and the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. Transcriptomics studies were performed in SFN-treated human colon cancer cells and in non-tran...
Article
To examine the relationship between dietary cruciferous vegetable intake and selected tumour biomarkers for histone acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K18ac, HDAC3 and HDAC6), proliferation (Ki-67) and cell-cycle regulation (p21) from breast tissue. The study used baseline data of women recruited to participate in a clinical trial of sulforaphane supplement. D...
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Full-text available
Introduction. Age is the primary risk factor for major human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation is associated with aging and the progression of immunosenescence. Immunosenescence may play an important role in the development of age-...
Data
Taxonomic differences observed between young and aged mice
Data
OTU abundance and serum MCP-1 correlation data
Article
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family is active toward numerous environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Utilizing a mouse model, null for Cyp1b1 and expressing human CYP1B1, we tested the hypothesis that hCYP1B1 is important for dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) transplacental carcinogenesis. Wild-type mCyp1b1, transgen...
Article
Histone deacetylase 6 is a multifunctional lysine deacetylase that is recently emerging as a central facilitator of response to stress and may play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. The histone deacetylase 6-inhibitor tubacin has been shown to slow the growth of metastatic prostate cancer cells and sensitize cancer cells to chemothera...
Article
Full-text available
The phytochemical sulforaphane can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in metastatic prostate cancer cells, though the mechanism of action is not fully known. We conducted a global proteome analysis in LNCaP metastatic prostate cancer cells to characterize how global protein signature responds to sulforaphane. We conducted parallel analyses to e...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on breast cancer. Sulforaphane (SFN), an active food component derived from crucifers, has been shown to be effective in breast cancer chemoprevention. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of SFN on selective biomarkers from blood and breast tissues. In a 2-8-w...
Article
We hypothesized that the long non coding RNA (lncRNA), Loc344887, is induced by Nrf2 activation and acts as a transcriptional co-activator of the Nrf2 target gene NQO1. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that is important in oxidative stress responses. Upon oxidative stress, Nrf2 is released from its binding partner Keap1. Nrf2 translocates to the nucl...
Article
Epidemiologic studies have revealed that diets rich in sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, are associated with a marked decrease in prostate cancer incidence. The chemo-preventive role of SFN is associated with its histone de-acetylase inhibitor activity. However, the effect of SFN on chromatin composition and d...
Article
Full-text available
Acetylation is an important, reversible post-translational modification affecting histone and non-histone proteins with critical roles in gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Key regulatory enzymes include histone deacetylase (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Overexpressed HDACs have been identif...
Article
The phytochemical sulforaphane has been shown to decrease prostate cancer metastases in a genetic mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis, though the mechanism of action is not fully known. Sulforaphane has been reported to stimulate autophagy, and modulation of autophagy has been proposed to influence sulforaphane cytotoxicity; however, no conclusi...
Article
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables that has multiple molecular targets and anti-cancer properties. Researchers have demonstrated several chemopreventive benefits of SFN consumption, such as reductions in tumor growth, increases in cancer cell apoptosis, and disruption of signaling within tumor microenvironment...
Article
Zinc deficiency results in immune dysfunction and promotes systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc deficiency on cellular immune activation and epigenetic mechanisms that promote inflammation. This work is potentially relevant to the aging population given that age-related immune defects, including chro...
Article
Full-text available
The isothiocyanate sulforaphane is a promising molecule for development as a therapeutic agent for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Sulforaphane induces apoptosis in advanced prostate cancer cells, slows disease progression in vivo and is well tolerated at pharmacological doses. However, the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for cancer s...
Article
ScopeSulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical t...
Article
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto...
Article
Scope: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, can reduce the risk of cancer development. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables that induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses in prostate cancer cells, but not in normal prostate cells. The m...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic changes, including aberrant DNA methylation, result in altered gene expression and play an important role in carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals such as sulforaphane (SFN) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are promising chemopreventive agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. Both have been shown to induce re-expression of genes, including...
Article
Epigenetic events establish a particular gene expression signature for each cell type during differentiation and fertilization. Disruption of these epigenetic programs in response to environmental stimuli during prenatal exposure dysregulates the fetal epigenome, potentially impacting susceptibility to disease later in life (the fetal basis of adul...
Article
Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforap...
Article
Full-text available
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases have important roles in the regulation of protein acetylation, chromatin dynamics and the DNA damage response. Here, we show in human colon cancer cells that dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) inhibit HDAC activity and increase HDAC protein turnover with the potency proportional to alkyl chain length,...