Emily R. Dworkin

Emily R. Dworkin
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Ph.D.

About

79
Publications
40,002
Reads
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2,057
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
1806 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
June 2021 - present
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2015 - June 2016
University of Mississippi Medical Center
Position
  • Medical Doctor
August 2009 - May 2016
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Sexual assault (SA) is a common experience in the lives of women and men and is associated with numerous deleterious outcomes. Understanding the relative prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in people who have been sexually assaulted versus people who have not been assaulted could help to prioritize assessment and intervention efforts, but there has...
Article
Public attention has been increasingly paid to how friends, family members, and others can best support survivors of sexual assault and other forms of violence. The broader social support literature posits that perceiving social support positively is more important to well-being than the degree to which social support is actually received, and that...
Article
Objective: Sexual assault is associated with higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than other traumas, and the course of PTSD may differ by trauma type. However, the course of PTSD after sexual assault has not been summarized. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify the prevalence and severity of PTSD and changes to the averag...
Article
Accessible, brief, and self-directed intervention are needed to improve treatment access for individuals with co-occuring PTSD and alcohol misuse. This pilot study tests the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a brief text message intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy plus message framing (CBT + Framing) compared to...
Article
Introduction: Sexual assault is a common form of trauma that is associated with elevated risk for negative psychosocial outcomes. Although survivors' social relationships could serve as a major protective factor against negative outcomes, survivors' supporters often lack knowledge regarding effective responses and may inadvertently respond in ways...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Healthcare workers are at increased risk for mental health problems during disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying resilience mechanisms can inform development of interventions for this population. The current study examined pathways that may support healthcare worker resilience, specifically testing enabling (social support en...
Article
Social support after sexual assault is important for recovery, but violence and recovery may also challenge relationships. We examined functional and structural social support changes following sexual assault and their association with mental health. College women ( N = 544) with and without a sexual assault history completed a cross-sectional surv...
Article
Alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk for sexual violence victimization and perpetration. Pregaming, a popular activity among college students that involves heavy and quick drinking prior to going out for the night and often results in high blood alcohol levels (BALs), may convey increased risk for sexual violence–potentially...
Article
The current arricle describes a novel recruitment protocol for collecting data from sexual assault and intimate partner violence survivors referred to research studies by individuals to whom they had previously disclosed. Challenges in both recruiting participants and interpreting data are described. Only 35.8% of cases had usable data for both sur...
Article
To date, research on social reactions to dating and sexual violence (DSV) disclosure has largely neglected the perspective of disclosure recipients. Moreover, few studies have explored disclosure recipients’ perceptions of the victim and perceptions of their own effectiveness in helping as well as the correlates of these perceptions. The purpose of...
Article
Objective: We present a review of peer-reviewed English-language studies conducted outside the United States and Canada on the prevalence of sexual assault victimization in adolescence and adulthood published since 2010. Method: A systematic literature search yielded 32 articles reporting on 45 studies from 29 countries. Studies that only provid...
Article
Objective: Plaut's breakthrough 2010 publication on diversity science-the study of meaningful human differences-set in motion a generative field of theory and research. Yet, to move diversity science forward, innovative methods that explicitly center the experiences of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) who encounter multiple forms of...
Article
Background . Young adults who engage in simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use may be more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors including riding with impaired drivers and driving after alcohol and/or marijuana use. Methods . Young adult SAM users (N = 408) self-reported their behavior for five 14-day bursts, yielding daily-level responses on...
Article
Whereas some prior studies have explored whether alcohol increases the risk for victimization and/or whether distress resulting from victimization increases the risk for alcohol use, few studies have simultaneously tested these bidirectional hypotheses among a high-risk sample (i.e., undergraduate women), while including both sexual assault (SA) an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While evidence is growing for the efficacy of trauma-focused mental health interventions in low- and middle-income countries, concerns have been raised about whether these types of interventions can be effectively delivered in contexts with ongoing conflict and violence. Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) has been shown to be effective...
Article
Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault (SA) commonly disclose their experiences to friends or family members, or within other personal relationships. Disclosure recipients’ responses to these disclosures are associated with victims’ mental health. Previous research has separately measured both actual responses to IPV/SA and a...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Several reports have documented risk factors for opioid use following treatment discharge, yet few have assessed sex differences, and no study has assessed risk using contemporary machine learning approaches. The goal of the present paper was to inform treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD) by exploring individual factors for...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of intimate partner violence survivors tell at least one person about the abuse, and the reactions of these support providers can have a profound impact on survivors’ recovery. In recent years, the Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ) has become the predominant measure of social reactions toward intimate partner violence survivors, but...
Article
Objective: Previous research has indicated that many undergraduates receive disclosures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence (IPV) from their peers; however, much of this research has been cross-sectional. The present study assessed the extent to which demographic characteristics and victimization history predicted whether participants...
Article
Sexual minority women (SMW; individuals who identify as women and as lesbian, bisexual, or with another sexual minority identity) are at increased risk for problematic alcohol use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This increased risk has been attributed to minority stress. However, longitudinal research examining associations between min...
Article
Objective: Research consistently documents the high rates and deleterious outcomes of dating and sexual violence (DSV) among college students. Thus, there is an urgency to identify cost-effective interventions that can mitigate the negative outcomes associated with these forms of violence. The purpose of the current study was to conduct secondary a...
Article
Objective: Sexual violence has substantial mental health effects on survivors around the globe. Although there has been increasing attention to the ways that sociocultural environments can affect survivors' recovery, there has been no review to our knowledge of the specific factors within sociocultural environments that offer risk or protection, o...
Article
Objective: Sexual minority women (SMW) evidence elevated rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and alcohol consumption. Self-medication models of drinking suggest that individuals may drink to cope with symptoms of PTS, but this possibility remains untested among SMW. Method: The current study used data from drinking days collected...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention ( Supporting Survivors and Self [SSS]) created to increase positive social reactions and decrease negative social reactions to sexual assault and partner violence disclosures among informal support disclosure recipients. Participants were 1,268 college students from a medium-sized New Englan...
Article
Objective: The goal of the present study was to conduct a quantitative review to determine the degree to which specific forms of suicidality (i.e., lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation and attempts) are associated with sexual assault (SA). It also examined whether the strength of the association between SA and suicidality was moderated by samp...
Article
Full-text available
Stalking victimization may have a significant impact on adolescents’ well-being, above and beyond the effects of other types of interpersonal violence victimization. This article explored the association of stalking victimization (unwanted harassing or threats) with adolescents’ depressed mood and perception of mattering to other people. Adolescent...
Article
The impact of changes to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) within diverse communities is unclear. Young adult sexual minority women are at high risk for interpersonal violence...
Poster
Full-text available
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) affects women of all cultural backgrounds, evidence suggests that racial/ethnic differences exist in the prevalence, experience, and sequelae of IPV. However, women of color are underrepresented in research on violence against women, leading to a gap in knowledge regarding the cultural dynamics that may info...
Article
Objective: Exposure to violent victimization is associated with higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders (SUD). Some youth who experience multiple victimizations and associated characteristics (i.e. poly-victims) are at heightened risk for long term problems. Thus, we conducted the first study to examine how heterogeneity in exper...
Article
Sexual minority women are at elevated risk for exposure to stressors (both traumatic and discriminatory) and have higher rates of alcohol consumption and problems. The psychological mediation framework (Hatzenbuehler, 2009) suggests that both general (e.g., traumatic events to which minorities and nonminorities may be exposed) and minority-group-sp...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Impulsivity has been identified as an important construct in predicting the initiation and maintenance of substance use among at-risk populations. Interventions emphasizing mindfulness strategies appear particularly promising in reducing substance use and marking change in various aspects of impulsivity. Methods The current study used a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors delay or withhold disclosure of their abuse, even when presenting for formal investigation interviews. Objective: This study examined factors that relate to the CSA disclosure process. Participants and settings: Participants were CSA victims (N = 1,732) presenting to a Child Advocacy Center (...
Article
To understand how exposure to victimization during adolescence and the presence of comorbid psychological conditions influence substance use treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis from 14 to 25 years old among serious juvenile offenders, this study included 1,354 serious juvenile offenders who were prospectively followed over 7 years....
Article
Co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are costly and consequential public health problems that negatively affect the health and well-being of U.S. military service members and veterans. The disproportionate burden of comorbid PTSD and AUD among U.S. military service members and veterans may be due to uniq...
Article
This chapter describes the prevalence of trauma exposure and related mental health disorders among sexual minority women (SMW). It reviews theoretical models that explain the ways in which trauma exposure among SMW may lead to mental health concerns, including minority stress, insidious trauma, and psychological mediation theoretical frameworks, as...
Article
Background: Although victimization is a known contributor to the development of substance use disorders, no research has simultaneously examined how characteristics of victimization experienced over time, such as the type of abuse, the presence of poly-victimization, closeness to perpetrator(s), life threat or fear, and negative social reactions t...
Article
Youth involved in child welfare services (CWS) are at elevated risk for substance use. CWS involvement may provide an opportunity for intervention to prevent subsequent use; however, little is known about mitigating substance use risk in this population. Using data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), the p...
Article
Research has indicated that sexual minority women (SMW) drink more than do their heterosexual counterparts. Minority stress theory postulates that this increased drinking is motivated by efforts to modulate distress related to minority status, highlighting the potential importance of coping and enhancement drinking motives. Social learning theory p...
Article
Tailgating drinking prior to a football game is a type of event-specific drinking associated with increased alcohol use and related problems. Personalized drinking feedback interventions (PFI) are efficacious in reducing alcohol use and problems. The current study aimed to advance understanding of event-specific interventions by examining: (1) the...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to understand substance use patterns of alcohol, marijuana, and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) among 2- and 4-year college students. Participants: Participants were 526 young adults aged 18-23 (n = 355 4-year students; n = 171 2-year students) recruited from February 2015 to January 2016 w...
Article
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of trauma exposure and, subsequently, the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors extended a theoretical model explaining the higher risk of mental disorders in minority populations to the maintenance and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms among young adult SMW specifically. This stud...
Article
Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors’ contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences descri...
Article
Balancing risks and benefits is a necessary ethical task for social science researchers. Community psychologists must often consider risks and benefits not just for individual participants, but also for the group, system, or society that those individuals inhabit. Little ethical guidance currently exists for how to navigate this ethical challenge a...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: After sexual assault, many college women develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those who engage in substance use coping are at heightened risk for this outcome. Social support has been identified as an important protective factor against the development of PTSD, although it remains unclear for whom social support...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: In cross-sectional studies, social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms appear related in that higher levels of PTSD are associated with lower social support, and vice versa. Theoretical models of the causal direction of this relationship differ. Most longitudinal studies suggest that PTSD symptoms erode social supp...
Article
Objective: There is a high occurrence of sexual assault (SA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) among people with substance use disorders and an established association between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no research has examined associations between combinations of these traumas and PTSD symptom profiles among peo...
Article
Highlights • Rape myth acceptance (RMA) of sexually assaulted high schoolers' peers in 25 schools was assessed. • Survivors in grades with higher rape denial were more likely to report depressed mood. • Female survivors in grades with higher traditional gender expectations were more likely to drink. • Survivors' own RMA and school-level RMA were no...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In cross-sectional studies, social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms appear related, in that higher severity of PTSD is associated with lower social support and vice versa. Theoretical models of the causal direction of this relationship differ. Most longitudinal studies suggest that PTSD symptoms erode social su...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accou...
Poster
Full-text available
As a group, sexual minority women (SMW) drink more than their heterosexual counterparts. There is evidence that context-specific drinking motives affect drinking behavior, as well as evidence that SMW consume more alcohol when drinking with other sexual minorities. However, daily variation in drinking motives has been minimally examined, and, to ou...
Article
The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder (PTSD-SUD) can pose significant problems for rural pregnant and postpartum women (PPW) and the well-being of their children. Although effective treatments exist, PPW experience limitations in their ability to access and engage in treatment that may be compounded by variou...
Article
Introduction: Sexual minority women have elevated trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to heterosexual women and they are also more likely to use cannabis, although no research has examined relationships between PTSD and cannabis use in this population. Daily-level methodologies are necessary to examine p...
Poster
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accou...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Comorbidity in diagnosis raises critical challenges for psychological assessment and treatment. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project, launched by the National Institutes of Mental Health, proposes domains of functioning as a way to conceptualize the overlap between comorbid conditions and inform treatment selection. However, fur...
Article
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk...
Article
Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress, early contact with formal systems (e.g., healthcare, criminal j...
Article
Member participation in multidisciplinary collaborative efforts is a critical component of their effectiveness, yet fostering regular participation from key stakeholders can be challenging. While the literature on the factors that explain participation in collaborative efforts focuses mostly on member characteristics, characteristics of collaborati...
Article
Most survivors of sexual assault disclose their experiences within their social networks, and these disclosure decisions can have important implications for their entry into formal systems and well-being, but no research has directly examined these networks as a strategy to understand disclosure decisions. Using a mixed-method approach that combine...
Article
Objective: After sexual assault, survivors often reach to others for support and receive a range of reactions. Although these reactions have been characterized by researchers as positive (e.g., emotional support) or negative (e.g., victim blaming), survivors vary in their perceptions in ways that do not always match this framework. The goal of this...
Thesis
Sexual assault is a common experience that has been associated with a number of problematic psychosocial outcomes. To cope with the trauma of sexual assault and mitigate these negative outcomes, survivors may reach out for services and support. However, the responses that they receive vary in their quality and helpfulness. While a theoretical model...
Article
Qualitative approaches can be combined with quantitative ones (e.g., multilevel modeling) to enrich understanding of the contextual realities that shape the way that settings function and exert influence. A mixed methods approach to multilevel, multisetting inquiry allows examination of the strategic interplay of qualitative and quantitative method...
Poster
Full-text available
Social network analysis is increasingly used to study sensitive topics, which presents a number of ethical issues. Researchers aiming to use this method to study the context of recovery from sexual assault raised a number of ethical issues in consultation with their campus IRB. To conduct this research in a way that maximizes adherence to ethical p...
Article
Objective: Child sexual abuse (CSA) victimization has been identified as one of many environmental risk factors for the later development of disordered eating, and empirical evidence suggests that the relationship between CSA victimization and disordered eating may be explained by a number of mediators. Indeed, it appears that CSA victimization may...
Article
Sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs can be a vital resource to victims and the legal community. This study examined how police may use SANE services during the investigation phase and how this involvement may affect whether a case is forwarded by police to prosecutors. Police reports (N = 343) of adult sexual assault cases in three midwes...
Article
Medical forensic exams for victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be a helpful resource for addressing patients' complex medical, psychological, and legal needs. These exams can be performed by physicians or forensic nurses to identify and treat injuries, evaluate the risk for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, and collect evidence...
Article
Sexual assault prosecution is often influenced by extralegal factors, such as victims' age, race, and prior relationship to the assailant. The importance of evidentiary characteristics remains unclear. Prior studies suggest that victim credibility may be a central concern to law enforcement and prosecutors. However, many communities have implemente...
Article
This review examines the psychological impact of adult sexual assault through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of human development, we examine how individual-level factors (e.g., s...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I would like to meta-analyze data that I've collected from prospective/repeated-measures studies that assess mental health at immediately after an event and then at a variety of follow-up time points among the people that experienced the event (e.g., one month, six months). Ultimately, I would like to be able to speak to trajectories of change in mental health in the year after this event.
My dilemma is that some studies assess mental health as a binary variable (i.e., number of people who have the disorder or do not have the disorder), while others assess it as a continuous variable (i.e., mean scale score/SD). I'm familiar with the single-group, pretest–posttest change/raw score effect sizes to represent changes over time for mean-level data (Morris & DeShon, 2002), but I can't find any single-group effect sizes that represent change on a binary variable. To be clear, I'm familiar with effect sizes for dichotomous data that represent differences between groups, but wondering what the appropriate effect size is for differences within a single group over time
I appreciate your help in advance!

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
We aim to quantitatively and qualitatively summarize the prospective empirical literature on PTSD diagnostic caseness and severity of symptoms in the 12 months following sexual assault. To date, we have obtained published and unpublished data from 22 studies on this topic.
Project
Social support is an important protective factor against PTSD after sexual assault. However, some survivors lack support, others withdraw from their social supports, and those who do have social support often receive harmful negative reactions when they disclose their assault. To help sexual assault survivors maximize the benefits of post-assault support while minimizing the risks, this project aims to develop a web-based that teaches cognitive-behavioral strategies in the early aftermath of sexual assault.