Emilia Noorsal

Emilia Noorsal
Universiti Teknologi MARA | UiTM · Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Bachelor of Engineering

About

54
Publications
7,958
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384
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
277 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
Gender discrimination and awareness are essentially practiced in social, education, workplace, and economic sectors across the globe. A person manifests this attribute naturally in gait, body gesture, facial, including speech. For that reason, automatic gender recognition (AGR) has become an interesting sub-topic in speech recognition systems that...
Chapter
Full-text available
The key success of an electric vehicle (EV) traction converter/inverter lies in the efficiency of its controller. In some complex systems such as an electric vehicle inverter/converter, the controller requires more than a single controller working together. The overall efficiency of such a controller much depends on its architecture and control str...
Chapter
Full-text available
Real-world functional electrical stimulation (FES) encounters nonlinear effects of fatigue and time delay that cause the FES controller to under-perform or sometimes fail. Nonlinearities cause the system to change, but it is not possible to re-tune the controller once its parameters are set. System representation using an observer can allow the pat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Conventional vehicles emit carbon monoxide and nitro oxide during the engine combustion. These two gases are two major contributors toward pollution to the environment. Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer an alternative solution to the above mentioned scenarios. However the prices of AC drive EVs and HEVs vehicle are u...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper focuses on developing the hardware for a controller and of a zero crossing circuit for an electric car battery charger. A novel topology of a battery charger is studied and tested. A conventional rectifier has drawbacks in terms of harmonic currents. This paper describes a five-level single-phase rectifier associated with buck chopper wi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Real-world function electrical stimulation (FES) encounters nonlinear effects of fatigue and time delay that cause the FES controller to underperform and sometimes fail. Nonlinearities degrade the muscle performance and change the system, but the FES controller cannot be re-tuned once its parameters are set. System representation using an observer...
Chapter
Full-text available
Parallel mode operation is one of the modes of operation offered by New series motor four quadrants DC chopper for Electric Vehicles (EV). This paper is to study about the parallel mode and the focus is to reduce ripple current and ripple torque. Matlab/Simulink software is used to establish the system under study and the simulation results indicat...
Article
Full-text available
Multilevel inverters are a type of power electronic circuit that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) for use in high-voltage and high-power applications. Many recent studies on multilevel inverters have used field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as a switching controller device to overcome the limitations of microcontrollers o...
Article
Full-text available
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) device has been widely used by spinal cord injury (SCI) patients in their rehab exercises to restore motor function to their paralysed muscles. The major challenge of muscle contraction induced by FES is early muscle fatigue due to the open-loop stimulation strategy. To reduce the early muscle fatigue phenome...
Chapter
Full-text available
DC drive electric vehicles will have several driving conditions such as driving on a flat surface, climbing a steep hill, or cruising downhill with different types of loads, i.e., passengers and luggage. A four quadrants DC chopper (FQDC) has been developed to work with a series motor for the application of DC Drive electric vehicle in previous wor...
Chapter
Full-text available
A series motor has two weaknesses which are overrun when running under load or the drastic speed drop when loaded. The parallel mode allows the series motor to overcome the condition motor speed drop when loaded. For maintaining the torque at its optimum, the field current needs to be controlled. This paper describes the gradient descend method to...
Article
Full-text available
This is part five of an eight-part series of a new Four quadrant dc chopper. The paper describes the parallel mode of the proposed Four Quadrants DC Chopper (FQDC) for a series motor. The mode is designed to overcome a disadvantage of dc series motors which is the speed reduction under load. First, it is studied via simulation using Matlab/Simulink...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the operation of a field weakening mode of a new four quadrants DC chopper (FQDC) that can be used to extend the speed of an Electric Car (EC). A mathematical model and real experiment are used to verify the effectiveness of the field weakening mode of the proposed FQDC. First, Matlab/Simulink is used to simulate the system und...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the application of a fuzzy logic control algorithm assisted by Performance Index as a chopper operation controller. The controller selects the right mode for a four quadrant DC chopper (FQDC) while considering the Battery State of Charge (SOC) and the Remaining Distance Traverse (RDT) for the vehicle. Selecting the appropriate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the implementation of regenerative braking mode of the FQDC for a DC series motor designed for an electric vehicle (EV). The mode offers a battery charging as well as a linear controlled braking. Matlab/Simulink simulation software and real experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed system and the resu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electric Vehicle (EV) is one of the solutions to combat air pollution problem, which is caused by daily Internal Combustion Engine transportation vehicle. However, the current existing AC drive EV is expensive and not affordable to many people. DC Drive system is economical, but its performance is limited as a result of poor performance of conventi...
Article
Full-text available
Despite abundant growth in automatic emotion recognition system (ERS) studies using various techniques in feature extractions and classifiers, scarce sources found to improve the system via pre-processing techniques. This paper proposed a smart pre-processing stage using fuzzy logic inference system (FIS) based on Mamdani engine and simple time-bas...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the reverse mode of a proposed series motor four-quadrant direct current chopper (FQDC). The paper proposes a control technique in controlling the acceleration and deceleration of an electric vehicle (EV) using triple cascade proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with an ascend-descend algorithm for controlling sp...
Chapter
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This paper focused on the steering position control for automatic reverse parking of a direct current (DC) drive electric car. The steering position control was integrated into a vehicle cornering algorithm using a two-turn/double-circle concept. The control technique was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink; the results showed that the technique succes...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper proposes a numerical method using Taylor series in representing a new series motor of a four-quadrant drive direct current chopper (FQDC) in driving mode operation for electric vehicle’s application. The representation has three main purposes which are for troubleshooting, error correction and optimization. The Taylor series will be used...
Chapter
Full-text available
The direct current (DC) series motor is the highest starting torque motor compared to other motors with the same kilowatt power. The conventional speed controller that is used in an electric vehicle utilizes the series motor that can cause jerk and slip during start-up. This paper discusses the usage of a direct current control (DCC) in the four qu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Direct current (DC) series motors have a higher starting torque compared to other types of motors, and their power is in the kilowatt range. The standard speed is applied for electric vehicles (EVs) with a series motor, and four quadrants direct current chopper (FQDC) can cause jerk and slip during the start-up. DC control (DCC) is one of the solut...
Article
Full-text available
The Development of a wearable sensor that can monitor a heart rate and body temperature based on ESP8266 NodeMCU microcontroller is proposed in this project. To realize the system, two biomedical sensors are used which are MAX30205 and SEN11574 Pulse Rate Sensor. The sensors should be wearable to make it easy to be used by the patient. All the data...
Article
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Voice recognition, command and control systems have played a vital role to facilitate our modern lifestyle and routine operations through hands-free applications. Working people are busy with their routines, simple tasks such as to on/off electrical appliances at home are often overlooked leads to wastage of energy. Besides, the elderly and handica...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the analytical study of flexible stimulation waveforms in muscle fatigue reduction for functional electrical stimulator (FES)-assisted hemiplegic muscle activities. The major challenge of muscle contraction induced by FES is early muscle fatigue which greatly limits activities such as FES-assisted standing and walking. The fixed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the design and development of electronic nose hardware circuitry is presented. A complete electronic nose system for odour recognition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consists of quartz crystal microbalance sensors, the electronic hardware circuitry and the odour handling delivery system. The electronic hardware circuitry is...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents the work on the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) on signal processing of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance sensors for classification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Multilayer Perceptron with backpropagation training procedure using Lavenberg-marquardt technique was employed. The optimum structure of the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the design and development of a programmable gate array (FPGA) switching strategy was chosen and pre for the power switches in the 5-level The designed switching controller power switches of the 5-level TCHB multilevel inverter. The than 1% of the total FPGA logic elements (LEs), LEs. The execution speed of the 99.9% faster than...
Article
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This paper presents the design and development of an external control unit (ECU) for a stimulator ASIC testing purposes. The ECU consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) from the PC, a data transceiver and a power transmitter. The GUI was developed using MATLAB for stimulation data setup. The data transceiver was designed using hardware descrip...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) design of a Digital Pulse Width Modulation (DPWM) signal generator, for the implementation of PWM control signal generator, to be integrated on a single die with the single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch (BRBS) DC boost converter, in view to eliminate the...
Chapter
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In recent years, limited research was focused on designing a multichannel microstimulator that could demonstrate high flexibility in terms of pulse parameters, waveshapes, stimulation strategy, number of electrodes, high-voltage compliance, and variety of charge-balancing techniques to optimize the use of an implant chip for various implementations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the importance of having a backchannel communication link between a microstimulator ASIC and an external control unit for complete safety closure and closed-loop power management. An example of the overall microstimulation system with backchannel communication link for an epiretinal implant is provided. Additionally, the backch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an integrated multichannel neurostimulator ASIC with improved power management efficiency. The stimulator features transcutaneous closed-loop power control that enables optimum power transfer in spite of the coupling variation as well as the variation in the stimulation threshold/current. A programmable adaptive supply in the hi...
Article
A major drawback of a current-controlled stimulation is its power efficiency. However, it is commonly used in implantable stimulators due to its safety. The power efficiency of a current-controlled stimulation can be improved by reducing the headroom voltage needed in the current driver. A promising technique is to bias the transistor in triode reg...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes how to employ distributed clock gating to achieve an overall low power design of a programmable waveform generator intended for a neural stimulator. The power efficiency is enabled using global timing control combined with local amplitude distribution over a bus to the local stimulator frontends. This allows the combination of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an integrated neural stimulator with highly efficient and flexible frontend which is intended for an epiretinal implant with 1024 electrodes. It features programmable stimulation pulse shapes, a high-voltage (HV) output driver with compliance monitor for supply voltage adaptation, active and passive charge balancers, and electro...
Conference Paper
The required number of channels for neural stimulation is increasing; while in vitro arrays reached more than 10000 sites, implantable systems, e.g. for retinal or cortical stimulation, have not exceeded above 1600 which was achieved with a reduction to basic functionality and wireline control of rectangular stimulation pulses.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the architecture and protocol of a digital stimulator which is intended to realize a highly flexible stimulation waveform pattern. The flexibility is provided by programmable stimulation profiles such as pulse duration, frequency, polarity, amplitude level, arbitrary wave shape, train of pulses and different types of wave patte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an automated odour measurement process using AT89C55WD Microcontroller for the electronic nose (e-nose) system. An e-nose system has been developed to detect various hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs); Acetone, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and Methanol, which requires environmental monitoring. The complete e-nose system...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the design and development of an odour sensing system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) odour-sensor array and an artificial neural network (ANN) for the identification of some of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol. The QCM sensors were developed using PVC-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lipid materials have the ability to mimic human olfaction and are used for odorant adsorption membranes for gas sensors. In this work, PVC blended lipids are coated on to the surface of quartz crystals microbalance (QCM) using a spin coating method and are used for the detection of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment such a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the design and development of an odour sensor system based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) odour-sensor array and its response patterns to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as Acetone, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and Methanol. QCM sensors were developed using PVC-blended lipids as sensing materials. A home-built data...

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