Emile A. D. Carbone

Emile A. D. Carbone
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique | INRS · Energy, Materials and Telecommunications Research Centre

PhD in Applied Physics

About

60
Publications
20,567
Reads
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987
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2017 - January 2020
Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
Position
  • Group Leader
February 2015 - January 2017
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2013 - August 2014
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a detailed investigation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a pulsed microwave plasma is presented. The plasma is ignited inside a dielectric tube in a repetitively pulsed regime at pressures ranging from 1 up to 100?mbar with pulse repetition frequencies from 200?Hz up to 500?kHz. Various diagnostic techniques are employed to obtain...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, laser collisional induced fluorescence (LCIF) is used to probe resonant excitation transfers in an argon/hydrogen plasma resulting from heavy particle collisions. Different radiative transitions between the 1s and 2p states (in Paschen's notation) of argon are optically pumped by a nanosecond laser pulse. The spontaneous fluorescence...
Article
Full-text available
The laser pump-probe technique is used to study the electron impact transfer between the 1s5 and 1s4 states of argon (in Paschen's notation) belonging to the 2P3/2 ion core for electron temperatures in the range of 1-2 eV. A rate coefficient of m3s-1 is determined for the transfer from 1s5 to 1s4 state. Different pumping schemes between the 1s and...
Article
In this paper, we discuss the experimental results presented in Schregel et al (2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054003) on a high pressure micro-discharge operated in helium and driven by nanosecond voltage pulses. A simple global plasma chemistry model is developed to describe the ions, excited atomic and molecular species dynamics in the ign...
Article
Full-text available
Technologies based on non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas are ubiquitous in today’s society. Plasma modeling plays an essential role in their understanding, development and optimization. An accurate description of electron and ion collisions with neutrals and their transport is required to correctly describe plasma properties as a function of...
Article
Ultrafast pulsation of microwave power for CO2 conversion using plasmas is a mean to improve the efficiency of the process. Nevertheless, the fundamental phenomena involved need deeper understanding in order to design optimal plasma based devices. Therefore, detailed parametric scans of the plasma torch performance are performed with plasma diagnos...
Article
Ultra-high resolution Particle-in-Cell coupled to Monte-Carlo collisions modelling unveils microscale instabilities in non-equilibrium plasmas fulfilling Penrose's instability criterion. The spontaneous development of ion turbulence in the phase-space generated by charge exchange collisions leads to finite amplitude modulations of the local electri...
Article
Plasma conversion is an alternative approach to the electrochemical and photochemical technologies searching for most efficient way to convert CO2 into carbon monoxide (CO). The CO2 plasma conversion investigated in recent years demonstrated conversion and energy efficiencies up to 50%. Commonly, these values are obtained at pressures lower than at...
Article
Full-text available
Global Models are widely used to study reaction kinetics in low-temperature plasma discharges. The governing conservative equations are simplified into a system of ordinary differential Equations in order to provide computationally feasible conditions to study complex chemistries with hundreds of species and thousands of reactions. This paper prese...
Article
Full-text available
Among the pool of Power-to-X technologies, plasmas show high potential for the efficient use of intermittent renewable energies. High efficiencies of CO2 conversion have been reported while using microwave plasmas at vacuum conditions which are, however, not suitable for CO2 mitigation at industrial scales. Here we show that ultrafast pulsation of...
Article
A mass spectrometer with a custom sampling system comprising one fixed and one variable orifice is presented. The custom sampling system allows the determination of the gas composition in the pressure range from 5 mbar to 1000 mbar, with low gas-demixing (<1.5%). A case study of mass spectrometer optimization and calibration for the measurement of...
Article
Full-text available
Microwave plasmas are a promising technology for energy-efficient CO2 valorization via conversion of CO2 into CO and O2 using renewable energies. A 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with swirling CO2 gas flow is studied in a large pressure (60-1000 mbar) and flow (5-100 slm) range. Two different modes of the plasma torch, depending on the operating p...
Article
Full-text available
The optical emission spectra of high pressure CO2 microwave plasmas are usually dominated by the C2 Swan bands. In this paper, the use of the C2 Swan bands for estimating the gas temperature in CO2 microwave plasmas is assessed. State by state fitting is employed to check the correctness of assuming a Boltzmann distribution for the rotational and v...
Article
Full-text available
Neutral species and positive ions are measured by means of mass spectrometry in the effluent of the non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jet operated in He/0%–1%CO 2 gas mixture. The capacitively coupled plasma source is the predecessor of the known COST reference jet with identical performance and it is operated in a diffuse mode with gas temperatur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microwave plasmas are a promising technology for energy-efficient CO2 valorization via conversion of CO2 into CO and O2 using renewable energies. A 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with swirling CO2 gas flow is studied in a large pressure (60-1000 mbar) and flow (5-100 slm) range. Two different modes of the plasma torch, depending on the operating p...
Preprint
Full-text available
The optical emission spectra of high pressure CO2 microwave plasmas are usually dominated by the C2 Swan bands. In this paper, the use of the C2 Swan bands for estimating the gas temperature in CO2 microwave plasmas is assessed. State by state fitting is employed to check the correctness of assuming a Boltzmann distribution for the rotational and v...
Article
The effect of the pulse repetition rate (PRR) on the generation of high energy electrons in a fast ionization wave (FIW) discharge is investigated by both experiment and modelling. The FIW discharge is driven by nanosecond high voltage pulses and is generated in helium with a pressure of 30 mbar. The axial electric field (E z), as the driven force...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon monoxide is infamously known for its toxicity when administrated in high doses. In this article, we review some of the evidence for therapeutic effects of CO used in biology, when CO is delivered in small quantities. It is argued that plasmas in this context are an attractive in situ source for the process of alleviating the risks related to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The CO2 plasma chemistry is complex and a step by step analysis of all components of the model is necessary. An accurate description requires complete data input for electron, ions and heavy particles kinetics. In this contribution, we present a preliminary analysis of the species densities as a function of the electron density and temperature a...
Article
This work presents the results of Thomson scattering measurements, optical emission spectroscopy and laser absorption spectroscopy applied to a high pressure nanosecond pulsed helium micro-discharge. All data are recorded with high temporal resolution, giving an insight into the processes determining the discharge dynamics. From Thomson scattering...
Article
Full-text available
LXCat is an open-access platform (www.lxcat.net) for curating data needed for modeling the electron and ion components of technological plasmas. The data types presently supported on LXCat are scattering cross sections and swarm/transport parameters, ion-neutral interaction potentials, and optical oscillator strengths. Twenty-four databases contrib...
Article
Electron-impact excitation processes play an important role in low-temperature plasma physics. Cross section and rate coefficient data for electron-impact processes from the ground state to excited states or between two excited states are required for both diagnostics and modeling works. However, the collisional processes between excited states are...
Article
Full-text available
Collisional and radiative dynamics of a plasma is exposed by so-called Collisional Radiative Models [1] that simplify the chemical kinetics by quasi-steady state assignment on certain types of particles. The assignment is conventionally based on the classification of the plasma species by the ratio of the transport to the local destruction frequenc...
Article
A microwave-induced oxygen plasma is simulated using both stationary and time-resolved modelling strategies. The stationary model is spatially resolved and it is self-consistently coupled to the microwaves (Jimenez-Diaz et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 335204), whereas the time-resolved description is based on a global (volume-averaged) model...
Article
Full-text available
Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5–80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200–450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to v = 18) by Schumann–Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities ind...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we review the main challenges related to laser Thomson scattering on low temperature plasmas. The main features of the triple grating spectrometer used to discriminate Thomson and Raman scattering signals from Rayleigh scattering and stray light are presented. The main parameters influencing the detection limit of Thomson scattering...
Article
Full-text available
A coaxial microwave plasma setup was designed for investigation by optical and laser diagnostics. The plasma is sustained by two microwave power sources located at both ends of a coaxial line. This allows generating an axially homogeneous glow discharge at low pressure. For increasing pressures, this glow-like mode is found to be unstable and vario...
Article
Full-text available
An inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma in chlorine is investigated via a global (volume-averaged) model, both in continuous and square wave modulated power input modes. After the power is switched off (in a pulsed mode) an ion–ion plasma appears. In order to model this phenomenon, a novel quasi-neutrality implementation is proposed. Several...
Article
This study assess the decay of a power-pulsed microwave plasma in argon mixtures using time resolved Thomson scattering. In argon at intermediate pressure, i.e. tens of mbar, the electron temperature decays very fast after power off and approaches the heavy particle temperature, while the electron density decays slower, in the order of tens of micr...
Article
Full-text available
In this communication, we investigate the ignition of pulsed microwave plasmas in a narrow dielectric tube with an electrodeless configuration. The plasma is generated using a surfatron cavity. The power is modulated as a square wave with a rise-time of 30 ns at variable frequencies from 100 Hz up to 5 MHz. The ignition and plasma propagation insid...
Article
Full-text available
In a microwave argon plasma, the electron-impact population transfers between the first four excited states of argon are studied by time-resolved laser pump–probe technique. Metastable atoms in the 1s 5 state (in Paschen's notation) are selectively pumped up to the 2p 3 state, with a nanosecond pulsed dye laser tuned to the 706 nm argon transition...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
form only given. Pulsed power operation of plasmas is usually considered as a tool to control deposition processes as well as a diagnostic method. In this contribution, we will investigate the pulsed operation of a low pressure microwave plasma source, the surfatron. Thomson scattering and emission spectroscopy are used to study the evolution of th...
Conference Paper
form only given. Plasmas are commonly used for industrial surface processing. Reactive molecular gases are used which have complex chemical kinetics. For example, Cl2 is widely used for plasma etching processes. The electronegative nature of this molecular gas makes the investigation harder, compared to electropositive atomic plasmas. Dissociation...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the absolute argon 1 s (in Paschens's notation) densities and the gas temperature, T{sub g}, obtained in a surfatron plasma in the pressure range 0.65<p<100 mbar. The absorption signals of 772.38, 772.42, 810.37, and 811.53 nm lines, absorbed by atoms in 1s{sub 3}, 1s{sub 4,} and 1s{sub 5} states, were recorded with two tunable...
Thesis
Full-text available
Microwave induced plasmas are applied in many fabrication processes such as the deposition of SiO2 for the production of optical fibers and the deposition of Si to make solar cells. To control these deposition processes a good understanding of the plasma kinetics is required. Experimental investigation and modelling are two complementary strategies...
Article
Full-text available
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples were treated by a remote atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch and analyzed by water contact angle (WCA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of pure argon plasma a decrease of WCA is observed meanwhile an increase of hydrophobicity was observed when some oxygen was added to the discha...
Article
Full-text available
The electron temperature of an argon surface wave discharge generated by a surfatron plasma at intermediate pressures is measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Thomson scattering (TS). The OES method, namely absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements gives an electron temperature which is found to be (more or less) constant along the p...
Article
Full-text available
Radial electron density n e ( r ) and temperature T e ( r ) profiles of a microwave argon plasma at intermediate pressure were investigated by Thomson scattering. This method allows one to get n e ( r ) and T e ( r ) spatially resolved without any a priori assumption on the shape of the profile. Data were acquired in the pressure range 5–88 mbar wh...
Article
Full-text available
A novel electromagnetic (EM) model was developed using the Plasimo platform with the aim to study different microwave induced plasmas. In this study, the EM model is coupled to the fluid non-local-thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) description of a discharge (flow, temperatures and species densities), and it allows the construction of a 2D self-consiste...
Article
In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (ne < 5·1019 m− 3) and (relatively) low gas temperature (Tg < 1100 K) argon–hydrogen plasma, under low-intermediate pressure conditions (3 mbar–40 mbar). A line fitting procedure is used to separate the effects of the different broadening mechanisms (e.g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
form only given. A capacitively coupled RF discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow between two multi-holes perforated electrodes, forming a shower [1]. The inner electrode is powered with a frequency of 13.56 MHz, the outer electrode...
Article
Full-text available
The axial dependency of the central-axis value of the heavy particle density and temperature of surface-wave plasmas is studied using Rayleigh scattering (RyS). The plasma is generated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz in argon by a surfatron operating under the standard settings of a power of 45 W, a flow rate of 50 sccm and a pressure of 20 mbar. To inv...
Article
Full-text available
The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar and the conversion space of Ar-molecule mixtures are explored using a combination of high rep-rate YAG-Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable Surfatron Induced Plasma set-up. Applying the method of Saturation Time Resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (SaTiRe-LIF), we coul...
Article
Full-text available
A capacitive radiofrequency (RF) discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow guided through two perforated electrodes, hence resembling a shower. The inner electrode, the electrode facing the flow entrance, is powered with a frequency of...
Article
Full-text available
A route toward the experimental characterization of Cool Atmospheric Plasmas (CAPs) is described. It is a step-by-step approach, in which, for each step different experimental techniques are compared with each others. These can be divided in passive and active spectroscopic methods. It is seen that especially the passive methods for the electro...
Article
Full-text available
A method is presented to determine local values of the heavy particle density and temperature, na and Ta. The method, based on Rayleigh Scattering, is applied to a Surfatron induced plasma in argon operating at a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz and a typical absorbed power of 45 W. Apart from the standard pressure of 20 mbar we also studied two lower p...
Article
Full-text available
Laser scattering provides a very direct method for measuring the local densities and temperatures inside a plasma. We present new experimental results of laser scattering on an argon atmospheric pressure microwave plasma jet operating in an air environment. The plasma is very small so a high spatial resolution is required to study the effect of the...
Article
A squared-wave power pulsed low-pressure plasma is investigated by means of Thomson scattering. By this method the values of the electron density and temperature are obtained, directly. The plasma is created by a surfatron launcher in pure argon at gas pressures of 8–70 mbar. Features of the pulse rise and decay are studied with microsecond time re...
Article
Full-text available
A criterion is given for the laser fluency (in J/m2) such that, when satisfied, disturbance of the plasma by the laser is avoided. This criterion accounts for laser heating of the electron gas intermediated by electron-ion (ei) and electron-atom (ea) interactions. The first heating mechanism is well known and was extensively dealt with in the past....
Article
Full-text available
The large effluxes generated by high-tech plasmas force plasmas to non-equilibrium conditions. This implies that plasma features are decoupled from each other and that therefore different methods have to be used quasi-simultaneously to characterize the plasma. Even more insight in plasmas and methods is obtained if polydiagnostics is applied to a s...
Article
Full-text available
A proper description of the flux of active species generated by cold atmospheric-pressure (AP) plasma jets is of crucial importance for plasma applications. To that end, a 2-D fluid model has been constructed to investigate the effect of the coupling between the plasma kinetics and plasma flow. It is shown that pure-argon cold AP RF plasma jets are...
Article
Full-text available
UE TO the large range of applications and working conditions, microwave plasmas are the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies [1]. Much attention is paid to the evolution of the plasma–wave interaction along the plasma column, and a special interest exists in how this interaction stops at the very end of the column. The only way to d...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, laser scattering is applied to a cold atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma argon jet in direct contact with air. Spatially resolved measurements clearly show the air entrainment in the plasma jet. Consequently, the contributions from Thomson scattering and Raman scattering (N2 and O2) overlap. With a specially designed fitting metho...
Article
Full-text available
A cool atmospheric pressure non-thermal capactively-coupled RF discharge is studied. It is created between two parallel electrodes – a powered one supplied by 13.56 MHz, and a grounded one. The feed gas argon flows via holes between the electrodes where it is ionized. The plasma torch is studied by means of a time dependent two-dimensional fluid mo...
Article
This study focuses on the surface treatment of polymer films (polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate) with a remote atmospheric pressure d.c. glow discharge operating in ambient air. The set-up used can be easily upgraded to industrial dimensions and simulates in-line processing due to the rotating drum used to mount the samples on. The disch...
Article
An experimental investigation of the surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma created with an atmospheric-pressure radio frequency (r.f.) torch is presented here. The surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), XPS and water contact angle (WCA) to get an insight of the surface morphology and chem...

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