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Emil O. W. Kirkegaard

Emil O. W. Kirkegaard
Ulster Institute for Social Research

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145
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Presentation
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The media are often said to be left-leaning in most or all Western countries, but this has been disputed by others. There are multiple ways to examine the question, e.g. content analysis of stories, interviewee choices, think tank citations etc. Here we focus on the political leanings of journalists, specifically on voting behavior as this avoids issues related to self-reported measures of political ideology or leanings. We gather a large number of surveys of the voting behavior of journalists from Western countries and match these to the nearest general election. In total, we cover 17 countries with a total of 113 parties represented. We augment the party data using semi-structured information from the English Wikipedia. This allows us to augment each party with 1) a left-right position, and 2) tags of political ideology (e.g. nationalism, socialism, green). We compute relative journalist preference for parties in relation to the general population using 3 different metrics, which yield converging results. Simple analysis of the data reveals a correlation of about -.55 with party political left-right position and journalist preference. Analysis of the tag data reveals strong journalist preferences for green (relative rate [RR] of about 2.9), social liberalism (RR about 2.4), feminist (RR about 2.3), pro-EUism (RR about 2.2), and communism (RR about 1.9). On the other hand, journalists have strong dis-preferences for national conservatism (RR about 0.19), right-wing populism (RR about 0.26), populism (RR about 0.35), agrarianism (RR about 0.43), conservatism and nationalism (both RR about 0.57). The results were generally robust to a number of methodological variations such as weights by sampling error, median statistics, and alternative metrics. The results are interpreted in line with the distortion theory advanced by Tim Groseclose (2011).
Article
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We conducted novel analyses regarding the association between continental racial ancestry, cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes across 6 datasets: states of Mexico, states of the United States, states of Brazil, departments of Colombia, sovereign nations and all units together. We find that European ancestry is consistently and usually strongly positively correlated with cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes (mean r for cognitive ability = .708; for socioeconomic well-being = .643) (Sections 3-8). In most cases, including another ancestry component, in addition to European ancestry, did not increase predictive power (Section 9). At the national level, the association between European ancestry and outcomes was robust to controls for natural-environmental factors (Section 10). This was not always the case at the regional level (Section 18). It was found that genetic distance did not have predictive power independent of European ancestry (Section 10). Automatic modeling using best subset selection and lasso regression agreed in most cases that European ancestry was a non-redundant predictor (Section 11). Results were robust across 4 different ways of weighting the analyses (Section 12). It was found that the effect of European ancestry on socioeconomic outcomes was mostly mediated by cognitive ability (Section 13). We failed to find evidence of international colorism or culturalism (i.e., neither skin reflectance nor self-reported race/ethnicity showed incremental predictive ability once genomic ancestry had been taken into account) (Section 14). The association between European ancestry and cognitive outcomes was robust across a number of alternative measures of cognitive ability (Section 15). It was found that the general socioeconomic factor was not structurally different in the American sample as compared to the worldwide sample, thus justifying the use of that measure. Using Jensen's method of correlated vectors, it was found that the association between European ancestry and socioeconomic outcomes was stronger on more S factor loaded outcomes, r = .75 (Section 16). There was some evidence that tourist expenditure helped explain the relatively high socioeconomic performance of Caribbean states (Section 17).
Article
Full-text available
I present new predictive analyses for crime, income, educational attainment and employment among immigrant groups in Norway and crime in Finland. Furthermore I show that the Norwegian data contains a strong general socioeconomic factor (S) which is highly predictable from country-level variables (National IQ .59, Islam prevalence -.71, international general socioeconomic factor .72, GDP .55), and correlates highly (.78) with the analogous factor among immigrant groups in Denmark. Analyses of the prediction vectors show very high correlations (generally > ±.9) between predictors which means that the same variables are relatively well or weakly predicted no matter which predictor is used. Using the method of correlated vectors shows that it is the underlying S factor that drives the associations between predictors and socioeconomic traits, not the remaining variance (all correlations near unity).
Article
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Many studies have examined the correlations between national IQs and various country-level indexes of well-being. The analyses have been unsystematic and not gathered in one single analysis or dataset. In this paper I gather a large sample of country-level indexes and show that there is a strong general socioeconomic factor (S factor) which is highly correlated (.86-.87) with national cognitive ability using either Lynn and Vanhanen's dataset or Altinok's. Furthermore, the method of correlated vectors shows that the correlations between variable loadings on the S factor and cognitive measurements are .99 in both datasets using both cognitive measurements, indicating that it is the S factor that drives the relationship with national cognitive measurements, not the remaining variance.
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - June 2016
Aarhus University
Position
  • Linguistics student

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have examined the correlations between national IQs and various country-level indexes of well-being. The analyses have been unsystematic and not gathered in one single analysis or dataset. In this paper I gather a large sample of country-level indexes and show that there is a strong general socioeconomic factor (S factor) which is high...
Article
Full-text available
I present new predictive analyses for crime, income, educational attainment and employment among immigrant groups in Norway and crime in Finland. Furthermore I show that the Norwegian data contains a strong general socioeconomic factor (S) which is highly predictable from country-level variables (National IQ .59, Islam prevalence -.71, internationa...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted novel analyses regarding the association between continental racial ancestry, cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes across 6 datasets: states of Mexico, states of the United States, states of Brazil, departments of Colombia, sovereign nations and all units together. We find that European ancestry is consistently and usually stro...
Presentation
Full-text available
The media are often said to be left-leaning in most or all Western countries, but this has been disputed by others. There are multiple ways to examine the question, e.g. content analysis of stories, interviewee choices, think tank citations etc. Here we focus on the political leanings of journalists, specifically on voting behavior as this avoids i...
Article
Full-text available
There is solid evidence that human populations have been selecting against intelligence-related genetic variants since the mid to late 1800s. The selection is generally weak, but varies by ethnic group and sex. Since religious teachings usually include strong pro-natalist components, we investigated whether this might also affect the selection for...
Article
Full-text available
A number of lines of evidence, such as studies of religious converts and members of conspicuous subcultures, have found a relationship between holding and expressing a strong counter-cultural identity and mental instability. Here we test whether dying your hair an unnatural colour - something which conspicuously expresses non-conformity - is relate...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how genetically measured ancestry relates to social status in Chile. Our study is based on a dataset of 1,805 subjects previously analyzed in another study. Ancestry was measured using genetic analysis based on microarray data. Overall we find that compared to European ancestry (44%), the Amerindian ancestries Mapuche (central Chile...
Article
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The editorial boards of academic journals overrepresent men, even above their proportion in university faculties. We test whether this sex disparity is caused by anti-female bias, supposing that anti-female discrimination means women must have a higher research output than men to overcome bias against them. We collect a dataset of the research outp...
Preprint
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Recent research has provided strong demonstrations to the effects that education improves scores on intelligence tests. We tested whether the improvements elicited by education were consistent with raised intelligence or enhancements to specific skills involved in intelligence testing. We used the structural equation models from Ritchie, Bates & De...
Article
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Species and subspecies differ substantially in the size of their testicles. A study has found differences in average testis size when comparing Europeans and Northeast Asians. Other studies have found differences in testosterone levels between Blacks, Whites and Northeast Asians. We sought to replicate and extend these findings in a dataset of 4,46...
Preprint
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We reply to Giangrande and Turkheimer's (2021; hereafter, “G&T”) recent critique of our meta-analysis on racial/ethnic differences in the heritability of intelligence (Pesta et al., 2020). G&T misrepresented our paper and much of the relevant scientific literature, providing inaccurate comments about nearly every conceptual and methodological charg...
Article
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It has been claimed that social race and genetic ancestry are at best weakly related. Here we test this claim by applying predictive modeling in both directions, i.e., predicting genetic ancestry from social race(s), and predicting social race(s) from genetic ancestry. We utilize the public Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) dat...
Article
Full-text available
Amongst admixed American populations, polygenic scores for educational attainment and intelligence (eduPGS), genetic ancestry, and cognitive ability covary. We argue that this plausibly could be due to either confounding or to causally-relevant genetic differences between ancestral groups. It is important to determine which scenario is the case in...
Article
Full-text available
The Dunning-Kruger effect is a well-known psychological finding. Unfortunately, there are two aspects of the finding, one trivial, indeed a simple statistically necessary empirical pattern, and the other an unsupported theory that purports to explain this pattern. Recently, Gignac & Zajenkowski (2020) suggested two ways to operationalize and test t...
Article
Full-text available
Chronotype and cognitive ability are two human phenotypes with an uneven geographic distribution due to both selective migration and causal environmental effects. In our study, we aimed to examine the relationship between geographic variables, cognitive ability and chronotype. We used a large anonymized sample (n = 25,700, mostly from the USA, UK,...
Article
Full-text available
We gathered survey data on journalists' political views in 17 Western countries. We then matched these data to outcomes from national elections, and constructed metrics of journalists' relative preference for different political parties. Compared to the general population of voters, journalists prefer parties that have more left-wing positions over...
Article
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A recent study by Dutton et al. (J Relig Health 59:1567–1579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00926-3, 2020) found that the religiousness-IQ nexus is not on g when comparing different groups with various degrees of religiosity and the non-religious. It suggested, accordingly, that the nexus related to the relationship between specialized analyti...
Article
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We examined data from the popular free online 45-item “Vocabulary IQ Test” from https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/VIQT/. We used data from native English speakers (n = 9,278). Item response theory analysis (IRT) showed that most items had substantial g-loadings (mean = .59, sd = .22), but that some were problematic (4 items being lower than .25)....
Article
Full-text available
In this pre-registered study, we gathered two online samples totaling 615 subjects. The first sample was nationally representative with regards to age, sex and education, the second was an online convenience sample with mostly younger people. We measured intelligence (vocabulary and science knowledge, 20 items each) using newly constructed Dutch la...
Article
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Prior research has indicated that one can summarize the variation in psychopathology measures in a single dimension, labeled P by analogy with the g factor of intelligence. Research shows that this P factor has a weak to moderate negative relationship to intelligence. We used data from the Vietnam Experience Study to reexamine the relations between...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are few empirically derived theories explaining group differences in cognitive ability. Spearman's hypothesis is one such theory which holds that group differences are a function of a given test's relationship to general intelligence, g. Research into this hypothesis has generally been limited to the application of a single method lacking sen...
Conference Paper
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Using a sample of ~3,100 U.S. counties, we tested geoclimatic explanations for why cognitive ability varies across geography. These models posit that geoclimatic factors will strongly predict cognitive ability across geography, even when a variety of common controls appear in the regression equations. Our results generally do not support UV radiati...
Preprint
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Statistical methods are presented to a linguistics audience. Statistical methods are then applied to the large WALS dataset to show that automated methods can identify patterns among language features. These results are shown to be more extreme than one would expect based on chance variation. Furthermore, it is shown numerically that language featu...
Article
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Immigrants to Western countries typically have worse social outcomes than natives, but country of origin immigrant groups differ widely. We studied school performance in Denmark for 116 immigrant groups measured by the grade point average (GPA) of the 9th grade exam at the end of compulsory schooling. General intelligence is a strong causal factor...
Article
Full-text available
Assortative mating for both physical and psychological traits is well-established in many animal species, including humans. Most studies, however, only compute linear measures of mate similarity, typically Pearson correlations. However, it is possible that trait similarity, or dissimilarity, has complex patterns missed by the correlation metric. We...
Article
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Patient people fare better in life than impatient people. Based on this and on economic models, many economists have claimed that more patient countries should fare better than less patient countries. We utilize cross-national data in non-cognitive traits measured in the Global Preference Survey (GPS). This survey measured six non-cognitive traits...
Article
Full-text available
We examined regional inequality in Belgium, both in the 19 communes of Brussels and in the country as a whole (n = 589 communes). We find very strong relationships between Muslim% of the population and a variety of social outcomes such as crime rate, educational attainment, and median income. For the 19 communes of Brussels, we find a correlation o...
Preprint
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Peer-reviewed but not editor-approved on account of controversial research. --- Polygenic scores for educational attainment and intelligence (eduPGS), genetic ancestry, and cognitive ability have been found to be inter-correlated in some admixed American populations. We argue that this could either be due to causally-relevant genetic differences be...
Article
Full-text available
There are a few scattered reports that uric acid level predicts various forms of academic achievement beyond any associations with intelligence, but all these studies are old and small. Given the potential importance of this relationship for interventions, there is a need for a more recent, larger study. We use archival data from the Vietnam Experi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronotype and cognitive ability are two psychological phenotypes with an uneven geographical distribution due to both selective migration and causal environmental effects. In our study we aimed to unravel the relationship between geographical variables, cognitive ability and chronotype. We used a large anonymized sample (N=25700) of dating site us...
Article
Full-text available
A recent study by Tsukahara et al. (2016) found correlations between pupil size and measures of intelligence, with r values around .30. We attempted to replicate this association in a large dataset of US military personnel (n = 4,462). General intelligence, g, was extracted from 19 diverse tests. We first confirmed that right and left eye pupil siz...
Article
Full-text available
It has been claimed that left-wingers or liberals (US sense) tend to more often suffer from mental illness than right-wingers or conservatives. This potential link was investigated using the General Social Survey cumulative cross-sectional dataset (1972-2018). A search of the available variables resulted in 5 items measuring one's own mental illnes...
Preprint
Taking countermeasures to protect against future events requires predicting what the future will be like. In late 2019, a novel coronavirus known as NCov-2019 emerged in Wuhan, China, and has since spread to most countries in the world. Anticipatory responses by civilians facing the crisis have included self-isolation measures, extreme stockpiling...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes about 32 country-of-origin groups were measured using an online survey of the adult, non-elderly Danish population (n = 476 after quality control). Participants were asked to estimate each group’s net fiscal contribution in Denmark. These estimates were then compared to the actual net fiscal contributions for the 32 groups, taken from a...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been claimed that left-wingers or liberals (US sense) tend to be more mentally ill than right-wingers or conservatives. This potential link was investigated using the General Social Survey. A search found 5 items measuring one's own mental illness in different ways (e.g."Do you have any emotional or mental disability?"). All of these items w...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated crime rates among 70 origin-based immigrant groups in the Netherlands for the years 2005-2018. Results indicated that crime rates have overall been falling for each group in the period of study, and in the country as a whole, with about a 50% decline since 2005. Immigrant groups varied widely in crime rates, with East Asian countries b...
Article
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Human Diversity is Charles Murray’s latest book. This review evaluates the claims made in the book and places both the author’s theses and their criticisms in their historical context. It concludes that this book is valuable as an updated summary of current knowledge about psychological differences (in the averages) between genders, races, and soci...
Article
Full-text available
Human Diversity is Charles Murray’s latest book. This review evaluates the claims made in the book and places both the author’s theses and their criticisms in their historical context. It concludes that this book is valuable as an updated summary of current knowledge about psychological differences (in the averages) between genders, races, and soci...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to assess whether previous findings regarding the relationship between cognitive ability and religiosity could be replicated in a large dataset of online daters (maximum n = 67k). We found that self-declared religious people had lower IQs than nonreligious people (atheists and agnostics). Furthermore, within most religious groups, a negat...
Article
Full-text available
The nature of race differences, and even the mere “existence” of human races, continues to be a major source of controversy and confusion. This brief review summarizes the empirical evidence about race differences and the conceptual issues related to taxonomy, as well as practical implications for medicine and the social sciences. The review shows...
Article
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A small research stream exists which focuses on relationships between political ideology (inferred from voting behavior) and the intelligence of geopolitical subdivisions such as the 50 U.S. states. With U.S. state-level data, IQ scores positively predict votes cast for Democrats, but only when controlling for state racial composition. Here, howeve...
Article
Full-text available
Via meta-analysis, we examined whether the heritability of intelligence varies across racial or ethnic groups. Specifically, we tested a hypothesis predicting an interaction whereby those racial and ethnic groups living in relatively disadvantaged environments display lower heritability and higher environmentality. The reasoning behind this predict...
Preprint
Full-text available
This document was written with intent to send to the Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, as I was invited to submit an entry for their encyclopedia. However, upon completion, the editor, Todd Shackelford, sent me an email letting me know that “After further discussion, we have decided to eliminate this entry. You are now free to sen...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined whether European ancestry predicted cognitive ability over and above both parental socioeconomic status (SES) and measures of eye, hair, and skin color. First, using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we verified that strict factorial invariance held between self-identif...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that general intelligence varies in the population and is causal for variation in later life outcomes, in particular for social status and education. We linked IQ-test scores from the Danish draft test (Børge Prien Prøven, BPP) to social status for a list of 265 relatively common names in Denmark (85% male). Intelligence at t...
Article
Full-text available
Little research has dealt with intragroup ancestry-related differences in intelligence in Black and White Americans. To help fill this gap, we examined the association between intelligence and both color and parent-reported ancestry using the NLSY97. We used a nationally-representative sample, a multidimensional measure of cognitive ability, and a...
Article
Full-text available
The IQ averages of biracial children have long been of interest to intelligence researchers for clarifying the causes of group differences in intelligence. We carried out a search for IQ test results of biracial children fathered by U.S. servicemen after World War 2 and indigenous Asian women in northeast Asian countries (Japan, Korea, China). We w...
Article
Full-text available
Research at the individual level shows strong positive relationships between performance in video games and on intelligence tests. Together with evidence of above average IQs of players of traditional mental sports such as chess, this suggests that national IQs should be strongly related to national performance on mental sports. To investigate this...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between biracial status, color, and crystallized intelligence was examined in a nationally representative sample of adult Black and White Americans. First, it was found that self-identifying biracial individuals, who were found to be intermediate in color and in self-reported ancestry, had intermediate levels of crystallized intell...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between biracial status, color, and crystallized intelligence was examined in a nationally representative sample of adult Black and White Americans. First, it was found that self-identifying biracial individuals, who were found to be intermediate in color and in self-reported ancestry, had intermediate levels of crystallized intell...