Emiel Krahmer

Emiel Krahmer
Tilburg University | UVT · Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication "TiCC"

PhD

About

431
Publications
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6,999
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Publications

Publications (431)
Article
Communication using manual (hand) gestures is considered a defining property of social robots, and their physical embodiment and presence, therefore we see a need for a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in social robots that use gestures. This systematic literature review aims to address this need by (1) describing the gesture producti...
Preprint
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This study discusses the effect of semi-supervised learning in combination with pretrained language models for data-to-text generation. It is not known whether semi-supervised learning is still helpful when a large-scale language model is also supplemented. This study aims to answer this question by comparing a data-to-text system only supplemented...
Article
Due to the large increase in relevant data, we can increasingly better estimate medical chances and risks and tailor them to the individual patient. In this article, we discuss why communicating such personalized information is so complicated, and how doctors can best discuss it with their patients.
Article
In this paper, we examine the process of designing robot-performed iconic hand gestures in the context of a long-term study into second language tutoring with children of approximately 5 years old. We explore four factors that may relate to their efficacy in supporting second language tutoring: the age of participating children; differences between...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The birth of a premature infant and the following hospitalization are very stressful events for the parents. Accurate and understandable communication between parents and healthcare professionals is, therefore, crucial during this period. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to improve the communication with parents at...
Article
Demonstratives such as this and that are among the most frequently used words in texts. But what are the factors that determine whether a writer uses one demonstrative form (proximal this) or another (distal that)? Here we report a large-scale corpus analysis in three written genres to empirically contrast theories based on differences in referent...
Article
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Background Cigarette smoking poses a major threat to public health. While cessation support provided by healthcare professionals is effective, its use remains low. Chatbots have the potential to serve as a useful addition. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using a motivational interviewing style chatbot to enhance engagem...
Article
Endophoric demonstratives such as this and that are among the most frequently used words in written texts. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how exactly they should be subdivided and classified in terms of their different types of use. Here, we develop a new taxonomy of endophoric demonstratives based on a large-scale corpus including three written...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED This scoping review explores the barriers and facilitators patients face when deciding to share, update, or modify their personal and medical data (e.g., data that is relevant across illness episodes, such as patients’ medications, allergies, immunizations, and their medical, social, and family health history) in their personal electro...
Conference Paper
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Open-domain large language models have progressed to generating natural-sounding and coherent text. Even though the generated texts appear human-like, the main stumbling block is that their output is never fully predictable, which runs the risk of resulting in harmful content such as false statements or inflammatory language. This makes it difficul...
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In this paper, we examine to what degree children of 3–4 years old engage with a task and with a social robot during a second-language tutoring lesson. We specifically investigated whether children’s task engagement and robot engagement were influenced by three different feedback types by the robot: adult-like feedback, peer-like feedback and no fe...
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Background: Disclosure of cancer statistics (eg, survival or incidence rates) based on a representative group of patients can help increase cancer survivors’ understanding of their own diagnostic and prognostic situation, and care planning. More recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of cancer registry data for disclosing and co...
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The current study investigated how individual differences among children affect the added value of social robots for teaching second language (L2) vocabulary to young children. Specifically, we investigated the moderating role of three individual child characteristics deemed relevant for language learning: first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge,...
Article
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Many studies have provided evidence for the influence of affect on cognitive processing. However, experimental investigations of the relationship between affect and speech production are scarce. This study explores whether a speaker’s affective state influences the production of referring expressions. In two experiments, affective states were elici...
Article
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This paper introduces a new corpus of paired football match reports, the Multilingual Emotional Football Corpus, (MEmoFC), which has been manually collected from English, German, and Dutch websites of individual football clubs to investigate the way different emotional states (e.g. happiness for winning and disappointment for losing) are realized i...
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Currently, there is little agreement as to how Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems should be evaluated, with a particularly high degree of variation in the way that human evaluation is carried out. This paper provides an overview of how (mostly intrinsic) human evaluation is currently conducted and presents a set of best practices, grounded i...
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This study investigates the degree to which children anthropomorphize a robot tutor and whether this anthropomorphism relates to their vocabulary learning in a second‐language (L2) tutoring intervention. With this aim, an anthropomorphism questionnaire was administered to 5‐year‐old children (N = 104) twice: prior to and following a seven‐session L...
Article
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Objectives To assess the communicative quality of colorectal cancer patient decision aids (DAs) about treatment options, the current systematic review was conducted. Design Systematic review. Data sources DAs (published between 2006 and 2019) were identified through academic literature (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO) and...
Preprint
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Preregistration refers to the practice of specifying what you are going to do, and what you expect to find in your study, before carrying out the study. This practice is increasingly common in medicine and psychology, but is rarely discussed in NLP. This paper discusses preregistration in more detail, explores how NLP researchers could preregister...
Article
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Emotional tears have been proposed to serve as a signal of distress, appeasement, and helplessness, which promotes prosocial responses in observers. They may also facilitate the perception of sadness. A still unanswered question is what information tears convey about emotional states when they are combined with different muscular facial expressions...
Article
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People are likely to use their own knowledge as a frame of reference when they try to assess another person’s perspective. Due to this egocentric anchoring, people often overestimate the extent to which others share their point of view. This study investigated which type of feedback (if any) stimulates perceivers to make estimations of another pers...
Article
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This research investigates the perspective taking process in online and face-toface mediations. In particular, it addresses the question whether a perspective taking technique—being asked circular questions—helps the establishment of mutual understanding and interpersonal trust between negotiators in online and face-to-face mediation settings. This...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the CACAPO dataset, built for training both neural pipeline and end-to-end data-to-text language generation systems. The dataset is multilingual (Dutch and English), and contains almost 10,000 sentences from human-written news texts in the sports, weather, stocks, and incidents domain, together with aligned attribute-value pair...
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Background The increased availability of patient reported outcome data makes it feasible to provide patients tailored risk information of cancer treatment side effects. However, it is unclear how such information influences patients’ risk interpretations compared to generic population-based risks, and which message format should be used to communic...
Article
Full-text available
Language allows us to efficiently communicate about the things in the world around us. Seemingly simple words like this and that are a cornerstone of our capability to refer, as they contribute to guiding the attention of our addressee to the specific entity we are talking about. Such demonstratives are acquired early in life, ubiquitous in everyda...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a novel dataset of iconic gestures, together with a publicly available robot-based elicitation method to record these gestures, which consists of playing a game of charades with a humanoid robot. The game was deployed at a science museum (NEMO) and a large popular music festival (Lowlands) in the Netherlands. This resulted in r...
Article
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To investigate how a robot's use of feedback can influence children's engagement and support second language learning, we conducted an experiment in which 72 children of 5 years old learned 18 English animal names from a humanoid robot tutor in three different sessions. During each session, children played 24 rounds in an “I spy with my little eye”...
Article
What are the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous cospeech gesture production? Driven by the close connection between cospeech gestures and object-related actions, recent research suggests that cospeech gestures originate in perceptual and motoric simulations that occur while speakers process information for speaking (Hostetter & Alibali, 2008)....
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In this study, we explore whether and how linguistic and pragmatic context can change individual word valence and emotionality in two parts. In the first part, we investigate whether sentence contexts retrieved from a domain-specific corpus (soccer) bias individual word affect. We then examine whether word valence with and without context accuratel...
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In this paper, we study the effect of verbalizing affective pictures on affective state and language production. Individuals describe (Study I: Spoken Descriptions of Pictures) or passively view (Study II: Passively Viewing Pictures) 40 pictures for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that gradually increase from neutral to either pos...
Article
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This study investigates the relative contribution of L2 intonation, rhythm, and speech rate to L1 perceptions of accentedness and comprehensibility. The intonation, rhythm, and speech rate of an L1 speaker of Dutch was transferred onto the segmental string of four Spanish learners of Dutch, resulting in eight conditions that reflect all possible co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Language allows us to efficiently communicate about the things in the world around us. Seemingly simple words like this and that are a cornerstone of our capability to refer, as they contribute to guiding the attention of our addressee to the specific entity we are talking about. Such demonstratives are acquired early in life, ubiquitous in everyda...
Article
Perceivers of other minds often overestimate the similarity between their own and other people's perspectives. This egocentric projection during perspective-taking is argued to originate from perceivers' tendency to use their own perspective as a referential anchor from which they insufficiently adjust away to account for an alternative interpretat...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the effects of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by conceptually replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a novice model were expected to surpass participants observing an expert model wh...
Article
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The influence of emotion on the early stages of spoken language production such as content selection has received little scholarly attention. During content selection in dialogue, speakers often take the utterances of their dialogue partners into account. For example, while speakers generally prefer to use color in their descriptions, they start to...
Article
The present study employed a real-life speed-dating methodology with three conditions: a face-to-face (FTF) condition, a video-mediated communication (VMC) condition without eye-contact (Skype) and a VMC condition with eye-contact (an Eye-Catcher). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eye-contact on the development of romant...
Article
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Purpose Decision aids (DAs) support patients in shared decision-making by providing balanced evidence-based treatment information and eliciting patients’ preferences. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality and communicative aspects of DAs for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods Twenty-one currently avai...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present a novel data-to-text system for cancer patients, providing information on quality of life implications after treatment , which can be embedded in the context of shared decision making. Currently, information on quality of life implications is often not discussed, partly because (until recently) data has been lacking. In ou...
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Background: Given the major changes in internet use for health communication, the objective of the current study was to compare the internet use and wishes of cancer survivors between 2005 and 2017. Methods: The authors drew a sample of 390 patients in 2005 and 539 patients in 2017 who were diagnosed with breast (128 patients in 2005 and 143 pat...
Article
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This article presents two experimental studies investigating the impact of language errors in online dating profiles on impression formation. A first study examined whether language errors have a negative effect on perceptions of attraction and dating intention and whether this effect is moderated by the presence of visual information, that is, the...
Conference Paper
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Community Question Answering forums are popular among Internet users, and a basic problem they encounter is trying to find out if their question has already been posed before. To address this issue, NLP researchers have developed methods to automatically detect question-similarity, which was one of the shared tasks in SemEval. The best performing s...
Preprint
Traditionally, most data-to-text applications have been designed using a modular pipeline architecture, in which non-linguistic input data is converted into natural language through several intermediate transformations. In contrast, recent neural models for data-to-text generation have been proposed as end-to-end approaches, where the non-linguisti...
Article
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This study uses two methods to examine whether online daters looking for a long-term relationship behave linguistically different in their profile texts compared to daters seeking casual relationships. To investigate these linguistic differences, 12,310 existing Dutch dating profiles were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)...
Article
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Our affective state is influenced by daily events and our interactions with other people, which, in turn, can affect the way we communicate. In two studies, we investigated the influence of experiencing success or failure in a foosball (table soccer) game on participants’ affective state and how this in turn influenced the way they report on the ga...
Preprint
Decision aids (DAs) have been developed for patients with localized prostate cancer. DAs were reviewed for the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria (IPDAS) and various communicative aspects (CAs). Adherence to the IPDAS criteria varied greatly across the DAs. The use of CAs varied substantially by the DAs. CAs such as personalizati...
Article
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In two experiments, we examined whether explicit attention to another's perspective fosters perspective-taking. In the first experiment, we attempted to replicate previous findings showing that a mind-set focusing on self-other differences incites speakers to adopt another's viewpoint in a subsequent task. However, our results showed that speakers...
Article
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In this paper, we address query-based summarization of discussion threads. New users can profit from the information shared in the forum, Please check if the inserted city and country names in the affiliations are correct. if they can find back the previously posted information. However, discussion threads on a single topic can easily comprise doze...
Article
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In two experiments, we investigated whether speakers’ referential communication benefits from an explicit focus on addressees’ perspective. Dyads took part in a referential communication game and were allocated to one of three experimental settings. Each of these settings elicited a different perspective mind-set (baseline, self-focus, other-focus)...
Article
Context Despite increasing interest in the development and use of decision aids (DAs) for patients with localized prostate cancer (LPC), little attention has been paid to communicative aspects (CAs) of such tools. Objective To identify DAs for LPC treatment, and review these tools for various CAs. Materials and methods DAs were identified through...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we focused on the effect of reflection on different instructional methods, comparing observational learning and learning by doing, in the context of an academic writing task. Our goal was to investigate how reflection and instructional method affect academic writing performance, self-efficacy beliefs and students' satisfaction with t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a large-scale study of a series of seven lessons designed to help young children learn English vocabulary as a foreign language using a social robot. The experiment was designed to investigate 1) the effectiveness of a social robot teaching children new words over the course of multiple interactions (supported by a tablet), 2) the added...
Preprint
In psycholinguistics, there has been relatively little work investigating conceptualisation –how speakers decide which concepts to express. This contrasts with work in natural language generation (NLG), a subfield of AI, where much research has explored content determination during the generation of referring expressions. Existing NLG algorithms fo...
Article
This study examines the acquisition process of speech rhythm in Dutch learners of Spanish (DLS) and Spanish learners of Dutch (SLD) at different proficiency levels to determine whether learning direction affects the success of rhythm acquisition in a foreign language (L2). Analyses of lengthening effects showed that the two learner groups followed...
Chapter
Healthcare organizations are in a continuous effort to improve health outcomes, reduce costs, and enhance patient experience of care. Data is essential to measure and help achieving these improvements in healthcare delivery. Consequently, a data influx from various clinical, financial, and operational sources is now overtaking healthcare organizati...
Article
Objective: Relatives of cancer patients often play a crucial role in care, while their own needs generally receive scant attention. We investigate those topics on which relatives share information online. Methods: We coded user-generated content written by 185 relatives on a major Dutch cancer site (kanker.nl), into three main categories: ‘Disease’...
Preprint
This chapter reviews recent research on speakers’ referential choices in discourse. It focuses specifically on the choice to mention a certain referent first on the one hand, and on the choice to produce a pronoun or a more elaborate noun phrase on the other. Whereas traditional theories of reference have relied mainly on the influence of the lingu...