Emeline Pettex

Emeline Pettex
La Rochelle Université · Cohabys

PhD

About

50
Publications
14,901
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710
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on the ecology of marine megafauna (seabirds, marine mammals, large fish and turtles): foraging behaviour, distribution, habitat selection and abundance. Besides, I'm studying the impact of human activities on these species. I'm currently involved in a research project on the effect of undermarine noise on marine mammals.
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - April 2018
La Rochelle Université
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2011 - July 2015
La Rochelle Université
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Aerial survey coordinator
October 2007 - December 2010
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • PhD
Education
June 2007 - May 2011

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
According to the European Union Habitats and Birds Directives, EU Member States must extend the Natura 2000 network to marine ecosystems, through the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, the initial status of cetacean and seabird communities across European waters is often poorly understood. It is assumed that an MPA is justified...
Article
Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome th...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are characterized by strong heterogeneity and variability, both spatially and temporally. In particular, seasonal variations may lead to severe constraints for predators which have to cope with these variations, for example through migration to avoid unfavourable seasons, or adaptation to local modification of the ecosystem. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Species Distribution Models are commonly used with surface dynamic environmental variables as proxies for prey distribution to characterise marine top predator habitats. For oceanic species that spend lot of time at depth, surface variables might not be relevant to predict deep-dwelling prey distributions. We hypothesised that descriptors of deep-w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species Distribution Models are commonly used with surface dynamic environmental variables as proxies for prey distribution to characterise marine top predator habitats. For oceanic species that spend lot of time at depth, surface variables might not be relevant to predict deep-dwelling prey distributions. We hypothesised that descriptors of deep-w...
Article
Full-text available
In habitat modelling, environmental variables are assumed to be proxies of lower trophic levels distribution and by extension, of marine top predator distributions. More proximal variables, such as potential prey fields, could refine relationships between top predator distributions and their environment. In situ data on prey distributions are not a...
Article
Individual competitiveness conditions access to resources when they are limited. Immature individuals that are less skilled than adults have to adapt their foraging strategies to survive. Among strategies to reduce competition, spatial segregation has been widely demonstrated. However, the use of spatial segregation by immatures to limit intra‐spec...
Article
Aim Deep‐diving cetaceans are oceanic species exposed to multiple anthropogenic pressures including high intensity underwater noise, and knowledge of their distribution is crucial to manage their conservation. Due to intrinsic low densities, wide distribution ranges and limited presence at the sea surface, these species are rarely sighted. Pooling...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In habitat modelling, environmental variables (e.g. depth, slope, sea surface temperature) are assumed to be good indicators of lower trophic levels distribution and thus good proxies of top predator’s distribution. However, as marine top predators are supposed to be mostly sensitive to prey abundance, the use of more proximal variables, such as pr...
Article
Overfishing and ocean warming are drastically altering the community composition and size structure of marine ecosystems, eliminating large bodied species [1]. Against a backdrop of such environmental change, the heaviest of all bony fish, the ocean sunfish (Mola mola), seems an improbable survivor. Indeed this indolent giant is killed globally as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge on the distribution patterns of deep-diving cetaceans, here beaked whales and sperm whales, is limited. They are oceanic species threatened by anthropogenic activities which produce high intensity submarine noise. To mitigate the impact of these activities, good knowledge on their distribution is crucial. However, due to their low densiti...
Article
EU member states have to develop their Natura 2000 networks in their national waters to fulfill their conservation obligations regarding species and habitats listed in the Birds and Habitats directives. In France, a coastal network of Natura 2000 areas exists since 2008 but it had to be completed in offshore waters for some marine megafauna species...
Article
Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their bi...
Chapter
Deuxième plus grande zone économique exclusive du monde (plus de 11000000 km2), la France – métropole et outre-mer – héberge 71 espèces de mammifères marins. Premier ­volume d’une ­série consacrée aux mammifères sauvages de France, cet ouvrage marque un progrès consi­dérable de nos connaissances sur la répartition des 16 carni­vores, 53 cétartiodac...
Article
From the Habitat Directive to the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the conservation status of cetaceans in European water has been of concern for over two decades. In this study, a seasonal comparison of the abundance and distribution of cetaceans was carried out in two contrasted regions of the Eastern North Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay...
Article
The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary,...
Article
Full-text available
Contrasting to the overall oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea, the north-western basin is characterised by high productivity and marked by seasonality, which induces spatiotemporal heterogeneity of habitat. Cetaceans and seabirds are expected to perceive this repetition of the seasonal cycle and to anticipate the recurrent variability of their environm...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to the European Union Habitats Directive, EU Member States must extend the Natura 2000 network to marine ecosystems, through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). However, the initial state of cetacean communities across European waters is often poorly known. It is assumed that a MPA is justified where at least 1% of the natio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to European Union (EU) Habitats Directive and Birds Directive, EU Member States must extend the Natura 2000 network to pelagic ecosystems, through the designation of marine protected areas. However, the initial state of seabird communities across European waters is often poorly known. It is assumed that a Natura 2000 site is justified whe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity and variability, both spatially and temporally. In particular, the seasonal variations may lead to severe constraints for seabirds, which have to cope with these variations, for example through migration to avoid unfavorable season, or adaptation to local modification of the ecosystem. I...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing appropriate Pelagic Marine Protected Areas is a challenging process, often facing a lack of knowledge on species distribution. For the last decades, advances in telemetry provided considerable information on seabird’s ecology, but still exclude a large proportion of the population (e.g. small species, non-breeding birds, individuals from...
Article
Full-text available
Norwegian Northern Gannet Morus bassanus populations exhibit contrasting trends on a regional scale, with several colony extinctions having occurred in recent decades. In an attempt to understand the ecological drivers of such variability, we tested whether resource availability is a factor limiting the current development of gannetries in the Lofo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cetacean conservation can be achieved by the combined use of spatially defined local management regulations like marine protected areas (MPA) and more general policies such as fisheries regulations. In both cases understanding how cetacean distribute and use marine habitats is crucial as well as how this relationship change over time because this d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report : Final results of aerial surveys conducted in winter 2011/12 and summer 2012 for the French Marine Protected Area Agence and the French Ministry of Ecology. Distribution, relative density and abundance estimates, habitat modelling of the marine mammals and seabirds in the Frencn EEZ. Full-text is avalaible here: ftp://ftpaamp.aire...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Conformément à la Feuille de route de la DEB (MEDDE) relative à la désignation de sites Natura 2000 au-delà de la mer territoriale – Finalisation du réseau Natura 2000 en mer, ce document expose la démarche proposée par le Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle pour l’extension du réseau Natura 2000 au-delà de la mer territoriale en France pour les o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive encourages Member States of the European Union to achieve ‘Good Environmental Status’ of their waters; that is to protect and restore marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Fulfilling this objective demands an improved knowledge of marine species’ distribution. In 2011/2012, we conducted two 3-months aeri...
Article
Full-text available
Norwegian Northern Gannet Morus bassanus populations exhibit contrasted trends at a regional scale and several colony extinctions occurred in recent decades. In an attempt to understand the ecological drivers of such variability, we tested whether resource availability is a factor limiting the current development of gannetries in the Lofoten/Vester...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report : Preliminary results of aerial surveys conducted in winter 2011/12 and summer 2012 for the French Marine Protected Area Agence and the French Ministry of Ecology. Distribution and encounter rates of the marine megafauna (marine mammals, seabirds, turtles and elasmobranch) in the Frencn EEZ. Full-text is avalaible here: ftp://ftpaa...
Article
At the onset of winter, warm-blooded animals inhabiting seasonal environments may remain resident and face poorer climatic conditions, or migrate towards more favourable habitats. While the origins and evolution of migratory choices have been extensively studied, their consequences on avian energy balance and winter survival are poorly understood,...
Article
Full-text available
The survival of marine predators depends on behavioural plasticity to cope with changes in prey distribution. Variability in behaviour might predict plasticity and is easier to assess than plasticity. Using miniaturized GPS loggers over several breeding seasons in two Norwegian Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) colonies, we investigated if and how t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A large scale aerial survey has been launched by the French Marine Protected Area Agency in december 2011 to study distribution at sea of the marine megafauna in the French EEZ and adjacent waters in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay and in the NW Mediterannean sea. Sightings of marine mammals, seabirds, turtles and large fish including elasmo...
Article
Abstract Although oriented migrations have been identified in many terrestrial bird species, the post-breeding-season movements of seabirds are generally regarded as dispersive. We used geolocator tags to reveal post-breeding movements and winter distribution of northern gannets (Morus bassanus) at a meta-population scale. By focusing on five breed...
Thesis
Full-text available
L'environnement marin est soumis à un ensemble de processus physiques, chimiques et biologiques qui le rendent très dynamique. Les prédateurs tels que les oiseaux marins doivent donc ajuster leurs mouvements aux changements de disponibilité de leurs proies afin de survivre et de se reproduire. L'évolution de leur plasticité comportementale se tradu...
Thesis
Full-text available
Physical, chemical and biological processes generate considerable variability in the distribution and abundance of marine organisms. In order to survive and successfully breed, marine predators, among them seabirds, must adjust their movements to changes in the availability of their prey. We studied the foraging behaviour of the northern gannet Mor...
Article
Studies on the role of introduced rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, on islands have mainly focused on their negative impacts on vegetation. However, little attention has been paid to their influence on vertebrate communities. On Ile Verte (148 ha) in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago, rabbits are the only mammal that have been introduced. The l...
Article
Full-text available
Seabirds, as other marine top predators, are often assumed to forage in an unpredictable environment. We challenge this concept and test the hypothesis that breeding Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) anticipate the spatio-temporal occurrence of their prey in the English Channel. We analyzed 23 foraging tracks of Northern gannets breeding on Rouzic...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation based on visual cues can be extremely difficult in crowded bird colonies due to the presence of many individuals. We studied king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) that live in dense colonies and are constantly faced with such problems. Our aims were to describe adult penguin homing paths on land and to test whether visual cues are imp...
Data
Orientation based on visual cues can be extremely difficult in crowded bird colonies due to the presence of many individuals. We studied king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) that live in dense colonies and are constantly faced with such problems. Our aims were to describe adult penguin homing paths on land and to test whether visual cues are imp...
Article
Life history and spatio-temporal patterns of resource utilisation were characterised in four Chiastocheta (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) species, whose larvae compete as seed predators on Trollius europaeus fruits. Interspecific co-occurrence was observed in 80% of the resource patches (= Trollius fruits) in the two communities studied. Isolated larvae fr...
Article
Phylogenetic relationships among the Chiastocheta species (Diptera, Anthomyiidae) were investigated using a 1320-bp mitochondrial DNA fragment including parts of cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II. Larvae of the Chiastocheta genus feed exclusively on Trollius (Ranunculaceae) seeds. Six Chiastocheta species (and two vicariant taxa) coexist on Trol...

Questions

Questions (4)
Question
I woul like to know if seabirds (and gannets in particular) have greater metabolic rates during the breeding season than during the interbreeding season, even if they meet tougher weather conditions in winter.
Thank you for your answers!
Emeline
Question
If a simulated population has an annual growth rate = 0 (fixed in a demographic model), would it mean that a 1.7% additionnal mortality caused by an anthropogenic pressure would result in a 1.7% decline (annual growth rate = -1.7%)?
Thank you!
Question
I would like to know which formula would be correct to calculate a value of risk for marine mammals knowing the noise generated by human activities and the density of animals. Data are provided in 0.05° grid and I would like to obtain a map of predicted risk of disturbance for mammals.
Following Garthe and Hüppop 2004 (wind farm sensivity index calculation), I was thinking to do this :
Risk = (ln (density + 1) X noise)
Do you think it is correct ?
Thank you!
Question
I'm especially interested in species for which telemetry is not possible. Grey literature must record recoveries, but I haven't found any review.
Thank you!

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