Emanuele Zappa

Emanuele Zappa
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Mechanical Engineering

PhD Mechanical Engineering

About

157
Publications
18,535
Reads
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1,610
Citations
Citations since 2016
76 Research Items
1183 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
February 2001 - present
Politecnico di Milano
Position
  • Bachelor and Master of Science courses
Description
  • Teaching of various courses in the field of measurement and experimental techniques, including vision-based 2D and 3D measurement and scanning.

Publications

Publications (157)
Preprint
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The deadline for abstract submission has been extended to October 15! Join our special session “SS12: Stadia dynamics and monitoring” and submit your abstracts through the Submission System (no template is required): https://lnkd.in/d3Ut8a62
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are employed for vision-based modal analysis of civil infrastructure, as they overcome range limitations of fixed cameras and measure the oscillations of a structure up close. Nevertheless, their potential is not fully exploited: they are often piloted manually and one at a time, though one drone is unable to capture high r...
Article
Full-text available
Wind tunnel tests often require deformation and displacement measures to determine the behavior of structures to evaluate their response to wind excitation. However, common measurement techniques make it possible to measure these quantities only at a few specific points. Moreover, these kinds of measurements, such as Linear Variable Differential Tr...
Article
Ancient stained-glass windows are delicate pieces of art that need to be carefully maintained in order to be preserved over time. Several studies address the problem of stained-glass windows degradation, however, the effect of ambient vibrations on the conservation state of these artworks is not thoroughly studied and understood. In the present wor...
Chapter
Vibration-based structural health monitoring represents an efficient way to evaluate structural integrity and the presence of damage at an early stage. These methods usually assume that damage manifests itself as a deviation in the modal properties of the structure with respect to its normal conditions. Traditional procedures for modal parameters e...
Article
Full-text available
Stadium grandstands may experience high vibration levels due to the crowd action. Existing codes and guidelines used for the design and the assessment of grandstands highlight the need of an already ongoing revision, since there is a lack of information about the real nature of the crowd excitation and its accurate evaluation. This paper describes...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of the freshness of hen eggs destinated to human consumption is an extremely important goal for the modern food industry and sale chains, as eggs show a rapid natural aging which also depends on the storage conditions. Traditional techniques, such as candling and visual observation, have some practical limitations related to the subjecti...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the need for controlling many ageing and complex structures, structural health monitoring (SHM) has become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, one of the main limitations for the implementation of continuous monitoring systems in real-world structures is the effect that benign influences, such as environmental and operati...
Article
In recent years, the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) solutions for the automatic evaluation of the health state of engineering structures is continuously growing. However, when considering real-world applications, structures are highly influenced by meteorological variations or human activities (like temperature, wind and traffic...
Article
Recognition of defects in concrete structures, identification of cracks, concrete spalling, or other geometrical defects are important tools for structural damage detection. Defects in structures can include cracks, but also missing parts, due to the wear caused by weather or aging phenomena. These last types of defects in structures can be identif...
Article
Michelangelo Buonarroti devoted the last years of his life to work on Pietà Rondanini. The statue reached Milano in the ‘50s and it became one of the most important pieces of the Castello Sforzesco collections. In view of Expo 2015, Ospedale Spagnolo was chosen as the new exposition space for the artwork. Subway lines under the new space was recogn...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate Research \& Development (R\&D) performance based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Through a set of questionnaires submitted to a team of experts, we single out a set of indicators needed for R\&D performance evaluation. The indicators, together with the corresponding criteria, form th...
Article
3D-printing techniques are attracting a lot of interest in the sensors community as promising fabrication processes that guarantees customizability at low costs. In this work, the first uniaxial Ti6Al4V alloy accelerometer is designed, fabricated through the Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) technique and tested. Experimental tests under acceleration...
Article
Full-text available
Bolt preload is a critical parameter in bolted connections with a strong influence on their general structural behavior. Traditional bolt preload estimation methods are sensitive to the surface conditions of the fastening elements while more accurate measuring methods might require significant modifications of the connection, such as embedded senso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been developed to assess the dynamic response of structures induced by human loading. Among them, stadiums or sport arenas raise the major interest because of the presence of active people during matches and concerts, leading to high levels of vibrations on the grandstands. To deal with these pr...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with the description of the main activities which have led to the recent implementation of the monitoring system of the roof the G. Meazza stadium in Milan. Due to the considerable exposure to atmospheric agents and the large number of elements present, this structure represents a very attractive challenge for structural health moni...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies has made continuous and dense measurement possible, and has a very broad application prospect in the field of structural health monitoring. However, not all of them are able to guarantee measurement accuracy in a good condition compared to traditional fiber sensors, such as FBGs (Fiber Br...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to monitor the thermal outcome of laser ablation therapy used for minimally invasive tumor removal. Our main goal is the establishment of indicators of the thermal damage of living tissues, which can be used to assess the effect of the procedure. These indicators rely on the spectral v...
Chapter
Image-based measurements are nowadays well-established techniques, and their further development seems endless considering the fast evolution of cameras, computer hardware and software. New algorithms for structural dynamics are continuously developed and, frequently, made available in the computer community. On the other hand, experimental set-up...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the unique mechanical characteristics and lack of plasticity of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs), relatively large strains can develop in FRP reinforced concrete (RC) elements at ultimate limit states and this can lead to different relative contributions of concrete and shear reinforcement to the total element's shear capacity. This paper...
Article
Full-text available
Railway sleepers represent an essential element of the track; indeed, their structural integrity is closely related to important technical and safety issues. Today, periodical visual inspections are the only method applied to check the status of sleepers but are limited to visible surfaces, whereas the early detection of in-service cracks in the wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Security and safety issues are of major concern when considering large civil structures hosting many people. In recent years, this led to a growing interest towards monitoring solutions able to automatically evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the structure. Numerous studies confirm the possibility to correlate structural health with the evolution of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deep learning is nowadays a mature technique and it is widely applied to image processing and classification. In recent years, many authors tried to extend this approach also to 3D object classification. However, most of the works in this field refers to complete models, while in many real applications the single acquisition with a vision system ma...
Article
Full-text available
During the restoration of the Duomo di Milano main spire, a monitoring system has been set up in order to have an early detection of potential risks of the spire. A scaffolding for the restoration activities was mounted around the spire, and it had a section exposed to the wind actions much wider than the spire itself. Any possible contact between...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to present some methods for vibration protection of statues and cultural heritage objects against earthquakes and ambient vibrations. The chapter opens with short explanation about the dynamic performance test that has been done on a full-scale copy of the famous statue of Michelangelo Buonarroti Pieta Rondanini and its is...
Article
Frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) of light is a physical phenomenon which can be used to accomplish several measurement tasks. This paper deals with the design and modeling of pressure field or force sensors based on FTIR. In fact, it is possible to convert the value of contact pressure into a light intensity signal, owing to the frustrat...
Article
In this paper, vision-based measurement system is developed to monitor the crack generation during the static test of concrete sleepers. In particular three point bending test described in the European Standard, EN 13230-2 [1] is considered. This test is the acceptance tests for concrete sleepers, which are declared in the mentioned Standard as “sa...
Article
Thanks to the rapid development of fiber optic sensors, the arrival of distributed sensors makes continuous and dense measurement possible for real structures. The distributed fiber optic sensors could provide a very high number of sensors along one single fiber, which is of great significance for structural health monitoring, especially for the de...
Article
3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a widespread full field displacement measurement technique based on stereo vision. It was formulated to deal with static problems in experimental mechanics in the early seventies and since then the applicability of the technique increased due to increasing framerates and dropping prices of machine vision camera...
Article
The measurement of helicopter main rotor blade angles during flight is a key capability to implement advanced applications, such as strategies for the reduction of emitted noise and to develop innovative flight control laws. The approach proposed in this work for the real-time estimation of blade angles is based on a stereoscopic system mounted on...
Article
Prosthetic mechanical valves are the elective choice in mitral valve (MV) replacement, because of their reliability and easiness of implantation. However, these prostheses can suffer from complications, the major one being prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis (PMVT). In these cases, transthoracic doppler echocardiogram (TDE) is the standard diagnosti...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, camera and computer systems have been miniaturized considerably. The market now offers several low-cost products to assemble a small scale portable stereo vision system which can be completely autonomous (since it can acquire and process image). However, the metrological characteristics of such a portable stereo vision device shoul...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing technologies allows to create a wide variety of geometries even for single prototypes, allowing to develop 3D printed sensors, optimizing the characteristics of the sensing device to the need of each specific application. The dynamic characterization of these sensors is a key point, in particular for the applications where in...
Article
Stereo digital image correlation (DIC) spreads widely in the last years as one of the most flexible and accurate full-field displacement-strain measurement techniques. The development of novel applications based on DIC makes the design of 3-D setups a challenging task, given the complex and nonlinear nature of stereophotogrammetric methods. The pre...
Article
Full-text available
Digital image correlation (DIC) is a useful technique to measure displacement/strain fields both for static and dynamic problems in experimental mechanics. When monitoring moving objects with digital cameras, motion blur may occur if the shutter time reaches the time scale of the motion of the measurand. Consequently, motion blur is one of the most...
Article
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a widely adopted optical technique to detect motions and deformations dealing with vision-based systems. Considering DIC dynamic applications, motion blur represents one of the most relevant sources of measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes an innovative approach to compensate the effect of motion blur on im...
Article
Stereo-digital image correlation (DIC) is a widespread technique in the field of experimental mechanics for measuring shape, motion, and deformation and it is frequently used for material identification by using inverse methods (e.g., virtual fields method and finite element model updating). New applications emerge due to the reached maturity level...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital image correlation (DIC) measurements are affected by several sources of uncertainty. Motion blur is one of the most relevant problems in dynamic DIC applications. This work deals with the problem of compensating motion blur effects on DIC. Firstly, a robust motion blur estimation technique based on cepstral analysis is presented and validat...
Conference Paper
Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams is affected by member size and elements with similar mechanical properties show a decrease in shear strength with an increase in overall depth. This paper discusses the effects of member geometry (known as size effect) on the shear behaviour of 6 fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) RC beams, similar in m...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses an experimental study examining size effect in GFRP RC beams with overall height varying from 260 mm to 460 mm, but otherwise similar in geometry and material properties. All beams were unreinforced in shear and designed to ensure shear failure. 3D DIC was employed alongside strain and displacement transducers to gain additiona...
Article
This paper discusses the effects of member geometry (size effect) on shear behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polymer reinforced concrete (GFRP RC) beams with and without FRP shear reinforcement. The experimental programme comprised 6 beams with no shear reinforcement and 6 beams reinforced with closed external FRP shear links providing a minimum...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the effects of member geometry (size effect) on shear behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polymer reinforced concrete (GFRP RC) beams with and without FRP shear reinforcement. The experimental programme comprised 6 beams with no shear reinforcement and 6 beams reinforced with closed external FRP shear links providing a minimum...
Article
Preserving cultural heritage against earthquake and ambient vibrations can be an attractive topic in the field of vibration control. This paper proposes a passive vibration isolator methodology based on inerters for improving the performance of the isolation system of the famous statue of Michelangelo Buonarroti Pietà Rondanini. More specifically,...
Article
Full-text available
A combined experimental and numerical analysis of the mechanical response of the thin aluminum foils employed in beverage packaging has been performed using 3D digital image correlation and non-linear finite element techniques. The present contribution focuses on the significant amount of out-of-plane displacements that develop in tensile tests as...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the performance analysis of a vibration-isolation system for Michelangelo Buonarroti’s famous Ronadanini Pietà statue based on the monitoring and analysis of vibration signals. A tuned mass-damper–inerter is introduced in order to increase the effectiveness of the isolator in the horizontal direction. Specifically, a multi-deg...
Article
In this paper, three novel non-contact measurement systems for helicopter rotor blades, based on the 2D laser triangulation, the single camera and the stereo camera respectively, are designed and developed. The three measurement systems are applied to reconstruct the spatial position of the blade, and consequently its attitude angles. The measuring...
Article
The mechanical response and the failure mode of thin metal foils under tensile load has been analyzed supplementing the usual test records with full-field measurements performed by three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) techniques. The experiments have been simulated by finite element models formulated within a non-linear continuum fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exposure of reinforced concrete elements to elevated temperature can significantly affect the bond behaviour of embedded reinforcing bars. When FRP bars are used in lieu of the more conventional steel, their bond performance is expected to reduce due to the change in the properties of the resin matrix and there is a strong consensus that FRP bars s...
Article
This paper proposes a passive vibration isolator methodology based on inerters for improving the performance of the famous statue of Michelangelo Buonarroti. More specifically, the five-degree-of-freedom (5DOF) model of the statue based on experimental tests has been presented. Using this developed model, the impact of actuation devices such as tun...
Article
Full-text available
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a widely used optical measurement method to find the field of displacement and strain on the surface of an object. Even though a lot of studies have been done on this method and its uncertainty, there is still the possibility to do some improvements, especially in the case of dynamic conditions. In dynamic conditi...
Article
Full-text available
p>Nowadays, face recognition systems are going to widespread in many fields of application, from automatic user login for financial activities and access to restricted areas, to surveillance for improving security in airports and railway stations, to cite a few. In such scenarios, the architectures based on stereo vision and 3D reconstruction of th...
Chapter
This paper discusses the application of 3D vision-based techniques to recover the Operational Deflection Shapes of a reference specimen consisting in a rectangular section cantilever beam. The research work focuses on the analysis of the accuracy of this measuring approach and discusses the strong points and the limitation of the photogrammetric ap...
Article
Vision-based measurement techniques are often applied in experimental activities because of the possibility to obtain full-field dense measurement without any loading effect. Many different vision-based techniques are available in literature to measure a plurality of mechanical quantities. Digital image correlation (DIC) and pattern matching are ve...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the application of 3D vision-based techniques to recover the Operational Deflection Shapes of a reference specimen consisting in a rectangular section cantilever beam. The research work focuses on the analysis of the accuracy of this measuring approach and discusses the strong points and the limitation of the photogrammetric ap...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the application of 3D vision-based techniques to recover the Operational Deflection Shapes of a reference specimen consisting in a rectangular section cantilever beam. The research work focuses on the analysis of the accuracy of this measuring approach and discusses the strong points and the limitation of the photogrammetric ap...
Article
In this paper, the effects of motion blur on 2-D digital image correlation (DIC) measurements are discussed, with a particular focus on the description of displacement measurement uncertainty. The research started with the simulation of motion blur with a suitable literature-based algorithm. Then the state of the art of uncertainty analysis in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper describes the innovative system that protects the statue "Pietà Rondanini" by Michelangelo Buonarroti from both earthquake and traffic-induced vibrations. The marble statue was the last incomplete job by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475- 1564), housed in the Sforza Castle in Milan. This statue, as many artifacts in our museums, is facing pro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the issues related with the application of photogrammetric methods in the context of modal analysis. In this field of mechanical testing, the vibrations of the measurand are monitored. The possibility to measure displacement of several monitored points without directly instrumenting those, pushes the interest toward the applicat...
Article
Health assessment of historical buildings by means of monitoring systems is for sure a fundamental step to preserve architectural heritage, especially for countries as Italy, rich in ancient monuments. Events such as earthquakes or severe weather phenomena constitute a major risk for these buildings because of their age and the related weakness to...
Chapter
In this paper face classification systems based on 3D images are compared in terms of classification and metrological performance in presence of image uncertainty. In previous papers the authors proposed a new approach to classification and recognition problems. It is based on the evaluation of the image uncertainty and on the exploitation of such...