Emanuele Quaranta

Emanuele Quaranta
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Post Ph.D. researcher at European Commission quarantaemanuele@yahoo.it

About

61
Publications
41,254
Reads
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830
Citations
Citations since 2016
56 Research Items
807 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - present
European Commission
Position
  • Project Officer Scientific Research
January 2017 - July 2019
Politecnico di Torino
Position
  • PhD Student
October 2015 - present
University of Southampton
Position
  • Visiting Researcher
Education
January 2014 - December 2016
Politecnico di Torino
Field of study
  • Environmental engineering- Hydraulics, Hydropower
October 2011 - July 2013
Politecnico di Torino
Field of study
  • Hydraulic Engineering
September 2008 - October 2011
Politecnico di Torino
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (61)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In low head sites and at low discharges, water wheels can be considered among the most convenient hydropower converters to install. The scope of this work is to improve the performance of an existing breastshot water wheel changing the blades shape, using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. Three optimal profiles are investigated: the pr...
Article
There is a hidden energy potential in existing hydropower plants, and this was assessed for Europe. • Heat recovery from generators can reach 5 TWh/y, and can be used either for powerhouse heating or for district heating. • The harvesting of the tailrace water energy can increase European generation by 0.43 %, equivalent to thousands of micro hydro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a preliminary estimation of the gross potential of hydropower that can be harnessed from drainpipes of residential buildings in the European Union (EU) and UK. Aggregated data available from the Copernicus Urban Atlas website is used to determine the building height of 25 major European cities that, combined with rainfall data relative t...
Technical Report
The full report can be downloaded here https://setis.ec.europa.eu/hydropower-and-pumped-hydropower-storage-european-union_en \\ Hydropower, with its 1,360 GW of global installed capacity and 4,260 TWh/year in 2021, is currently the giant of low-carbon and renewable electricity technologies. In the European Union (EU) the current power capacity is...
Book
The objective of this report is to establish a scoreboard to assess the EU’s competitive position in carbon-neutral solutions across important industrial ecosystems related to the energy transition. The 2021 annual report of the European Climate Neutral Industry Competitiveness Scoreboard (CIndECS) provides an assessment of 20 climate-neutral solut...
Article
The Banki turbine is a crossflow turbine suitable for sites with heads below 200 m and flow rates below 10 m³/s, with maximum efficiency around 80%. Its flexible operation and easy manufacturing make it a suitable hydropower technology for different geographic areas and hydraulic contexts. However, the design procedure proposed in literature is not...
Article
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) may represent a significant source of pollution, but they are difficult to quantify at a large scale (e.g. regional or national), due to a lack of accessible data. In the present study, we use a large scale, 6-parameter, lumped hydrological model to perform a screening level assessment of different CSO management sce...
Article
The Very Low Head turbine (VLHT) is an axial flow turbine developed for heads below 4.5 m and flow rates up to 30 m³/s. In this work, the state of the art, the technological advancements and the scientific gaps were discussed and generalized, with a special focus on design, ecological behavior, costs, performance at different flows, heads and rotat...
Article
Full-text available
Study region Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) of 671 Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) throughout the European Union + UK (EU28), representing almost half of the EU28 population. Study focus CSO loads can be quantified at the local scale through measurements, or with calibrated hydrological models. However, they are difficult to quantify at a large scal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The problem of ingested bodies and sediments in hydropower plants is one of the current research trends in the hydropower sector, since sediments can generate several problems such as abrasion, increased maintenance costs, reduction of storage capacity. However, most researches focus on the effects of fine sediments rather than on the effects of co...
Article
Full-text available
Small hydropower plants (installed power below 10 MW) are generally considered less impacting than larger plants, and this has stimulated their rapid spread, with a developing potential that is not exhausted yet. However, since they can cause environmental impacts, especially in case of cascade installations, there is the need to operate them in a...
Chapter
The powering of nonpowered dams and barriers and the modernization of the aged hydropower plants are emerging practices of hydropower development, due to the minimal impacts on ecosystems and the fact that most of the infrastructure is already in place. The modernization of existing plants also allows to increase safety, resilience to climate chang...
Article
Full-text available
The noise generated by free surface hydropower machines, e.g., water wheels, has led to complaints and to restrictions in their operation in urban areas. This problem generally occurs when water wheels are not well designed and are installed without expertise. Despite the relevance of the problem, and the growing interest in the use of water wheels...
Article
Full-text available
The Pelton turbine is the most widespread and efficient impulse hydropower turbine. The Pelton casing is a static, but key component: the internal hydrodynamic phenomena affect the performance of the hydropower plant, the vibration of the equipment and water quality (dissolved oxygen downstream). However, the literature information is very fragment...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, some innovative case studies in the hydropower sector are discussed , highlighting how novel technologies and operational practices can make it more efficient, sustainable and cost-effective. Some practices to reduce hydropeaking effects, improving fish habitat, and turbines with higher survival rate, allowing to bring fish surviva...
Article
Full-text available
Lifting water is crucial to irrigate agricultural terraces in the Mediterranean region. But the energy demand and emissions of modern forms of water pumping have increased, while many traditional water wheels, which lift water at zero direct emissions, have been abandoned. We explored the state of preservation and the potential for the deployment o...
Article
Environmentally enhanced turbines (EETs) have gained attention in the past two decades in order to reduce environmental impacts of hydropower plants on fish communities and on water quality. In this mini-review the main EETs are discussed, focusing on the Alden and Minimum Gap Runner turbines to reduce fish injury and on self-aerating and self/free...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally enhanced turbines (EETs) have gained attention in the past two decades in order to reduce environmental impacts of hydropower plants on fish communities and on water quality. In this mini-review the main EETs are discussed, focusing on the Alden and Minimum Gap Runner turbines to reduce fish injury and on self-aerating and self/free...
Article
Full-text available
About 50% of all hydropower plants (HPPs) worldwide were originally commissioned more than 40 years ago, so that the advanced age of the fleet is a major concern across all continents, and especially in Europe. The modernization of HPPs can generate several benefits in terms of generation, flexibility, safety, operation, and may have neutral or eve...
Article
The hydropower sector is currently experiencing several technological developments. New technologies and sustainable practices are emerging to make hydropower more flexible and eco-friendly. Novel materials have also been recently developed to increase performance, durability, and reliability; however, no systematic discussions can be found in the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper presents a techno-economic analysis of the electromechanical equipment of traditional vertical axis water mills (VAWMs) to help investors, mill owners and engineers to preliminary estimate related benefits and costs of a VAWM repowering. Design/methodology/approach Two sustainable repowering solutions were examined with the addit...
Article
Full-text available
The MesoHABitat SImulation Model (MesoHABSIM) is the preferred method to calculate spatio-temporal variation in the fish habitat availability in Italian rivers. With the aim of improving the applicability of the MesoHABSIM approach in the Italian territory, we carried out a systematic review of physical habitat preferences for 31 freshwater fish sp...
Article
Full-text available
The Indus basin has a large hydropower untapped potential for electricity generation and to regulate the Indus river flow, which could reduce flooding events and provide water supply during drought periods. In this paper, a computational module is developed to localize potential sites for hydropower generation and seasonal pumped hydropower storage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Hydropower development is a key renewable source to reach the European climate targets (2030 climate and energy framework, the 2050 long-term strategy) and it is encouraged by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (and its recast 2018 /2001/EU also known as RED II). Hydropower enables energy storage and stabilization of the electri...
Article
Full-text available
Urban greening is an effective mitigation option for climate change in urban areas. In this contribution, a European Union (EU)-wide assessment is presented to quantify the benefits of urban greening in terms of availability of green water, reduction of cooling costs and CO 2 sequestration from the atmosphere, for different climatic scenarios. Resu...
Article
Full-text available
Study region This study considers daily time series of 14 years of weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, rainfall, vapor pressure and radiation) for 671 functional urban areas (FUA) across Europe, from a latitude of 35° (Cyprus) to 65° (Finland). Study focus Quantification of urban greening effects usually requires relatively complex and in...
Article
Water wheels are low head hydropower converters considered fish friendly, although their ecological behavior has not been scientifically assessed. The results presented in the available reports are not generalized (thus hardly applicable in engineering applications), and they have not been performed at different hydraulic conditions or wheel charac...
Chapter
Hydropower is a sector in rapid development, with new technologies and best practices aimed at making it more sustainable and with the required flexibility to support the spread of wind and solar plant and the frequent instabilities of the electric grid. In this review, study cases and technologies are discussed in this context, with focus on flexi...
Article
Full-text available
Hydropower remains a key renewable energy source in the pursuit of the decarbonization of the economy, although the relatively high potential impact of the hydro-morphological alterations it may cause poses significant concerns for aquatic ecosystems. In the last years, new technologies and practices have been increasingly adopted to minimize the i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Deriaz hydraulic machine is a diagonal pump-turbine; it has adjustable blades and can be used in pump mode. In this paper, a dimensional analysis was performed by applying the Buckingham-π-theorem to achieve an equation to estimate the design rotational speed of Deriaz turbines. The equation was calibrated on a dataset of 19 full scale cases, w...
Book
Full-text available
In recent years, renewable energy sources have increasingly contributed to global energy production with a total supplement of around 2,200 GW (approximately 34% of global installed power capacity). Hydropower is the largest contributor, with approximately 1,200 GW (approximately 18% of global installed power capacity). It is hence a key energy sou...
Article
Full-text available
Overshot water wheels are hydropower converters generally employed for head differences up to 6 m and maximum flow rates of 150−200 L=s per meter width. The maximum hydraulic efficiency (80%-85%) is constant for rotational speeds below the critical speed, whereas the efficiency linearly decreases at higher rotational speeds due to the increase of w...
Article
Full-text available
Hydropower is the most developed renewable energy technology. It has evolved over hundreds of years, with the highest growth in the Twentieth century. Some technologies are continuously improving, while others have been forgotten. Four emerging hydropower turbines developed in the past, but forgotten in the last century, are here presented: water w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water wheels are hydraulic machines that employ the water’s weight to rotate. Because of their large diameter, the rotational speeds range from 2 to 10 revolutions per minute. Such conditions require ex-pensive power take off systems. For this paper, a wa-ter wheel with an innovative power transmission was tested, showing maximum global efficiency...
Article
Full-text available
A rotary hydrostatic pressure machine (RHPM) is a hydropower converter for very low head applications (less than 2.5 m). An RHPM can be installed in straight canals, because its wheel can generate a hydraulic head as a result of the created dam effect. Some new experimental results on an RHPM are presented in this paper. Because of the asymmetric s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
KEY POINTS  Artificial Vegetation Patches (VP) can be used for the design of fish passes.  The drag coefficient of VP depends on the patch solidity (SVF).  The drag coefficient vs SVF is explained by bleeding effects.  RANS-based CFD allows for a satisfactory prediction of VP drag.
Article
Full-text available
The rotational speed estimation of Francis and Kaplan turbines is of primary importance in the design of hydropower plants. However, most rotational speed equations were conceived for power outputs higher than 1 MW, i.e., for heads typically higher than 10 m for Kaplan turbines and 50 m for Francis turbines. Therefore, the accuracy of these equatio...
Article
Full-text available
Undershot water wheels are hydropower converters for head differences between 0.5 and 1.5 m. The Zuppinger and Sagebien types are the most used and efficient. Optimal rotational speeds depend on the head difference and on the flow rate: hence, in variable flow rate applications, the variable rotational speed is needed to optimize the performance, r...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reviews recent research and development activities in the field of hydropower technology. It covers emerging and advanced technologies to mitigate flow instabilities (active and passive approach) as well as emerging magneto-rheological control techniques. Recent research findings on flow instabilities are also presented , especially conce...
Article
Full-text available
Vertical slot fishways (VSFs) are the most efficient and least selective typology of technical fish passage, due to their ability to remain effective even when significant upstream and/or downstream water level fluctuations occur. Fishway construction costs can be reduced by increasing its bed slope, but this affects the flow field inside the pools...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, due to the need for clean energy and sustainable electricity production, hydropower plays a central role in satisfying the energy demand. Particularly, use of low head micro hydropower plants is spreading worldwide, due to their low payback periods and good environmental sustainability. Gravity water wheels are micro hydropower converters...
Article
Full-text available
Water wheels were the earliest hydraulic machines used in antiquity to convert water energy into mechanical one. Due to their simple installation, low maintenance costs, and thanks to the possibility to use local manpower and material for their construction, nowadays water wheels are again used as energy supply, especially in remote localities and...
Article
Full-text available
In rivers and at old mill sites there is a substantial amount of very low-head hydropower with head differences from 0.3 to 1.5 m. Much of this potential is unused since in these conditions modern hydropower technology is not cost effective. In the mid-nineteenth century, the Sagebien and Zuppinger wheels were developed for such situations. Recent...
Article
Full-text available
Sagebien and Zuppinger undershot water wheels are hydropower converters for head differences between 0.3-1.5 m. Today, because of the renewed demand for micro hydropower utilisation, these undershot low-head water wheels may offer an attractive solution. In this paper, comparative model tests at approximately 1:10 scale are reported. The Sagebien w...
Article
Fishways are hydraulic structures that allow passage of fish across obstructions in rivers. Vertical slot fishways—VSFs—are considered the most efficient and least selective type of technical fishway solutions, especially due to their ability to remain effective even when significant upstream and/or downstream water level fluctuations occur. The sc...
Article
Full-text available
At low head sites and at low discharges, water wheels can be considered among the most convenient hydropower converters to install. The aim of this work is to improve the performance of an existing breastshot water wheel by changing the blade shape using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. Three optimal profiles are investigated: the pro...
Article
Full-text available
In low head sites and at low discharges, water wheels can be considered among the most convenient hydropower converters to install. The scope of this work is to improve the performance of an existing breastshot water wheel changing the blades shape, using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. Three optimal profiles are investigated: the pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In low head sites and at low discharges, water wheels can be considered among the most convenient hydropower converters to install. The scope of this work is to improve the performance of an existing breastshot water wheel changing the blades shape, using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. Three optimal profiles are investigated: the pr...
Article
Breastshot water wheels are gravity hydraulic machines employed in low head sites. The scope of this work is to test the performance of a breastshot water wheel with two geometric inflow configurations: a sluice gate at different openings and two vertical overflow weirs. With the sluice gate, the maximum efficiency of the plant is 75%, constant ove...
Article
Full-text available
Breastshot water wheels are gravity hydraulic machines employed in low head sites. The scope of this work is to test the performance of a breastshot water wheel with two geometric inflow configurations: a sluice gate at different openings and two vertical overflow weirs. With the sluice gate, the maximum efficiency of the plant is 75%, constant ove...
Conference Paper
- Vertical slot fishways are hydraulic structures that allow fish to pass over an obstacle. Several experimental tests have been performed, but fewer numerical simulations have been explored. - The standard design of a vertical slot fishway and a modified version were investigated using CFD simulations, in order to simulate the turbulent flow field...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
- Vertical slot fishways are hydraulic structures that allow fish to pass over an obstacle. Several experimental tests have been performed, but fewer numerical simulations have been explored. - The standard design of a vertical slot fishway and a modified version were investigated using CFD simulations, in order to simulate the turbulent flow field...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to their efficiency and simplicity of contruction, breastshot water wheels represent an attractive low head hydropower converter. In this work, a breastshot wheel is investigated by numerical simulations, and the results are validated with experimental tests. The average discrepancy between the numerical shaft torque and the experimental tor...
Article
Full-text available
Water wheels can be efficient hydropower converters at low heads and low discharges. The paper presents the results of a study of a breastshot water wheel in a laboratory experimental channel. The obtained data show that breastshot water wheels can reach a maximum efficiency of about 75%, at a rotational velocity which is about 60% of the runaway v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available

Questions

Question (1)
Question
There is a micro Kaplan hydro plant:
Flow rate: 0.58 mc/s Head: 4.85 m RPM: 625 Max electrical power: 16.5 kW Generator+gearbox efficiency: 0.89 Maximum Turbine efficiency: 0.67 Draft tube: vertical/conical, 1.5 m high
The problem is the decrease in electrical power (measured during operation) with the time up to an asymptotic value, although all the external conditions (head, flow rate, rpm, blades configurations) remain constant.
I summarize here better, by using a picture (in attach). The picture depicts the power in kW versus the time in minutes.
Let's suppose that the turbine is switched off. Then it is switched on and the ELECTRICAL power reaches in few seconds 16.5 kW. But, as you can see from the picture, then it starts to decrease approaching, over three days, 13.65 kW, and remains at 13.65 kW. Then, suppose that it is again switched off and switched on (process that last few minutes, not again plotted in the figure),  again the ELECTRICAL POWER reaches 16.5 kW as at the beginning, but then it decreases approaching 13.65 kW (after 3 days) and remains 13.65 kW. If we repeat again the switch on/off (process done in few minutes), again it reaches 16.5 kW, and then decreases up to 13.65 kW. If the turbine is not switched on/off, the power remains 13.65 kW “forever” ….. until a new switched off/on is made. Therefore, the switched off/on process last few minutes, while the decreasing trend until the lowest power value of 13.65 kW lasts few days.
Have you got general ideas?
1) Formation of a big vortex in the draft tube. If this would occur, the decreasing trend should last few minutes (the time needed for the vortex development), and the power would immediately approach 13 kW. This phenomenun should last few minutes, not days. Furthermore, by CFD simulations, the vortex in the draft tube is not powerful, and at the outlet of the draft tube flow velocities are vertical.
2) Possible inclusion of air from the conical (vertical) draft tube towards the turbine. The draft tube is immersed of slightly more than 1.1 D into the downstream water level (D is maximum turbine diameter), as recommended by engineering practice. From CFD simulations flow velocities are downward, so this point should be ok.
3) Possible electro-mechanics/electrical load problem.
4) Cavitation: during operation there are not noise, neither appreciable vibrations, but there is hub erosion due to cavitation. But cavitation should reduce the maximum power output, not generate a decreasing trend during the time.
Thanks

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