Emanuela Falletti

Emanuela Falletti
Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB) | ISMB

About

106
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
The Public Observation (PO) test phase of the Galileo Open Service Navigation Message Authentication (OSNMA) signal is officially opened since November $15^{\text {th}}~2021$ , by the European Union Agency for the Space Programme (EUSPA). During this phase, any interested users is allowed to access the Signal in Space (SIS) for testing purposes, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology is not the primary means of navigation for civil aviation and Air Traffic Control, but its role is increasing. Consequently, the vulnerabilities of GNSSs to Radio Frequency Interference, including the dangerous intentional sources of interference (i.e., jamming and spoofing), raise...
Article
Full-text available
With the fast growing diffusion of the real-time high accuracy applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the robustness of the GNSS receiver performance has become a compelling requirement. Disruptive effects can be induced to the signal processing stages of GNSS receivers due to the disturbances from Radio-Frequency Inte...
Article
Adaptive notch filters (ANFs) have been widely investigated in literature for their low complexity and good performance, and used in many signal processing applications. More recently, they have been proven to be an effective solution against jamming interferences, considered more than ever a real threat to Global Navigation Satellite System signal...
Article
Full-text available
Intentional interference in satellite navigation is becoming an increasing threat for modern systems relying on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In particular, critical applications such as aviation can be severely affected by undetected and un-mitigated interference and therefore interference management solutions are crucial to be emplo...
Conference Paper
Emerging autonomous driving applications are setting the pace of the innovation for the on board GNSS receiver. Position accuracy, high availability, robustness of operation and formal integrity of the observables are the priorities, which are giving rise and shaping a new class of automotive receiver components and architectures. Moreover, because...
Conference Paper
The deployment of autonomous vehicles in our roads within the next future requires high accurate positioning information. It allows for vehicles to navigate in the correct lanes, position themselves correctly so to be able to affect future manoeuvres. For this purpose, several solutions have been developed to estimate the absolute and relative posi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes low-complexity measures to be deployed on most aircraft to enable the management of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) interference, and in particularly of jamming and spoofing threats, in order to reach the Flightpath2050 safety and security targets. It is known that, if there is a jamming interference and GNSS navigati...
Article
Following the issue by the Galileo Service Center of the Notice Advisory to Galileo Users (NAGU) reporting Service Outage for all the Galileo satellites, as curious Galileo users our team of researchers of the NavSAS group started an independent investigation of the received signals in space (SISs). Available at: https://www.gpsworld.com/why-gali...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes an optimization of the characteristic parameters that define four architectures of adaptive notch filters, used to mitigate the effect of swept-frequency (chirp) jamming signals at the input of a GNSS receiver. The optimization is based on a performance metric computed at the acquisition stage of the receiver that represents a m...
Article
The Kalman filter (KF) theory is a fundamental milestone in signal processing and automatic control. This chapter discusses the main techniques related to Kalman filtering for satellite navigation. In particular, It explains the structure of the KF exploited in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver to compute the position of the user...
Article
Many infrastructures that shape our lifestyle depend on the GPS. Even though not used for positioning, these infrastructures need GPS to derive a precise time synchronization necessary for their operations. Examples are power distribution grids, gateways for financial transactions, and telecommunication networks. However, GPS receivers, and more in...
Article
Full-text available
In the past years, many techniques have been researched and developed to detect and identify the interference sources of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. In this paper, we utilize a simple and portable application to map interference sources in real-time. The results are promising and show the potential of the crowdsourcing for mo...
Conference Paper
Autonomous vehicles are becoming a reality. One of the most critical functions of an autonomous vehicle is to be able to obtain an accurate and reliable estimation of the position and attitude of the vehicle. This is even more critical when operating without human supervision as for the SAE Level 4. This paper presents an innovative positioning eng...
Conference Paper
Localisation is a primary function for autonomous driving. Its performance is critical to ensure the safe navigation of autonomous vehicles, particularly when operating without human supervision as for the SAE Level 4 driving. In this paper, the design of an innovative engine based on a safety-oriented paradigm by leveraging on the availability of...
Article
Full-text available
The hazardous effects of spoofing attacks on the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver are well known. Technologies and algorithms to increase the awareness of GNSS receivers against such attacks become more important and necessary. We present the validation of two statistical spoofing detection methods, namely the Chi-square goodness...
Article
Full-text available
In modern GNSS receivers, using a Kalman filter in each signal tracking loop presents remarkable advantages in terms of accuracy and robustness against malicious noise sources, but poses critical issues in real-time applications due to the high computational cost. For this reason, we propose an efficient method to dramatically reduce the number of...
Conference Paper
Since the setup of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), receiver technique has been developing all this long way. Traditionally, A conventional system-level tacking loop normally consists of a FLL, a PLL, a DLL which are separately in charge of the continuous estimations of Doppler frequency, carrier phase, and code phase. All these three com...
Conference Paper
Due to the low level of the received power and to the known signal structure, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) civil signals might be vulnerable to different sources of interference. Among them, the spoofing attacks are considered ones of the most deceptive, since their scope is controlling the output of the victim receiver. This paper pr...
Conference Paper
The availability and accuracy constraints that must be satisfied by GNSS-based positioning systems make the Kalman filter solution a key point in order to reach the required level of performance. For example, the update process of the filter requires a careful weighting of the GNSS measurements to work properly. This paper presents a method that in...
Article
Full-text available
A novel cooperative integrity monitoring concept, called "local integrity", suitable to automotive applications in urban scenarios, is discussed in this paper. The idea is to take advantage of a collaborative Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) architecture in order to perform a spatial/temporal characterization of possible degradations of Global Navi...
Article
Full-text available
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) broadcast signals for positioning and navigation, which can be also employed for remote sensing applications. Indeed, the satellites of any GNSS can be seen as synchronized sources of electromagnetic radiation, and specific processing of the signals reflected back from the ground can be used to estimate th...
Conference Paper
GNSS receivers take advantage from the software defined radio approach because they can use the intrinsic flexibility to evolve toward new satellite positioning systems and applications. For this type of implementation the use of embedded platforms is particularly interesting, due to the associated portability and low cost. This paper describes the...
Conference Paper
In modern communications, the flexibility is a key point in the implementation of receivers because it eases the development of new products and the introduction of new features in already existing ones. In the silicon-based products the extra-cost associated to the introduction of a new functionality is mainly due to the development process rather...
Conference Paper
A proof-of-concept demonstrator of a cooperative integrity monitoring concept, called “local integrity” and tailored to terrestrial applications, is presented in this paper. The idea is to take advantage of a collaborative Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) architecture in order to perform a spatial/temporal characterization of possible local degrada...
Article
This paper presents the theoretical development and analysis of a novel DLL discriminator robust to multipath errors, called the Combination of Squared Correlators (CSC). The CSC discriminator features a simple implementation based on four (complex) static correlators per channel, without falling into the wide family of patented architectures.In th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New GNSS tracking architectures are becoming of scientific interest since the last decade. The traditional DLL/PLL tracking-loops have been progressively substituted by KF/EKF scalar tracking and VDLL/VDFLL vector tracking methods. In this paper we will analyze in depth the performance of a KF scalar tracking and VDFLL vector in case of signal outa...
Conference Paper
The hazardous effect of a spoofing attack to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver is well known. This is particularly dangerous for safety critical applications, such as in the aeronautical and maritime fields, with a potential cascade of detrimental effects on the on-board equipment. This paper presents the validation of two statis...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, Kalman filter (KF)-based tracking loop architectures have gained much attention in the Global Navigation Satellite System field and have been widely investigated due to its robust and better performance compared with traditional architectures. However, less attention has been paid to the in-depth theoretical analysis of the trackin...
Conference Paper
This tutorial paper highlights possible issues related to the integrity and authentication of the GNSS position in road applications. In fact, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) community is already aware of the conceptual and practical problems related to the availability of the position integrity (i.e. position confidence, protection l...
Conference Paper
The paper presents a new multipath mitigation strategy suitable to current Global Navigation Satellite System signals (e.g. Galileo and modernized GPS), including high order Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulated signals. The proposed strategy differs from the other approaches in the state of the art, based on the same number of correlators (five):...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a novel concept of “local integrity” suitable to Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers in urban vehicular scenarios. The idea is to take into account not only the system, but also the environment nearby the receiver in its nominal conditions, exploiting the potentialities offered by a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANE...
Conference Paper
The Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology, applied to the reception of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS), allows the implementation of a positioning device with a high flexibility level. The advantage is twofold: not only the GNSS SDR receiver can be easily updated during its operational life, but it becomes an outstanding tool in protot...
Conference Paper
In recent years, research activities in the field of Satellite Navigation have boosted worldwide. At the same time, it has become evident that few educational opportunities in the field were available for students and there was a need to develop dedicated tools for hands-on sessions. To partially answer this need, the NavSAS Group has developed N-F...
Conference Paper
Thanks to the improvements brought to GNSS in the last years, multipath (MP) is now one of the more significant error sources affecting the GNSS solution, and more often than not, the dominant one. MP introduces an asymmetry in the correlation function and this shifts the zero crossing point of the discriminator S-curve. This means that due to MP,...
Article
Restoring the connectivity in the emergency areas and providing NAV/COM services able to support and coordinate the rescue teams represent two of the main telecommunication needs for efficient emergency situation management. The SALICE (Satellite-Assisted LocalIzation and Communication system for Emergency services) Project aimed at identifying the...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS) and the inertial navigation system (INS) integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects,...
Patent
Domanda di brevetto per invenzione industriale depositata il 29 luglio 2013, Proprietario del brevetto SELEX ES S.P.A. Url: http://www.uibm.gov.it/uibm/dati/Avanzata.aspx?load=info_list_uno&id=2176457&table=Invention&#ancoraSearch
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the structure of a tracking loop with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the NCO update rule, which is seldom mentioned or studied in previous literature. Furthermore, the structure of an EKF-based software receiver is proposed including the special modules dedicated to the initialization and ma...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses some technical problems and proposes a solution related to the implementation of a robust switching between single-side and double-side lobe tracking modes in case of BOC modulated signals, in particular BOC(M,N), with M, N ensuremath> 1. It is demonstrated that typical group delay distortions due to wide-band front-end filters...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequ...
Article
SUMMARY This paper deals with the cooperative strategies, which can be adopted in emergency scenarios by integrating space and terrestrial segments, and communication and localization services. First, the cooperative solutions for integrated Navigation and Communication systems are reviewed and an effective software-defined radio implementation is...
Article
With the advent of new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass and the modernized GPS, new signal modulation is introduced to improve the performance and compatibility In this paper, a new FLL discriminator based on energy is proposed to adapt to these changes This new discriminator can determine the frequency error only using the minimum period of data, it...
Chapter
Wireless positioning systems have a number of reference wireless nodes at fixed and precisely known locations in a coordinate reference frame and one or more mobile nodes to be located. Positioning involves specific measurements between nodes. These measurements are processed to determine the position of agent nodes. A typical example of measured d...
Conference Paper
Quantification of the multipath-induced error in GNSS code-based range measurements is usually entrusted to curves as the multipath error envelope (MEE). Although very useful for comparative evaluations, these metrics do not include any realistic information on the propagation channel statistical characterization and consequently cannot be used to...
Conference Paper
It is known that signal acquisition can be treated as a two-dimensional search and all the possible results are located in the search plane as different cells. In this paper, the theoretical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is analyzed, and the property of the approximate expression is exploited, while it is seldom addressed in prev...
Conference Paper
In the field of satellite navigation technologies, and in particular for Safety-of-Life (SoL) applications, great attention is given to rejection of interference. In particular, continuous wave (CW) signals represent one of the most common types of interference. A properly designed adaptive notch filter should be employed in order to remove it. Suc...
Conference Paper
The disruptive effects of multipath around the receiver antenna are well known and proved by a very wide GNSS literature. In addition, multipath robustness is one of the first signal characteristics taken into account in the process of signals definition. The rejection of the multipath effects becomes an even more sensitive issue in Safety-of-Life...
Article
This study presents a novel solution of DLL discrimination function for multiband global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, designed to cope with a multipath-prone environment in safety-of-life (SoL) applications. The solution is based on a combination of squared correlators (CSC) outputs, following an approach similar to that driving t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thanks to advances in the development of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS), it has been possible to fabricate small dimension and cheap accelerometers and gyros, which are being used in many applications where the GPS/INS integration is carried out, as for example to identify track defects, navigation, geo-referencing, agriculture, etc. Althou...
Book
The first book to combine satellite and terrestrial positioning techniques - vital for the understanding and development of new technologies * Written and edited by leading experts in the field, with contributors belonging to the European Commission's FP7 Network of Excellence NEWCOM++ Applications to a wide range of fields, including sensor networ...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that satellite radiolocalization was born in the military environment and was originally conceived for defense purposes. Nevertheless, the commercial explosion (dated to 20 years ago) of global positioning system (GPS) in the civil market (automotive, tourism, etc.) significantly changed the original perspectives of this technology. Ano...
Chapter
This chapter presents the results of a testing and validation activity carried out to analyze the performance of signal-processing techniques related to positioning and navigation. The steps included the setup of a measurement campaign and the setup of a shared database, the usage of this database to test algorithms, and the development of a softwa...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on various satellite-based navigation systems. The most well-known and widespread system currently used for localization of a radio-receiving terminal is the global positioning system (GPS). All GPS satellites share the same frequency bands, making use of the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. The transmitted signa...
Chapter
Bayesian filters are a good statistical tool to jointly combine information data measured by heterogeneous sensors in order to increase the accuracy of the positioning system. Recursive Bayesian estimation is a general probabilistic approach for determining an unknown probability density function recursively over time using incoming measurements an...
Chapter
The Kalman filter (KF) has a great importance in the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) applications. This chapter discusses the main techniques related to Kalman filtering for navigation. In particular, it explains the structure of the KF exploited in a GNSS receiver to compute the position of the user and to integrate the standard GNSS rec...
Article
In this paper the scenario where sensors of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are able to process and transmit monitored data to a far collector is considered. The far collector may be a Base Station (BS) that gathers data from a certain number of deployed WSNs, in applications such as earthquake, tsunami, or pollution monitoring. In this paper, the...
Conference Paper
Today, more attention is paid to emergency systems and rescuer organizations due to the increasing sensitivity to natural disasters and terrorist attacks. In this paper, we would consider the feasibility of telecommunication technologies that can enhance the interconnection between accident zones and rescue teams. A novel philosophy inspired by Sof...
Article
In a GNSS receiver the measure of C/N<sub>0</sub> is not only supplementary information provided to the user together with the PVT (position, velocity, time), but it is also fundamental information to determine the status of the tracking subsystems and to control the receiver in critical environments. A classic approach to estimate the C/N<sub>0</s...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the main features of NFUELS (FUll Educational Library of Signals for Navigation), a signal simulator designed to offer young researchers and students a complete, flexible and intuitive software tool able to offline reproduce and analyze GNSS signals as they appear at the Analog to Digital Converter output of a navigation receive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Custom filtering structures have been studied and implemented on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) to process signals coming from nuclear particle detectors. These algorithms will help to build new triggerless data acquisition systems of future generation experiments. In this paper the steps to optimize the filters implementation on hardware-pr...
Conference Paper
In the following lines we introduce a Software Defined Radio prototype terminal for Emergency Situations. More specifically this integrated terminal will have NAV/COM functions and so it will be composed by two modules: the Localization and Communication Components, running on the same machine and connected each other via TCP/IP protocol. The Local...