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Emanuel A. Fronhofer

Emanuel A. Fronhofer
Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution Montpellier (ISEM)

PhD

About

99
Publications
33,384
Reads
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2,191
Citations
Introduction
I am an evolutionary ecologist and I am especially interested in the evolution of life-history strategies of animals and plants living in spatially structured populations. The major focus of my work lies on the causes and consequences of movement and dispersal. As my interest is conceptual and aims at understanding mechanisms, I use both theoretical (mathematical and individual-based models) and experimental approaches (micro- and mesocosms). see http://www.emanuelfronhofer.net for more info!
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding biological range expansions and invasions is of great ecological and economical interest. Importantly, spatial dynamics can be deeply affected by rapid evolution depending on the ecological context. Using experimental evolution in replicated microcosm landscapes and numerical analyses we show experimentally that the ecological process...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal and the underlying movement behaviour are processes of pivotal importance for understanding and predicting metapopulation and metacommunity dynamics. Generally, dispersal decisions are condition-dependent and rely on information in the broad sense, like the presence of conspecifics. However, studies on metacommunities that include intersp...
Article
Full-text available
1.Laboratory microcosm experiments using protists as model organisms have a long tradition and are widely used to investigate general concepts in population biology, community ecology and evolutionary biology. Many variables of interest are measured in order to study processes and patterns at different spatiotemporal scales and across all levels of...
Article
Dispersal is a central process to almost all species on earth, as it connects spatially structured populations and thereby increases population persistence. Dispersal is subject to (rapid) evolution and local patch extinctions are an important selective force in this context. In contrast to the randomly distributed local extinctions considered in m...
Article
Full-text available
Roughly 40 years after its introduction, the metapopulation concept is central to population ecology. The notion that local populations and their dynamics may be coupled by dispersal is without any doubt of great importance for our understanding of population-level processes. A metapopulation describes a set of subpopulations linked by (rare) dispe...
Article
Contemporary evolution has the potential to significantly alter biotic responses to global change, including range expansion dynamics and biological invasions. Models predicting range dynamics often make highly simplifying assumptions about the genetic architecture underlying relevant traits. However, genetic architecture defines evolvability and h...
Article
One contribution of 15 to a theme issue 'Ecological complexity and the biosphere: the next 30 years'. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly affecting ecosystems across the globe. Meanwhile, empirical and theoretical evidence suggest that natural systems can exhibit abrupt collapses in response to incremental increases in the stressors, sometime...
Preprint
Full-text available
Population and community ecology traditionally has a very strong theoretical foundation with well-known models, such as the logistic and its many variations, and many modification of the classical Lotka-Volterra predator-prey and interspecific competition models. More and more, these classical models are confronted to data via fitting to empirical...
Article
Human activities put ecosystems under increasing pressure, often resulting in local extinctions. However, it is unclear how local extinctions affect regional processes, such as the distribution of diversity in space, especially if extinctions show spatial patterns, such as being clustered. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate extinctions and the...
Preprint
Predicting range expansion dynamics is challenging for fundamental and applied research, especially if ecological and evolutionary processes occur over similar time scales. We assessed the predictability of evolutionary outcomes in laboratory range expansions of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Experimental range core and front treatments were recr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Predicting range expansion dynamics is a challenge for both fundamental and applied research in conservation and global change biology. However, if ecological and evolutionary processes occur on the same time scale, predictions are challenging to make. Combining experimental evolution and mathematical modelling, we assessed the predictability of in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contemporary evolution has the potential to significantly alter biotic responses to global change, including range expansion dynamics and biological invasions. However, predictive models often make highly simplifying assumptions about the genetic architecture underlying relevant traits. This can be problematic since genetic architecture defines evo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Even when environments deteriorate gradually, ecosystems may shift abruptly from one state to another. Such catastrophic shifts are difficult to predict and reverse (hysteresis). While well studied in simplified contexts, we lack a general understanding of how catastrophic shifts spread in realistic spatial contexts. For different types of landscap...
Article
Full-text available
Theory predicts that the distribution of genetic diversity in a landscape is strongly dependent on the connectivity of the metapopulation and the dispersal of individuals between patches. However, the influence of explicit spatial configurations such as dendritic landscapes on the genetic diversity of metapopulations is still understudied, and theo...
Article
Full-text available
1. Populations that expand their range can undergo rapid evolutionary adaptation of life‐history traits, dispersal behaviour, and adaptation to the local environment. Such adaptation may be aided or hindered by sexual reproduction, depending on the context. 2. However, few empirical and experimental studies have investigated the genetic basis of ad...
Article
Dispersal is a central determinant of spatial dynamics in communities and ecosystems, and various ecological factors can shape the evolution of constitutive and plastic dispersal behaviours. One important driver of dispersal plasticity is the biotic environment. Parasites, for example, influence the internal condition of infected hosts and define e...
Article
Full-text available
Exploitative parasites are predicted to evolve in highly connected populations or in expanding epidemics. However, many parasites rely on host dispersal to reach new populations, potentially causing conflict between local transmission and global spread. We performed experimental range expansions in interconnected microcosms of the protozoan Paramec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Populations that expand their range can undergo rapid evolutionary adaptation of life-history traits, dispersal behaviour, and adaptation to the local environment. Such adaptation may be aided or hindered by sexual reproduction, depending on the context. However, few studies have investigated the genomic causes and consequences or genetic architect...
Preprint
Full-text available
Theory predicts that the distribution of genetic diversity in a landscape is strongly dependent on the connectivity of the metapopulation and the dispersal of individuals between patches. However, the influence of explicit spatial configurations such as dendritic landscapes on the genetic diversity and structure of metapopulations is still understu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human activities lead more and more to the disturbance of plant and animal communities with local extinctions as a consequence. While these negative effects are clearly visible at a local scale, it is less clear how such local patch extinctions affect regional processes, such as metacommunity dynamics and the distribution of diversity in space. Sin...
Article
While host–parasite interactions are ubiquitous, the large scale consequences of parasite infections are mainly driven by the spatial context. One trait of pivotal importance for the eco‐evolutionary dynamics of such metapopulations is the spatial behaviour of hosts, that is, their dispersal. It is well established that dispersal is not a random pr...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental change can alter species’ abundances within communities consistently; for example, increasing all abundances by the same percentage, or more idiosyncratically. Here, we show how comparing effects of temperature on species grown in isolation and when grown together helps our understanding of how ecological communities more generally re...
Article
Full-text available
• Several key processes in freshwater ecology are governed by the connectivity inherent to dendritic river networks. These have extensively been analyzed from a geomorphological and hydrological viewpoint, yet structures classically used in ecological modeling have been poorly representative of the structure of real river basins, often failing to c...
Article
Predator–prey interactions heavily influence the dynamics of many ecosystems. An increasing body of evidence suggests that rapid evolution and coevolution can alter these interactions, with important ecological implications, by acting on traits determining fitness, including reproduction, anti-predatory defence and foraging efficiency. However, mos...
Article
At species' range edges, individuals often face novel environmental conditions that may limit range expansion until populations adapt. The potential to adapt depends on genetic variation upon which selection can act. However, populations at species' range edges are often genetically depauperate. One mechanism increasing genetic variation is reshuff...
Preprint
Full-text available
While host-parasite interactions are ubiquitous, the large scale consequences of parasite infections are mainly driven by the spatial context. One trait of pivotal importance for the eco-evolutionary dynamics of such metapopulations is the spatial behaviour of hosts, that is, their dispersal. It is well established that dispersal is not a random pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several key processes in freshwater ecology and evolution are governed by the connectivity inherent to dendritic river networks. These networks have extensively been analyzed from a geomorphological and hydrological viewpoint, yet network structures classically used in modelling have only been partially representative of the structure of real river...
Preprint
Eco-evolutionary processes may play an important role in the spatial spread of infectious disease. Current theory predicts more exploitative parasites to evolve in highly connected populations or at the front of spreading epidemics. However, many parasites rely on host dispersal to reach new populations. This may lead to conflict between local tran...
Article
Abiotic stress is a major force of selection that organisms are constantly facing. While the evolutionary effects of various stressors have been broadly studied, it is only more recently that the relevance of interactions between evolution and underlying ecological conditions, that is, eco‐evolutionary feedbacks, have been highlighted. Here, we exp...
Preprint
At species' range edges, individuals often face novel environmental conditions that may limit expansion until populations adapt. The potential to adapt depends on genetic variation upon which selection can act. However, populations at species' range edges are often genetically depauperated. One mechanism to increase genetic variation is to reshuffl...
Article
Cross‐ecosystem subsidies are studied with a focus on resource exchange at local ecosystem boundaries. This perspective ignores regional dynamics that can emerge via constraints imposed by the landscape, potentially leading to spatially‐dependent effects of subsidies and spatial feedbacks. Using miniaturized landscape analogues of river dendritic a...
Article
A major focus of ecology is to understand and predict ecosystem function across scales. Many ecosystem functions are measured only at local scales, while their effects occur at a landscape level. Here we investigate how landscape-scale predictions of ecosystem function depend on intraspecific competition, a fine-scale process, by manipulating intra...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal and adaptation both allow species to persist in changing environments. Yet, we have limited understanding of how these processes interact to affect species persistence, especially in diverse communities where biotic interactions greatly complicate responses to environmental change. Here we use a stochastic metacommunity model to demonstra...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing individual components of biodiversity, such as local or regional taxon richness, and differences in community composition is a long‐standing challenge in ecology. It is especially relevant in spatially structured and diverse ecosystems. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been suggested as a novel technique to detect taxa and therefore may allow...
Preprint
Abiotic stress is a major force of selection that organisms are constantly facing. While the evolutionary effects of various stressors have been broadly studied, it is only more recently that the relevance of interactions between evolution and underlying ecological conditions, that is, eco-evolutionary feedbacks, have been highlighted. Here, we exp...
Preprint
Predator-prey interactions are key for the dynamics of many ecosystems. An increasing body of evidence suggests that rapid evolution and coevolution can alter these interactions, with important ecological implications by acting on traits determining fitness, including reproduction, anti-predatory defense and foraging efficiency. However, most studi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cross-ecosystem subsidies are studied with a focus on resource exchange at local ecosystem boundaries. This perspective ignores regional dynamics that can emerge via constraints imposed by the landscape, potentially leading to spatially-dependent effects of subsidies and spatial feedbacks. Using miniaturized landscape analogues of river dendritic a...
Article
Dispersal can strongly influence ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Besides the direct contribution of dispersal to population dynamics, disper-sers often differ in their phenotypic attributes from non-dispersers, which leads to dispersal syndromes. The consequences of such dispersal syndromes have been widely explored at the population and comm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessing individual components of biodiversity, such as local or regional taxon richness, and differences in community composition is a long-standing challenge in ecology. It is especially relevant in spatially structured and diverse ecosystems. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been suggested as a novel technique to accurately measure biodiversity. Ho...
Article
Global analyses of biodiversity consistently reveal recurrent patterns of species distributions worldwide. However, unveiling the specific mechanisms behind those patterns remains logistically challenging, yet necessary for reliable biodiversity forecasts. Here, we combine theory and experiments to investigate the processes underlying spatial biodi...
Article
Full-text available
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of animal groups remains a challenge. Surprisingly, fundamental ecological factors, such as resource variance and competition for limited resources, tend to be ignored in models of cooperation. We use a mathematical model previously developed to quantify the influence of different group sizes on resource use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dispersal and adaptation both allow species to persist in changing environments. Yet, we have limited understanding of how these processes interact to affect species persistence, especially in diverse communities where biotic interactions greatly complicate responses to environmental change. Here we use a stochastic metacommunity model to demonstra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dispersal can strongly influence ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Besides the direct contribution of dispersal to population dynamics, dispersers often differ in their phenotypic attributes from non-dispersers, which leads to dispersal syndromes. The consequences of such dispersal syndromes have been widely explored at the population and commu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The logistic growth model is one of the most frequently used formalizations of density dependence affecting population growth, persistence and evolution. Ecological and evolutionary theory and applications to understand population change over time often include this model. However, the assumptions and limitations of this popular model are often not...
Article
Full-text available
Ecology and evolution unfold in spatially structured communities, where dispersal links dynamics across scales. Because dispersal is multicausal, identifying general drivers remains challenging. In a coordinated distributed experiment spanning organisms from protozoa to vertebrates, we tested whether two fundamental determinants of local dynamics,...
Preprint
Full-text available
A major focus of ecology is to understand and predict ecosystem function across scales. Many ecosystem functions are only measured at local scales, while their effects occur at a landscape level. Here, we investigate how landscape-scale predictions of ecosystem function depend on intraspecific competition, a fine-scale process. Specifically, we exp...
Article
1.Theoretical models pertaining to feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes are prevalent in multiple biological fields. An integrative overview is currently lacking, due to little crosstalk between the fields and the use of different methodological approaches. 2.Here, we review a wide range of models of eco‐evolutionary feedbacks an...
Article
Full-text available
Losses and gains in species diversity affect ecological stability1–7 and the sustainability of ecosystem functions and services8–13. Experiments and models have revealed positive, negative and no effects of diversity on individual components of stability, such as temporal variability, resistance and resilience2,3,6,11,12,14. How these stability com...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Theoretical models pertaining to feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes are prevalent in multiple biological fields. An integrative overview is currently lacking, due to little crosstalk between the fields and the use of different methodological approaches. 2. Here we review a wide range of models of eco-evolutionary feedbacks a...
Data
Appendix S1. Methods. Table S1. Examples of heritability (h 2) estimates in the reviewed studies. Table S2. Models of dispersal evolution and assumptions made on the genetic architecture of the evolving traits.
Article
With ongoing global change, life is continuously forced to move to novel areas, which leads to dynamically changing species ranges. As dispersal is central to range dynamics, factors promoting fast and distant dispersal are key to understanding and predicting species ranges. During range expansions, genetic variation is depleted at the expanding fr...
Article
Eco-evolutionary dynamics are now recognized to be highly relevant for population and community dynamics. However, the impact of evolutionary dynamics on spatial patterns, such as the occurrence of classical metapopulation dynamics, is less well appreciated. Here, we analyse the evolutionary consequences of spatial network connectivity and topology...
Preprint
Full-text available
Organisms rarely experience a homogeneous environment. Rather, ecological and evolutionary dynamics unfold in spatially structured and fragmented landscapes, with dispersal as the central process linking these dynamics across spatial scales. Because dispersal is a multi-causal and highly plastic life-history trait, finding general drivers that are...
Article
Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. While it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) revie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Statement of authorship EH, IG, EAF and FA designed the research; IG and EAF designed the model; IG programmed and ran the model, analyzed the simulation data with support from EAF and produced the figures; EH conducted the lab experiment with support from IG, EAF and FA, processed the experimental data with support from IG, and carried out the ana...
Article
Full-text available
In many natural systems, the physical structure of the landscape dictates the flow of resources. Despite mounting evidence that communities' dynamics can be indirectly coupled by reciprocal among ecosystem resource flows, our understanding of how directional resource flows might indirectly link biological communities is limited. We here propose tha...
Article
1. Understanding the consequences of spatial structure on ecological dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Recently, research has recognized the relevance of river and river-analogue network structures, because these systems are not only highly diverse but also rapidly changing due to habitat modifications or species invasions. 2. Much of the pre...
Data
Scatterplot of trajectories in principal component space from videos of three experimental units (Tetra = Tetrahymena thermophila, none = control (no ciliates), and Loxo = Loxocephalus sp.). A 90% confidence interval ellipse is fitted to each of the three experimental units to identify background noise in component space. The observations that fall...
Data
Morphological boundaries for training data. (PDF)
Data
Sensitivity and specificity of alternative classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM) and Naive Bayes (NB), compared to random forest (RF) and manual classifiers. All provide similar classification success for the ciliate species. SVM and NB are even slightly better than RF in terms of classifying noise. (TIF)
Data
A single frame of one video, with particles labeled by their trajectory ID. For each trajectory, we obtained morphology and movement properties that were later used for classification into the respective species. (JPG)
Data
In each panel, a point is a trajectory, with its position on PC1 corresponding to overall size, and PC2 to variability in size, and turning behaviour. Trajectories from microcosms containing ciliates are shown in black, yellow dots are trajectories from the controls (no ciliates). Panel codes: Colp = Colpidium striatum, Dexio = Dexiostoma campylum,...
Data
Initial densities (individuals mL−1) for different richness treatments. (PDF)
Data
Scatterplot of trajectories in principal component space from videos of three experimental units. Trajectories reclassified as noise by the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) are outlined in black. In this example, only some of the trajectories from the Tetrahymena thermophila culture were classified as noise (i.e. are outlined in black and have their co...