Elmar Brähler

Elmar Brähler
University of Leipzig · Abteilung für Medizinische Psychologie und medizinische Soziologie

Prof. Dr. rer biol hum habil

About

1,889
Publications
867,725
Reads
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42,204
Citations
Introduction
Professor Emeritus , degrees in Mathematics and Physics, PhD in Human Biology, postdoctoral lecture qualification in Medical Psychology.
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Position
  • Senior Researcher
October 1994 - present
University of Leipzig
Position
  • Emeritus
- September 1994
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (1,889)
Article
Full-text available
The study determines how burden and patterns of somatic symptom reporting developed over almost four decades in the general German population. Additionally, we studied how socio-demographic factors affected the degree of somatic symptoms. Population-based samples representative for West Germany between 18 and 60 years of age were analyzed comparing...
Article
Keywords: Sleep problems; Assessment; Questionnaire; Anxiety; Depression; Somatic symptom load. Objective: As sleep disorders have become a major concern in public health, there is strong need for a brief and sound measure for sleep problems. The purposes of the study were to 1) evaluate factor structure and measurement invariance, 2) validate the...
Article
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We estimate (1) sexual activity and sexual desire in women living with and without a partner across the age range in Germany and (2) changes over 11 years. A representative survey of 345 (response rate: 65%) women between 18 and 99 years from 2016 was compared to a survey of 1314 women age 18–91 from 2005 (response rate: 53%). Sexual activity was a...
Article
Background: Multiple studies have shown a link between cumulative adverse experiences in childhood and a wide variety of psychosocial problems in later life. There have not been any pertinent representative studies of the German population until now. The goal of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences (ACE), the e...
Article
Background Tattooing has become very popular in recent years. In this context, socio-demographic information and health orientation is important. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of the prevalence of tattoos over the last thirteen years and the social and economic background of people with tattoos. Three natio...
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Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with posttraumatic and complex posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adulthood (PTSD/cPTSD), as well as reduced epistemic trust (trust in the authenticity and personal relevance of interpersonally transmitted information) and impaired personality functioning. The present work aims t...
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A decreased quality of life was shown for numerous factors at the beginning of the pandemic. However, it is important to identify people who are at-risk for long-term impairments during the pandemic and its aftermath. Within this study, we aimed to investigate quality of life within a German population-based sample (2515 participants; 51.6% female;...
Article
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Background In Germany there is a large wealth gap between East and West Germans as well as a gap in life satisfaction, with people in East Germany reporting to be less satisfied. This paper intends to shed light on the role of the different levels of wealth and their association with life satisfaction. On a wider scale, this paper examines psycholo...
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E-mental health and home treatment are treatment approaches that have proven to be effective, but are only slowly implemented in the German health care system. This paper explores the attitudes toward these innovative treatment approaches. Data was collected in two large, non-clinical samples representative of the German population in spring 2020 (...
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Modern theories of authoritarianism have stressed the importance of threat to the expression of authoritarian attitudes and intolerance. Arguably, authoritarian tendencies may have increased during COVID-19 pandemic, a major threat to life and security. One issue arising when comparing mean scores is that of measurement invariance. Meaningful compa...
Article
Introduction: PHQ-4, consisting of PHQ-2 and GAD-2, is a widely used screening instrument for depressive and anxiety symptoms in clinical settings and in epidemiological studies. In the present study we provide an update of normative data from the German general population. Methods: Data was collected in two randomly selected samples representat...
Article
Objective: Although the relationship between insecure attachment patterns and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology has repeatedly been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this association are not fully understood. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine personality functioning, defined as an impairment in self and interpersonal functi...
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Purpose Cross-sectional studies found high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reported increases were lower in longitudinal population-based findings. Studies including positive outcomes are rare. This study analyzed changes in mental health symptoms, loneliness, and satisfactio...
Article
Aims: Pica and rumination disorder are known as feeding disorder diagnoses in childhood, but little is known about their occurrence in adulthood. This study aimed to assess prevalence rates of one-time and recurrent pica and rumination behaviours (PB and RB) in adults, including sociodemographic subgroups, and to examine associations with other ea...
Article
Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) has been the focus of increasing interest in oncology. QoL assessment instruments implicitly assume that each QoL domain has the same meaning for each patient. The objective of this study was to analyze the importance of and the satisfaction with QoL domains and to analyze the relationship between the two. Method...
Article
Objective: The literature on alexithymia has multiplied in recent decades as the construct has important implications for mental health. The so far used inventories are of limited use in epidemiological research, primary care, and other clinical settings where time and effort are important factors in assessment. Based on items of the authorized Ge...
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The COVID-19 pandemic and measures aimed at its mitigation, such as physical distancing, have been discussed as risk factors for loneliness, which increases the risk of premature mortality and mental and physical health conditions. To ascertain whether loneliness has increased since the start of the pandemic, this study aimed to narratively and sta...
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This article provides supplementary data for the original research article ‘The Mediation Effect of Personality Functioning Between Different Types of Child Maltreatment and the Development of Depression/Anxiety Symptoms – a German Representative Study’ [1]. The representative data were acquired as part of a broader survey on different aspects of m...
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Background Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) is now included in Section II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-5-TR). To understand the health burden and then allocate economic and professional resources, it is necessary to provide epidemiological data for this new disorder. This is especially...
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Addictive-like eating is prevalent, but a clear conceptualization and operationalization outside of an addiction framework is lacking. By adopting a biopsychological framework of food reward, this study sought to develop and evaluate a brief self-report questionnaire for the trait assessment of hedonic overeating and dyscontrol. Items in the Hedoni...
Article
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Background Tattoos and piercings are becoming increasingly popular in many countries around the world. Individuals seeking such body modifications have reported diverse psychological motives. Besides purely superficial considerations, tattoos and piercings can also have a deep, personal meaning. For example, they can mark and support the emotional...
Article
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Background: Depression, the most frequent and harmful mental disorder, has been associated with specific somatic diseases as the leading cause of death. The purposes of this prospective study were to predict incident chronic diseases based on baseline depressive symptoms and to test sex-dependent effects. Methods: In a representative German comm...
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Background The dysregulation of glucose homeostasis via mental health stress is increasingly acknowledged, whereby depression independently increases the risk of the onset of type 2 diabetes by up to 60%. Contributing mental health factors starting in early life have further been considered, indicating that exposure to childhood emotional abuse is...
Article
Der demografische Wandel führt weltweit zu einer Zunahme an Personen im höheren Lebensalter. Eine alternde Bevölkerung stellt aufgrund der damit einhergehenden Multimorbidität eine Herausforderung für die Gesundheits- und Sozialsysteme dar, darunter auch für die Psychosomatik. Die psychosomatische Versorgung von älteren Personen gestaltet sich aufg...
Article
The PHQ-9 has become a measure of reference in both depression research and clinical practice. However, the issue of the PHQ-9’s unidimensionality has not been fully elucidated, and the usability of the PHQ-9’s total score requires clarification. In this study, we examined the dimensionality, scalability, and monotonicity properties of the PHQ-9 as...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic and measures aimed at its mitigation, such as physical distancing, have been discussed as risk factors for loneliness, which increases the risk of premature mortality and mental and physical health conditions. To ascertain whether loneliness has increased since the start of the pandemic, this study aimed to narratively and sta...
Article
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Background The aim of the present study was the construction and psychometric evaluation of a shortened version of the Burnout Screening Scales II (BOSS II), a measure for exhaustion and burnout. Methods To this end, among a representative sample of the German general population (N = 2429, 52.9% women), we shortened the scale from 30 to 15 items a...
Article
Self-criticism is a stable personality trait identified as a serious risk factor for psychopathology and weight-related health problems. Therefore, it is relevant to epidemiological research, which requires a relatively brief instrument for measuring trait self-criticism in the general population. The current study introduces a brief measure of sel...
Article
Parental stress has negative impact on parents and their children. Parental stress may be of special interest for family and child well-being due to Covid-19 pandemic. A reliable and valid assessment of parental stress would be beneficial both in research and clinical practice. The Parental Stress Scale (PSS) is internationally well established as...
Article
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Matching clients and therapist based on demographic variables might enhance therapeutic outcomes. Even so, research in this field is still inconclusive and not much is known about same-gender client therapist dyads in the context of cognitive behavioral (CBT) and psychodynamic methods. For this purpose, we studied the therapy outcomes of N = 1.212...
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The occurrence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019 comes along with many challenges. Besides worry for one’s own health and the well-being of the family, all measures applied to limit the spread of the coronavirus affected daily life. School closures, economic shutdown and contact restrictions...
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As long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk for late effects, ongoing medical care is crucial to detect and treat physical illnesses as early as possible. However, previous research from around the world has shown that many adult survivors did not participate in long-term medical follow-up. This study aimed to provide insight into Ger...
Article
Background Suicidal ideation and behavior constitute important public mental health issues. In this study, we examined whether social integration prevents suicidal ideation over time and whether gender modifies this association. Methods Data from the Gutenberg Health Study (population-based representative community sample in midwest Germany) and t...
Article
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Objectives: Mental health differences between men and women can be attributed to sex or gender. Due to absence of brief assessments, contributions of gender expressions to the mental health gap between men and women have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a short screening measure of gender expression and test i...
Article
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Introduction: The aim of this analysis is to determine whether regular physical activity is associated with less analgesic use in men and women suffering from headache disorders based on population-based cross-sectional data. Methods: We used data from a random general population sample in Germany that comprised 2477 participants aged ≥ 14 years...
Article
Introduction: Depression and anxiety are prevalent in women suffering from breast cancer. However, the determinants of depression and anxiety in this population are not well known, particularly in the context of psychotherapy. Drawing from Blatt's theory, we examined the role of Depressive Personality Vulnerability (DPV) in depression and anxiety...
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The COVID-19 pandemic poses a psychological challenge, especially for individuals with chronic illnesses. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of cancer with distress, including its interplay with further risk and protective factors. We conducted a representative survey of the German population (N = 2503, including N = 144 with a c...
Article
Background : The association of depression with mortality and the significance of explanatory factors, in particularly gender, have remained an issue of debate. We therefore aimed to estimate the effect of depression on all-cause mortality, to examine potential explanatory factors and to assess effect modification by gender. Methods : We used Cox...
Book
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In diesem Beitrag stellen wir zentrale Ergebnisse der Leipziger Autoritarismus Studien (LAS) zur Verbreitung rechtsextremer Einstellung in Deutschland und den Ursachen ihrer Entstehung vor. Mit unseren Studien schließen wir an das Konzept der Autoritären Persönlichkeit (Adorno et al. 1950) an und prüfen dessen Aktualität heute. Unsere seit 2002 dur...
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Background In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, many individuals have been found to endorse conspiracy beliefs. Socio-demographic variables, personality functioning, anxiety, and loneliness could be risk factors for this endorsement. Methods In a representative sample of the German population ( N = 2,503) measures of conspiracy mentality, cons...
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Introduction: The number of reportings on sexual abuse (SA), sexual violence (SV) cases covered in the media has risen a significant amount with most cases involving women and children. The aim of the study is to explore the questions: Are people aware of sexual abuse and sexual violence in the media? What are the predictors of awareness of sexual...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Funktionalität des Systems Familie spielt nicht nur in der Entwicklungspsychologie und Familienforschung, sondern auch bei vielen körperlichen Erkrankungen und psychischen Störungen eine zentrale Rolle. Trotz dieser hohen Relevanz existieren nur sehr wenige ultra-kurze, d. h. anwendungsökonomische Selbstbeurteilungsverfahren, di...
Article
Zusammenfassung Ziel der Studie Die Auswirkungen innerdeutscher Migration auf somatoforme Beschwerden (GBB-8) sowie psychologischen Disstress (PHQ-4; erfasst Angst- und Depressionssymptomatik) wurden untersucht. Methodik Eine repräsentative Stichprobe aus dem Jahr 2019 wird herangezogen und in vier Gruppen unterteilt (West, Ost, Ost-West, West-Ost)...
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Due to their work activities, emergency physicians are regularly exposed to exceptional mental and physical situations. In order to prevent stress-related illnesses, the triggers of hormonal and subjectively perceived stress must be understood better. On a sample of emergency physicians from two air rescue services (N = 80), the cortisol awakening...
Article
Background : Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with an increased risk to develop symptoms of depression/anxiety across an individual's lifespan. Recent studies indicated that impairments in personality functioning might mediate this association. The purpose of this study is to add evidence of this mediating effect by regarding different types o...
Article
Zusammenfassung Fragestellung Welche Faktoren spielen für die psychische Gesundheit von Binnenmigrierten im Vergleich zu Nichtmigrierten eine Rolle?Methode Daten der Sächsischen Längsschnittstudie aus den Jahren 2010 und 2020 wurden benutzt, um mithilfe von Bootstrapping-basierten Mediationsanalysen Binnenmigrierte mit Nichtmigrierten in ihrem Grad...
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Aim Being subjected to childhood maltreatment has devastating long-term adverse effects and is a major risk factor for mental health problems in adult life. There is empirical support that socio-political factors can be risk factors for childhood maltreatment. Here we examine whether socio-political context predicts self-rated childhood maltreatmen...
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Background: Individuals with obesity face weight-related discrimination in many life domains, including workplace bullying, especially in female employees with obesity. However, associations between experiences of workplace bullying and psychological health impairments considering weight status and sex remain unclear. Methods: Within a represent...
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Aim We aim to determine the frequency of stressful life events (SLEs) and investigate the association of single and aggregated SLEs with mental health and general subjective health, which has not been reported for an aging representative sample to date. Subjects and methods A total of 12,947 participants (35–74 years old) of the Gutenberg Health S...
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If information on single items in the Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) is missing, the analysis of only complete cases causes a loss of statistical power and, in case of nonrandom missing data (MD), systematic bias. This study aimed at evaluating the concordance of real patient data and data estimated by different MD imputation procedures in the...
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There is a growing debate on the role of the physical environment and what constitute risk and protective factors for mental health. Various forms of air pollution have shown links to physical and mental health concerns and considering that Germany does not meet the WHO air quality standards—poor air quality affects a large proportion of Germans an...
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Background Attachment insecurity is a prominent risk factor for the development and course of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire is a widely used self-report to assess attachment related anxiety and avoidance. However, its length has the potential to restrict its use in la...
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Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. While the relevance of early life stress, such as that which is due to child maltreatment (CM), is well known to impact individual stress responses in the long-term, and data on the interplay between CM and stressful events in adulthood on cardiovascular health are sparse. Her...
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Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a medicalization of obesity, promoting a classification as a disease or disability in order to reduce or protect against weight stigma and discrimination. This study sought to investigate the public understanding of the disability and disease concepts in obesity, their acceptance, and association with weig...
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The Depressive and Anxious Avoidance in Prolonged Grief Questionnaire (DAAPGQ) was developed to measure depressive and anxious avoidanc