Ellis Cashmore

Ellis Cashmore
Aston University · School of Languages and Social Sciences

About

50
Publications
10,076
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843
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
481 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
Taking the knee has become an enduring feature of many sports since 2020: it is a powerful social and political gesture signalling a resistance against racism, not only in sports but in all forms. The research sampled 1001 sports fans, inviting them to share their beliefs, experiences and perspectives on racism in football. In particular, they were...
Article
Full-text available
In a survey of 3,500 association football fans conducted by members of the research team over a decade ago, most participants predicted that at least one gay football player would feel comfortable enough to disclose their sexuality publicly by 2014, and that many other players would follow this lead in the following years. Ten years on, gay players...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the responses of 1,432 male association football fans, collected via an online survey from March 2020 to April 2020, regarding their views on sexuality in women's football in the United Kingdom. The analysis focuses on two broad themes that emerged from the data: (1) the association of women footballers with masculinity and ho...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the responses of 4113 sports fans (55% of whom self-identified as female), collected via an online survey from April 2019 to June 2019, about their views on trans women competing in women’s sports. In presenting the data we draw on two recurring themes – gender identity and fairness – to explain the contrasting views surroundi...
Article
This article is based on the views of 2,663 association football fans, collected via an online survey from March 2020 to April 2020, regarding the presence of homosexually-themed language at men’s professional football matches across the United Kingdom. The results indicate that whilst 95% would support a gay player at their club, 41% have heard la...
Article
Full-text available
Following the attempted terrorist attack at the friendly match between France and Germany at the Stade de France on November 13, 2015, this article draws on the response of 1,500 association football fans to the threat of terrorism in the world’s most popular sport. Its primary focus was to ask fans to reflect on their own experiences of security a...
Chapter
Not everyone would agree with this Screenager. Take Harry Styles, a known admirer of Gucci: he wore the Italian designer label’s suits, loafers and shirts. It was one such shirt that landed Tess Ward in trouble in Spring, 2017. The Naked Diet author Ward posted on Instagram a picture of herself wearing a baroque blazing red floral shirt identical t...
Chapter
Garfield, the lovable feline cartoon character who rose to fame in 1978 is one of life’s laid-back characters. Known to be lazy and gluttonous, Garfield prefers wherever possible, to kick-back and eat pizza and lasagne while watching tv. The characteristics associated with this affable rogue, have led to the widely held assumption that Garfield is...
Book
Screens have been with us since the eighteenth century, though we became accustomed to staring at them only after the appearance of film and television in the twentieth century. But there was nothing in film or TV that prepared us for the revolution wrought by the combination of screens and the internet. Society has been transformed and this book a...
Chapter
The introduction of home consoles like the Atari 2600 in the 1970s was the first opportunity to engage in video game-focused entertainment in the comfort of the private home (coin-operated video games located in arcades were also present in the 1970s). As the home video game industry expanded in the 1980s, popular gaming computers including the Sin...
Chapter
In 1696, an awestruck English observer witnessed the demonstration of a piece of equipment that looked like a box fashioned from wood and metal and with a tube protruding from one of its sides. The tube sent out a beam of light that, on reaching a nearby wall, changed shape and revealed a series of scary images. The observer described the box as “A...
Chapter
We live in a modern capitalist society. We have always been and remain pretty much all corporate dupes one way or another in the ways in which we consume things. The internet has just made this more obvious.
Chapter
Internet dating is just a modern version of the matrimonial agencies that have been in existence since the 1700s, asserts Professor Harry Cocks [sic] in his 2009 publication, Classified: The Secret History of the Personal Column. In this colourful appraisal of the history of romantic relationships Cocks reveals that social networks, created for the...
Chapter
These were two of many responses from our Screen Society participants that consistently referred to a new culture of contemporary childhood that primarily centred on the regular and widespread consumption of new media technology via screens. For many children the internet is a world of wonder with endless possibilities to connect, create, communica...
Chapter
“The use of mobile telephones releases the same instant gratification feeling hormones as smoking or drinking,” suggested one of the Screen Society participants. Biochemistry doesn’t back up his point, though the underlying idea that phone users, smokers and drinkers all crave adrenaline rushes (immediate gratification) is an interesting one and on...
Chapter
It probably won’t happen while this book is still in print, but it will happen. It’s hard to imagine it now, but, one day, the smartphone will meet the same fate as the Sony Walkman, Polaroid camera, transistor radio and all those other electrical appliances we once marvelled at and assumed we could never live without. We always find a way of livin...
Chapter
“Believe only half of what you see and nothing that you hear.” It’s a quote from Edgar Allan Poe’s The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether and was endorsed by one of the Screen Society participants, a middle-aged man from England, who repeated the quotation then added, “a bit like politicians then.” Those who took Poe seriously would have be...
Chapter
“If someone went onto Dragons Den to ask for investment in smartwatches back in the 1940s they’d be told to fuck off.” At first sight this statement from a participant in his fifties might seem bizarre, but let’s entertain it for one moment.
Chapter
Some time ago, one of the present authors was presenting a lecture to a class of undergraduate students, one of whom appeared perpetually distracted by a smartphone on his desk.
Article
Full-text available
This article draws on the responses of 1,500 fans from across the United Kingdom to an online survey posted from August 2013 to November 2013 regarding their experience of football violence. Reflecting the 2013 Home Office report that indicated a continued long-term decline of football fan violence in England and Wales, 89% of fans illustrate a dec...
Chapter
This chapter discusses sports, advertising, and the logic of the market. Rubbing shoulders with Hollywood stars or pop singers was strictly for athletes whose aspirations extended beyond sport. Anyone with a degree of visibility in or out of sports is sure to be offered the opportunity to lend their name and image to a product or two. Timex watches...
Book
Association football is the richest, most popular sport in history with a multicultural global following. It is also riven with corruption, racism, homophobia and a violence that has for decades resisted all attempts to tame it. Cashmore and Cleland examine football's dark side: the unpleasant, sleazy and downright nasty aspects of the sport.
Chapter
Football has always been a business: since 1885 when the FA accepted professionalism, money has overpowered idealistic notions such as sportsmanship and fair play: everyone including players, fans and directors wanted to win rather than just participate. Has this annihilated fair play completely? The chapter answers this question by examining the t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although many major sports in the world have witnessed a liberalization in which gay competitors have felt emboldened, or at least comfortable in revealing their sexual orientation openly and without fear of embarrassment or censure, football has not. Gay players have typically remained secretive during their active playing careers. Some have talke...
Chapter
Association football has the unwanted distinction of being the only major sport in the world to be persistently affected by racism of some form, whether initiated by fans or players and even managers. Originating in England, the sport’s birthplace, football or soccer, experienced an upheaval in the late 1970s as a new generation of British black pl...
Chapter
Full-text available
Once referred to as the “English disease,” football violence, or hooliganism as it was termed, has a long and complex history, not just with English football, but all over the world. We investigate the origins of violence in association football and its precursors and argue that it is a persistent feature of football’s culture. Whilst there is stat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the 1980s football has been transformed by a combination of the media, foreign investment and the redevelopment of its infrastructure. These changes have enabled football to become a global spectacle that is consumed by billions of people from diverse nationalities, religions, genders and ethnicities. In England, the gentrification of footbal...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses 2500 responses from association football (soccer) fans to an anonymous online survey conducted from November 2011 to February 2012 that examined the extent of racism in British football. Eighty-three per cent of the participants stated that racism remains culturally embedded and when exploring the reasons behind its continuati...
Article
Full-text available
This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within...
Article
Only one association football (soccer) player in history has declared his homosexuality during his professional active playing career. Before or since that player’s death in 1998, no other professional footballer player has come out. The prohibitively traditional culture of association football is popularly regarded as being responsible for this. F...
Article
The number of black and minority ethnic (BME) managers in English professional association football, or soccer, has been stable for nearly ten years: there are usually between two and four (out of a possible ninety two). Yet black players regularly make up more than a quarter of professional club squads. The reasons for this apparent under-represen...
Article
The image of old racial order has been vitiated by the rise of a new variety of African American celebrities: acquisitive, ambitious, flamboyantly successful and individualistic; the kind of people who are interested in channelling their energies into their own careers, rather into indeterminate causes such as racism. In Beyoncé, the United States...
Article
: There is no more serviceable celebrity than Tiger Woods. He is a colour-free emblem of a new America in which racism is dead and there are no barriers to progress for any member of its citizenry – a new racial order. His success obscures the grimmer reality of contemporary America. This article examines Woods, less as a person, more as a commodit...
Article
Chariots of Fire is examined both as a chronicle of the 1920s, in which it is set, and an allegory for the period in which it was released, the early 1980s. The film unfolds amid a culture of individualism in which British patriotism, while strong, is both conditional and instrumental. Class inequalities are deep, unemployment is growing steeply an...
Article
Sporting celebrities are not regularly discussed within the broader realms of sociological debate. Yet that is not to say that their identities cannot offer insight into wider patterns of cultural change. Indeed, it is our contention within this paper that the reverse is true: that analyses of the autobiographical details of contemporary sports fig...
Article
Bedrock assumptions about the benefits of recruiting more ethnic minority police officers and enhancing cultural diversity training for police are critically evaluated by black and Asian police officers in Britain. Neither policy finds favour among groups which articulate a previously concealed interpretation of such aims: that their value lies in...
Article
The findings draw on independent research conducted in the aftermath of the Macpherson Report of 1999 and are based on in-depth interviews with African Caribbean and South Asian officers in five British police services. Serving officers offer their frequently contrasting views on the underrecruitment of ethnic minority officers and their experience...
Article
Following in the footsteps of America's black bourgeoisie, Britain's emerging class of business‐owners has risen to a position of relative economic power. Many hope to trigger future changes, first by personal inspiration and, second, by job creation. While they may achieve the first contribution, a new form of racism is forcing successful black (S...

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