Elliott Lee Hazen

Elliott Lee Hazen
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA · Southwest Fisheries Science Center

PhD Ecology

About

231
Publications
93,751
Reads
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9,399
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
Southwest Fisheries Science Center
Position
  • Research Ecologist
November 2012 - present
University of California, Santa Cruz
Position
  • Professor
September 2009 - November 2012
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Research Oceanographer

Publications

Publications (231)
Article
To manage marine ecosystems proactively, it is important to identify species at risk and habitats critical for conservation. Climate change scenarios have predicted an average sea surface temperature (SST) rise of 1-6°C by 2100 (refs , ), which could affect the distribution and habitat of many marine species. Here we examine top predator distributi...
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Terrestrial predators can modulate the energy used for prey capture to maximize efficiency, but diving animals face the conflicting metabolic demands of energy intake and the minimization of oxygen depletion during a breath hold. It is thought that diving predators optimize their foraging success when oxygen use and energy gain act as competing cur...
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The field of marine tagging and tracking has grown rapidly in recent years as tag sizes have decreased and the diversity of sensors has increased. Tag data provide a unique view on individual movement patterns, at different scales than shipboard surveys, and have been used to discover new habitat areas, characterize oceanographic features, and deli...
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Analyses of the foraging behavior of large cetaceans have generally focused on either correlations with environmental conditions at regional scales or observations of surface behavior. We employed a novel approach combining multi-scale analyses of simultaneous environmental conditions, surface and subsurface humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae mo...
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The world's eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) contribute disproportionately to global ocean productivity and provide critical ecosystem services to human society. The impact of climate change on EBUSs and the ecosystems they support is thus a subject of considerable interest. Here, we review hypotheses of climate-driven change in the physi...
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Climate change is driving the redistribution of species throughout the oceans. However, the speed and magnitude of species responses, including shifts in their distribution, are variable and species specific. Quantifying the effect of environmental conditions on species distributions is crucial to informing management and conservation efforts. Blue...
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Projecting the future distributions of commercially and ecologically important species has become a critical approach for ecosystem managers to strategically anticipate change, but large uncertainties in projections limit climate adaptation planning. Although distribution projections are primarily used to understand the scope of potential change ‐...
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An abundance of studies in marine systems have documented species range shifts in response to climate change, and many more have used species distribution models to project species ranges under future conditions. However, there is increasing interest in moving beyond a single‐species focus to understand how species redistribution alters ecosystem d...
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Plain Language Summary The global ocean is experiencing major changes due to human‐made carbon emissions and climate change, leading to a warming ocean with increasing acidity and declining oxygen. On top of these long‐term changes in the ocean are short‐term extreme events, such as marine heatwaves. These extreme events quickly change the ocean st...
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Climatic variability exerts enormous pressures on the structure and function of open ocean ecosystems. Although the responses of primary producers and top predators to these pressures are being increasingly well-documented, little is known about how midtrophic communities respond to oceanographic and climatic variability. We address this knowledge...
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Marine heatwaves (MHWs)—periods of exceptionally warm ocean temperature lasting weeks to years—are now widely recognized for their capacity to disrupt marine ecosystems1–3. The substantial ecological and socioeconomic impacts of these extreme events present significant challenges to marine resource managers4–7, who would benefit from forewarning of...
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As ecosystems transform under climate change and expanding human activities, multidisciplinary integration of empirical research, conceptual frameworks and modelling methods is required to predict, monitor and manage the cascading effects on wildlife populations. For example, exposure to anthropogenic noise can lead to changes in the behaviour and...
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North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is a commercially important tuna species known to undertake extensive migratory movements between nearshore waters of the California Current and offshore environments in the central Pacific. However, these migration behaviors are highly variable, with some individuals traveling thousands of kilometers withi...
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Marine protected area (MPA) designs, including large-scale MPAs (LSMPAs; >150,000 km2), mobile MPAs (fluid spatiotemporal boundaries), and MPA networks, may offer different benefits to species and could enhance protection by encompassing spatiotemporal scales of animal movement. We sought to understand how well LSMPAs could benefit nine highly-mobi...
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With accelerating climate variability and change, novel approaches are needed to warn managers of changing ecosystem state and to identify appropriate management actions. One strategy is using indicator species—like seabirds as ecosystem sentinels—to monitor changes in marine environments. Here, we explore the utility of western gulls ( Larus occid...
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While there have been recent improvements in reducing bycatch in many fisheries, bycatch remains a threat for numerous species around the globe. Static spatial and temporal closures are used in many places as a tool to reduce bycatch. However, their effectiveness in achieving this goal is uncertain, particularly for highly mobile species. We evalua...
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Given climate change threats to ecosystems, it is critical to understand the responses of species to warming. This is especially important in the case of apex predators since they exhibit relatively high extinction risk, and changes to their distribution could impact predator–prey interactions that can initiate trophic cascades. Here we used a comb...
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Despite the increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme climate events, little is known about how their impacts flow through social and ecological systems or whether management actions can dampen deleterious effects. We examined how the record 2014–2016 Northeast Pacific marine heatwave influenced trade-offs in managing conflict between conservat...
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One necessity of ecosystem based management is an understanding of the shape and functional forms of ecosystem responses to environmental and human pressures. Both nonlinear and linear relationships may provide leading indicators of ecosystem change and inform reference points for ecosystem approaches to management. The objectives of this study wer...
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Baleen whales influence their ecosystems through immense prey consumption and nutrient recycling1–3. It is difficult to accurately gauge the magnitude of their current or historic ecosystem role without measuring feeding rates and prey consumed. To date, prey consumption of the largest species has been estimated using metabolic models3–9 based on e...
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Large groups of animals aggregate around resource hotspots, with group size often influenced by the heterogeneity of the environment. In most cases, the foraging success of individuals within groups is interdependent, scaling either constructively or destructively with group size. Here we used biologging tags, acoustic prey mapping, passive acousti...
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Marine biodiversity is a fundamental characteristic of our planet that depends on and influences climate, water quality, and many ocean state variables. It is also at the core of ecosystem services that can make or break economic development in any region. Our purpose is to highlight the need for marine biological observations to inform science and...
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Animal migrations track predictable seasonal patterns of resource availability and suitable thermal habitat. As climate change alters this ‘energy landscape’, some migratory species may struggle to adapt. We examined how climate variability influences movements, thermal habitat selection and energy intake by juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus...
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The California Current System (CCS) has experienced large fluctuations in environmental conditions in recent years that have dramatically affected the biological community. Here we synthesize remotely sensed, hydrographic, and biological survey data from throughout the CCS in 2019–2020 to evaluate how recent changes in environmental conditions have...
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Dynamic ocean management (DOM), a type of marine spatial planning in which management decisions are updated in response to changing environmental, biological, or socioeconomic conditions, holds promise for balancing tradeoffs between conservation and marine resource use. However, as climate change continues to drive unprecedented oceanic changes, i...
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The episodic stranding of millions of pelagic red crabs (Pleuroncodes planipes) along California beaches is a striking and puzzling phenomenon. Pleuroncodes planipes are usually abundant off Baja California, Mexico, and their appearance in central California is thought to coincide with anomalously warm waters and northward advection related to El N...
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One of the significant challenges to using information and ideas generated through ecosystem models and analyses for ecosystem-based fisheries management is the disconnect between modeling and management needs. Here we present a case study from the U.S. West Coast, the stakeholder review of NOAA’s annual ecosystem status report for the California C...
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Our synthesis combines inferences from a long-term fisheries monitoring survey and principles of ecosystem oceanography to inform and benefit biodiversity monitoring and modeling studies within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We review the history, research, and application of the Rockfish Recruitment and Ecosystem Assessment Survey,...
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Little is known about the effects of large-scale breeding range expansions on the ecology of top marine predators. We examined the effects of a recent range expansion on the breeding and foraging ecology of Laysan albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis). Laysan albatrosses expanded from historical breeding colonies in the Central Pacific Ocean to the...
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Earth observing satellites are a major research tool for spatially explicit ecosystem nowcasting and forecasting. However, there are practical challenges when integrating satellite data into usable real‐time products for stakeholders. The need of forecast immediacy and accuracy means that forecast systems must account for missing data and data late...
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Accurate forecasts of how animals respond to climate‐driven environmental change are needed to prepare for future redistributions, however, it is unclear which temporal scales of environmental variability give rise to predictability of species distributions. We examined the temporal scales of environmental variability that best predicted spatial ab...
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Bio‐logging data obtained by tagging animals is key to addressing global conservation challenges. However, the many thousands of existing bio‐logging datasets are not easily discoverable, universally comparable, nor readily accessible through existing repositories and across platforms. This slows down ecological research and effective management. A...
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Time-area closures are a valuable tool for mitigating fisheries bycatch. There is increasing recognition that dynamic closures, which have boundaries that vary across space and time, can be more effective than static closures at protecting mobile species in dynamic environments. We created a management strategy evaluation to compare static and dyna...
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Background Habitat suitability models give insight into the ecological drivers of species distributions and are increasingly common in management and conservation planning. Telemetry data can be used in habitat models to describe where animals were present, however this requires the use of presence-only modeling approaches or the generation of ‘pse...
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Plastic pollution has pervaded almost every facet of the biosphere, yet we lack an understanding of consumption risk by marine species at the global scale. To address this, we compile data from research documenting plastic debris ingestion by marine fish, totaling 171,774 individuals of 555 species. Overall, 386 marine fish species have ingested pl...
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Developing a comprehensive portfolio of theoretically sound indicators is fundamental to effective place-based management of coastal ecosystems at a wide range of scales. We reviewed indicator development case studies from seven different social-ecological systems over the first 10 years of the NOAA integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) program, wi...
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Animals are distributed relative to the resources they rely upon, often scaling in abundance relative to available resources. Yet, in heterogeneously distributed environments, describing resource availability at relevant spatial scales remains a challenge in ecology, inhibiting understanding of predator distribution and foraging decisions. We inves...
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Assessing the long-term consequences of sub-lethal anthropogenic disturbance on wildlife populations requires integrating data on fine-scale individual behavior and physiology into spatially and temporally broader, population-level inference. A typical behavioral response to disturbance is the cessation of foraging, which can be translated into a c...
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Marine fisheries around the globe are increasingly exposed to external drivers of social and ecological change. Though diversification and flexibility have historically helped marine resource users negotiate risk and adversity, much of modern fisheries management treats fishermen as specialists using specific gear types to target specific species....
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When assessing harmful human-wildlife interactions, researchers often attempt to calculate the risk that an interaction will occur. However, these analyses often quantify risk based on temporally static or spatially coarse measures of species distributions and human activity. As a result, risk estimates often do not reflect the dynamic nature of an...
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Understanding the drivers of movement, migration and distribution of individuals is important for insight into how species will respond to changing environmental conditions. Both abiotic and biotic factors are thought to influence migratory behavior, but their relative roles are difficult to disentangle. For migratory marine predators, both tempera...
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Spatial distributions of marine fauna are determined by complex interactions between environmental conditions and animal behaviors. As climate change leads to warmer, more acidic, and less oxygenated oceans, species are shifting away from their historical distribution ranges, and these trends are expected to continue into the future. Correlative Sp...
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Due to their global distribution, high biomass and energy content, euphausiids (krill) are important prey for many mid and upper trophic level marine organisms. Understanding drivers of krill habitat is essential for forecasting range shifts, and to better understand the response of krill predators to climate change. We hypothesized that the distri...
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Natural and human stressors in the high seas act across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. These include direct interaction such as fisheries bycatch or indirect interaction like warming oceans and plastic ingestion. Area-based management tools (ABMTs), such as marine protected areas and time-area closures, are a widely accepted and a bro...
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Satellite remote sensing data are critical for assessing ecosystem state and evaluating long-term trends and shifts in ecosystem components. Many operational tools rely on continuous streams of remote sensing data, and when a satellite sensor reaches the end of its designed lifespan, these tools must be transferred to a more reliable data stream. T...
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Wild-capture fisheries help provide food security to billions of people, yet bycatch of non-target species threatens ecosystem health and fishery sustainability. Appropriate monitoring and fisheries management can mitigate bycatch but require standardized bycatch data to be robustly recorded and effectively disseminated. Here we integrated and anal...
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Species distribution models (SDMs) are important management tools for highly mobile marine species because they provide spatially and temporally explicit information on animal distribution. Two prevalent modeling frameworks used to develop SDMs for marine species are generalized additive models (GAMs) and boosted regression trees (BRTs), but compar...
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The first signs of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) epidemic occurred in just few months in 2013 along the entire North American Pacific coast. Disease dynamics did not manifest as the typical travelling wave of reaction-diffusion epidemiological model, suggesting that other environmental factors might have played some role. To help explore how exte...
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Recent warnings from scientists suggest there is limited time to enact policies to avert wide‐ranging ecological and social damage from climate change. In the United States, discussions about comprehensive national policies to avert climate change have begun, with “Green New Deal” proposals and climate plans put forth by members of Congress and pre...
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Understanding the distribution of life's variety has driven naturalists and scientists for centuries , yet this has been constrained both by the available data and the models needed for their analysis. Here we compiled data for over 67,000 marine and terrestrial species and used artificial neural networks to model species richness with the state an...
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Marine ecosystem forecasting is an area of active research and rapid development. Promise has been shown for skillful prediction of physical, biogeochemical, and ecological variables on a range of timescales, suggesting potential for forecasts to aid in the management of living marine resources and coastal communities. However, the mechanisms under...
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Ecosystem based fisheries management is a priority nationally and beyond, yet lack of robust approaches has hampered its implementation. Even though forage fishes are critically important in marine ecosystems, few examples of applied ecosystem-based information exist. We created a multi-pronged approach to ecosystem considerations in fisheries mana...