Elizabeth P Lorch

Elizabeth P Lorch
University of Kentucky | UKY · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

94
Publications
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6,807
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
1675 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
A narrative is an account of connected events to form a story, in which characters experience events, form goals, pursue actions to achieve goals, and deal with the outcomes of their actions. To comprehend narratives, individuals must be able to process written, aural, audiovisual, or visual representations of narratives, understand meaning express...
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Objectives Despite substantial theoretical and empirical work examining the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cortisol response, mixed results across studies suggest there are potential moderators in this link that have been previously unexplored. Emotion dysregulation (ED) and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) commo...
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Children with ADHD exhibit narrative comprehension difficulties relative to typically developing peers. One unexplored comprehension area for this population is the generation of explanatory predictive inferences. Plausible explanatory predictive inferences allow for smooth integration of new information, and are targeted in many comprehension inte...
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The goals of this study were to (a) evaluate the presence of the positive bias (PB) in elementary-school-aged children with and without ADHD when PB is defined at the individual level through latent profile analysis and (b) examine the extent to which several correlates (i.e., social functioning, aggression, depression, and anxiety) are associated...
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Background: Previous research on peer status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on already-established peer groups, rendering the specific social behaviors that influence peers' initial impressions largely unknown. Recently, theorists have argued that emotion dysregulation is a key aspect of ADHD, with emp...
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Middle school students (n = 354) were tested for their understanding of the control of variables strategy (CVS) 2.5 years after participating in a study comparing three different interventions for teaching CVS. The key finding was that the pattern of effects observed in the 4th grade continued to be observed in the 6th grade. This was because (a) s...
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The current study examined the effects of an 8-week story mapping intervention (SMI) to improve narrative comprehension in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty 12–16-year-old adolescents with ADHD who were participating in a summer treatment program for adolescents with ADHD received the SMI instruction ten times...
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Academic difficulties are well-documented among children with ADHD. Exploring these difficulties through story comprehension research has revealed deficits among children with ADHD in making causal connections between events and in using causal structure and thematic importance to guide recall of stories. Important to theories of story comprehensio...
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Students (n = 1,069) from 60 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy (CVS) for designing experiments. Half of the classrooms were in schools that performed well on a state-mandated test of science achievement, and half were in schools that performed relatively poorly. Three teaching interventions were compared: an interve...
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It was hypothesized that people can attain complex, hierarchically organized structures for incoming task-relevant information; that the boundaries between the units of information highest in the hierarchy constitute major breaks in the processing and integration of information; and that these major “breakpoints” are times when people are especiall...
Article
Reports an error in "Learning the control of variables strategy in higher and lower achieving classrooms: Contributions of explicit instruction and experimentation" by Robert F. Lorch Jr., Elizabeth P. Lorch, William J. Calderhead, Emily E. Dunlap, Emily C. Hodell and Benjamin Dunham Freer (Journal of Educational Psychology, 2010[Feb], Vol 102[1],...
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This study investigated group differences in the recalls of stories by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers, and whether stimulant medication improved the story recall of those children with ADHD relative to a placebo condition. Children (N = 42) were asked to recall both televised and audio taped stori...
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This study investigated differences in the structure of stories created by children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their comparison peers. Children created one story without pictorial cues and one with pictorial cues available. Without cues, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder told fewer stories based on a char...
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In the present study, the authors explored whether pragmatic language use was associated with, and perhaps accounted for, the social skills problems that children with varying levels of hyperactivity and inattention experience. A community sample of 54 children aged 9-11 years participated. Pragmatic language use, hyperactivity and inattention, and...
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[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 104(3) of Journal of Educational Psychology (see record 2012-18666-001). Table 4 contained data errors. The text accompanying Table 4 in the article describes the procedures followed for the exclusion of subject’s data. The authors In this article, the authors intended to omit th...
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This study investigated developmental differences in story recall in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), N = 57 (77.2% male) and their comparison peers, N = 98 (61.2% male). Children at the ages of 4-6 or 7-9 completed a free recall immediately after viewing each of two televised stories, once in the presence of toys duri...
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The current study investigated the inclusion of goal-based story events in the online story narrations of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their peers, and explored the effect of stimulant medication on the narrations in children with ADHD. Children completed a narration task on two separate occasions....
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Changes in visual attention and story comprehension for children (N = 132) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers were examined. Between the ages of 7 and 9 (Phase 1) and approximately 21 months later (Phase 2), children viewed 2 televised stories: 1 in the presence of toys and 1 in their absence. Both groups of c...
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The present study examines the ability of children with ADHD to make inferences and monitor ongoing understanding of texts, to shed light on their academic difficulties. A total of 29 boys with ADHD and 41 comparison boys between the ages of 7 and 12 participated. Three tasks measure how boys create and evaluate inferences, particularly explanatory...
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Application of theoretically based tasks to the study of the development of selective attention has led to intriguing new findings concerning the role of inhibitory mechanisms. This study examined inhibitory mechanisms using a countermanding task and an inhibition of return task to compare deficits in intentionally, versus reflexively, controlled i...
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This experiment tested the hypothesis that children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) are more distractible than normal children, and that the distractibility partially accounts for the language deficits of these children. In Part 1, 15 of these children of primary-school age were compared with controls matched for mental age on a non-verba...
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The first goal of this study was to examine young children's developing narrative comprehension abilities using theory-based, authentic measures of comprehension processes. The second goal was to examine the relations among young children's comprehension abilities and other early reading skills. Children ages 4 and 6 listened to or watched two auth...
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This study examined potential differences between the inattentive and combined ADHD subtypes using laboratory tasks assessing behavioral inhibitory processes. Seventy-five children completed two tasks of behavioral inhibition believed to isolate different processes: the cued reaction time task (CRT), a basic inhibition task, and the go/no-go task (...
Article
This study examined the effects of distracters on the television viewing of diagnosed ADHD (n= 19) and normal (n= 20) boys who ranged in age from 6 to 12 years. Subjects were videotaped watching four 7-min segments of “3–2–1 Contact,” once in the presence and once in the absence of highly appealing toys. The results indicated that, while in the pre...
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Children with AD/HD exhibit two disparate areas of difficulty: disrupted interactions with parents and significant problems in story comprehension. This study links these two difficulties by examining parent-child joint picture-book reading to determine whether there were diagnostic group differences in parent and child storytelling. Parents of 25...
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We evaluated the effects of the Marijuana Initiative portion of the Office of National Drug Control Policy's National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on high-sensation-seeking and low-sensation-seeking adolescents. Personal interviews were conducted via laptop computers with independent monthly random samples of 100 youths from the same age cohort i...
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There has been abundant speculation, but very little research, concerning the role of television in the lives of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared the use of television and other media in samples of children with ADHD and nonreferred children. Children with ADHD were reported to watch more television...
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This study examined the recall of televised stories for younger (4-6 years) and older (7-9 years) children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under two different viewing conditions (toys present/toys absent). Each child watched two Rugrats television programs, once with toys present and once with toys absent. Immediate...
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Children with ADHD have difficulty understanding causal connections and goal plans within stories. This study examined mediators of group differences in story narrations between children ages 7-9 with and without ADHD, including as potential mediators both the core deficits of ADHD (i.e., inattention, disinhibition, planning/working memory) as well...
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The present study examined children's cognitive engagement with television as a function of the continuity of central or incidental content and whether this varied with age and clinical status. In Experiment 1, 9- to 11-year-old children's response times on a secondary task were slower the later a probe occurred in a sequence of central events, and...
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To develop causal hypotheses regarding the effects of television viewing on cognitive processes in children and to examine the proposition that deleterious effects of television may be stronger among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Longitudinal study involving 2 phases occurring 18 months apart. University research facilitie...
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Preschool children's visual attention to nearly three hours of a heterogeneous sample of children's programing was examined in relationship to the presence of 37 simple visual and auditory attributes of television programs. A factor analysis of the attributes indicated that they were largely independent, with the exception of two factors, which wer...
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This study examined the impact of studying on story comprehension and recall among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants in the study were 36 children with ADHD and 43 nonreferred comparison children ages 7 to 11. The participants listened to 1 of 2 folktales and recalled the story both before and after studyin...
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The present study examined whether time spent in long looks (i.e., >or=15 s), an index of cognitive engagement, would account for differences between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison children in understanding causal relations. Children viewed two televised stories, once in the presence of toys and once in...
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The present study was designed to examine the role that attentional problems may play in accounting for difficulties in story comprehension experienced by children with ADHD. A secondary task methodology was used to examine whether or not online variations in cognitive engagement with a televised story were related to the continuity of central or i...
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The effective targeting of high sensation-seeking adolescents, who are most at risk for drug abuse, requires the creation of high sensation value messages. Whereas previous research has focused on subjective reactions of receivers as the primary way to define message sensation value (MSV), we conceptualize message sensation value as the formal and...
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Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face an increased risk of poor achievement in school. Thus, knowledge of the cognitive processing abilities of children with ADHD is critical to understanding and improving their academic performance. Although many studies have focused on the specific nature of the attention deficit expe...
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Using data from a large-scale antimarijuana media campaign, this investigation examined the demographic and psychographic variables associated with exposure to public service announcements designed to target high sensation-seeking adolescents. The literature on sensation seeking indicates that adolescents high in this trait are at greater risk for...
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We developed a self-report measure of sensation seeking, a dispositional risk factor for various problem behaviors. In two studies, we administered the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS) to more than 7000 adolescents. Study 1 participants completed a paper-and-pencil form of the BSSS in mass-testing sessions. Psychometric analyses of the resultan...
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This experiment addressed the question of how headings influence readers' memories for text content. College students read and recalled a 12-topic expository text. Half of the participants were trained to construct a mental outline of the text's topic structure as they read and then use their mental outlines to guide their recall attempts. The rema...
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A summarization task was used to study whether headings influence readers' representations of the topic structure of a text. College students (Experiments 1-3) and sixth- and eighth-graders (Experiment 3) summarized a multiple topic text that (a) included headings introducing every new subtopic, (b) included headings introducing half of the new sub...
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Research demonstrating links between sensation-seeking and drug use, and sensation-seeking and participation in leisure activities suggests designing substance misuse prevention projects that encourage substituting alternative activities for drug use. The current study uses factor analysis and discriminant analysis to provide comprehensive informat...
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison...
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Two studies compared comprehension of televised stories by 7- to 12-year-old boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and nonreferred comparison boys. Boys watched one show with toys present and one with toys absent. Visual attention was continuously recorded, and recall was tested after each show. Across studies, visual attention...
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Investigated visual attention to and story comprehension of televised stories in 4- to 6-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison children. Half of the children in each group watched the program with toys in the room, and the other half watched without toys. Visual attention to the television was recorde...
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In this study, the authors examined memory for televised stories to gain insight into similarities and differences in story comprehension between young children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their typical peers. In particular, the authors investigated the extent to which 4- to 6-year-old children''s free recall of story e...
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Sensation seeking, a biologically‐based personality variable, is strongly related to both drug use and preferences for highly novel, arousing, and/or unconventional messages and TV programs. This connection is the basis of a targeting strategy in an anti‐marijuana public service announcement campaign in a medium‐sized market aimed at high sensation...
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This study explored influences of story structure properties on recall of story events by children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants listened to and retold 2 stories. Two properties of the stories' causal structure were derived: the number of causal connections an event has to other events and whether an...
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PIP This paper describes an individual-differences model of information exposure which reflects the needs for novelty and sensation likely inherited as survival behaviors from humankind's ancient past. The model grew out of an earlier activation model developed to explain exposure to information about public affairs. After the model's biological ba...
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A wealth of research is available examining children's story comprehension. However, little attention has been directed toward understanding the story comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present paper attempts to integrate the developmental literature on children's story comprehension with the little...
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Moment-to-moment variations in the engagement of young children's cognitive capacity by televised material were examined using a secondary task paradigm. Thirty-five 5-year-olds watched a 35-min Sesame Street program containing three types of segments: normal segments, segments with scenes reordered, and segments with incomprehensible language audi...
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What events from televised stories do preschool children and adults remember? In this study, we examined the extent to which 4-year-old and 6-year-old children's and adults' free recall of events from "Sesame Street" stories is determined by the role the events play in the story structure. Events varied with respect to 4 structural properties: numb...
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Two experiments examined how headings influence text recall and summarization. In a free recall task (Experiment 1), the presence of headings facilitated recall of unfamiliar topics but not familiar topics. In a summarization task (Experiment 2), headings and familiarity had independent effects, whereas headings interacted with the amount of discus...
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Two experiments examined how headings influence text recall and summarization. In a free recall task (Experiment 1), the presence of headings facilitated recall of unfamiliar topics but not familiar topics. In a summarization task (Experiment 2), headings and familiarity had independent effects, whereas headings interacted with the amount of discus...
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How is text memory influenced by organizational signaling devices? In Experiments 1 and 2, college students read a text with or without headings, overviews, and summaries; then they did a free recall. When the text's topic structure was simple (Experiment 1), signaling had no effect. When the structure was complex (Experiment 2), signaling affected...
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Two hypotheses about how organizational signals influence text recal1 were tested: (a) that signals cause readers to change their text-processing strategies and (b) that signals facilitate readers' attempts to encode topic structure information but do not cause a shift in strategies. College students read and recalled a text that contained either n...
Article
Sensation seeking, which research indicates is a biologically-based personality variable, is strongly related to both drug use and preferences for highly novel, arousing, and/or unconventional messages and TV programs. This connection was the basis of a targeting strategy in a five-month televised anti-drug PSA campaign in a medium-sized market aim...
Article
Effects of typographical cues on text memory were investigated. In Experiment 1, college students read a 4-page text, then were tested on memory for specific "target" statements. The text contained no underlining (control), or the targets were underlined (light signaling), or the targets and half of the nontarget sentences were underlined (heavy si...
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Although attention to novelty is no longer as vital to survival as in our ancient past, the attention value of novelty has major implications for contemporary human communication. It also is affected by individual differences in reactivity to intense and novel stimulation. The studies reported in this article involve the roles of attention and sens...
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This study examined effects of message and program sensation value, sensation seeking, and drug use on visual attention to televised anti-drug public service announcements (PSAs) among 318 18–22-year-olds, who were placed individually in a simulated home environment with the opportunity to read from print media selections and/or watch a half-hour T...
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Attempted to clarify the nature of the sustained and selective attention deficits implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, performance on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT; Sergeant & van der Meere, 1990) and speeded classification task was assessed for a group of 7- to 12- year old ADHD boys and their same-ag...
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Four studies with a total of 105 boys (aged 7–12 yrs) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 112 non-ADHD boys (control Ss), examine attention and comprehension of children with ADHD. In Study 1, Ss' parents kept a 5-day TV viewing log. Ss were then given a 15-min presentation of an educational program and as well as some toys wit...
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Strategic reading requires not only a repertoire of processing strategies but also knowledge about the conditions under which a given strategy is relevant. This study examined college students' conditional knowledge about reading. Ss sorted descriptions of reading situations according to how they believe they read in each situation. Cluster analyse...
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Two experiments studied effects of signaling devices (headings, overviews, and summaries) on text memory. In Exp 1, Ss read a text with or without signals, then recalled the topics of the text. Signaling produced better memory for the topics and their organization. In Exp 2, Ss recalled the content of the text they read, and recalls were scored for...
Article
This study examined the effects of distracters on the television viewing of diagnosed ADHD (n = 19) and normal (n = 20) boys who ranged in age from 6 to 12 years. Subjects were videotaped watching four 7-min segments of "3-2-1 Contact," once in the presence and once in the absence of highly appealing toys. The results indicated that, while in the p...
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Full-text available
The longer a look at TV is maintained, the conditional probability that it will be further maintained rapidly increases for about 15 sec, after which it increases slowly. This increase in the conditional probability of maintaining a look is called "attentional inertia." An external audiovisual distractor stimulus was presented during 3- and 5-year-...
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Young children's memory for plot-relevant information in televised stories has been reported to be poor, with little differentiation of important from unimportant information. Most investigators, however, have done little to ensure comparability of information varying in importance. In 2 experiments we examined effects of importance on 4-6-year-old...
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A recent model of text processing proposed that adults construct a representation of topics during reading; a new topic is related to the representation as soon as relevant information is encountered. The present experiment tested the generality of this model for younger readers. Fourth- and sixth-grade children and college students read two hierar...
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Do experienced readers alter their processing of topics in a text according to task demands? Subjects read a text in preparation for a task that either emphasized topic information (outlining) or did not emphasize topic information (verification). Reading times were recorded for sentences which introduced either major or minor shifts of text topics...
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How do readers respond to signals in a text that certain information is relevant? Subjects in Experiment 1 read texts a sentence at a time while their reading times were recorded for specific target sentences. Subjects took longer to read a summary sentence if the preceding sentence signaled it as a summary than if no preceding signal was provided....
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The TV-viewing behavior of 99 families with young children was videotaped by automated time-lapse recording equipment placed in homes for 10-day periods. The 99 families comprised 460 individuals from infants to 62 years of age. Time-sample analyses of 4,672 hours of recordings indicated that the TV-viewing room contained no viewers 14.7% of the ti...
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The present paper proposes that habituation of attention to irrelevant information can account for within-task improvement in selective attention. According to this hypothesis, children who are preexposed to stimuli that will later be irrelevant in a speeded classification task will experience less interference than children not given the opportuni...
Article
This experiment tested the hypothesis that children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) are more distractible than normal children, and that the distractibility partially accounts for the language deficits of these children. In Part 1, 15 of these children of primary-school age were compared with controls matched for mental age on a non-verba...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate information on behavior of young children at home is crucial to the study of child development. The present study compared parent diaries of 5-year-old children's time spent with television to concurrent automated time-lapse video observations. In addition, a number of control groups were employed to assess the effects of observational equ...
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Subjects in two experiments read two texts while their sentence reading times were recorded. Each text discussed 12 related topics. Across the two experiments, reading times on the sentences introducing the topics were affected by three manipulations: (1) Reading times were shorter if the new topic was directly related to the immediately preceding...
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Tested the hypothesis that readers represent a text's topics and their interrelations as they read and then use those representations to access information about each topic. In 2 experiments, 222 undergraduates were required to read and free recall an expository text of approximately 1,100 words in length. Exp I manipulated both the order of topics...
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It was hypothesized that readers represent a text's topics and their interrelations as they read, then use their representations to access information about each topic. In two experiments, college subjects were required to read and free recall an expository text. Experiment 1 manipulated both the order of topics in the stimulus text and whether or...
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Full-text available
Irrelevant information becomes less distracting as a task is practiced. Previous research has suggested that the habituation of responses to irrelevant stimuli may account for the improvement. Two experiments, using 90 and 48 undergraduates, tested the habituation explanation as an account of reductions in interference in a speeded classification t...
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Observed 299 3- and 5-yr-olds watching TV in the presence of an audiovisual slide distractor in groups of 1, 2, or 3 viewers. Peers viewing the TV together influenced each other's behavior in a synchronized fashion: When one looked at the TV, looked at the distractor, or demonstrated overt involvement with the TV, the other tended to do the same th...
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2 studies tested the hypothesis that TV program comprehensibility is a major determinant of preschoolers' attention to television. The first study found that 3- and 5-year-olds' visual attention to "Sesame Street" was enhanced in the presence of dialogue in which the referent was concretely present either visually or auditorily. The second study ex...
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Since baseline performance varies with age, diminished interference effects found with increasing age do not provide evidence for a developmental trend in distractibility unless their relationship to baseline performance is known. In the present study, baseline difficulty was varied in two speeded classification experiments to investigate whether i...
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The study experimentally tested the relationship between visual attention and comprehension of a TV program. 72 5-year-old children watched a 40-min version of the TV program "Sesame Street." Half the children viewed the program in the presence of a variety of toys and half viewed without toys. The children were then tested for their comprehension...