Elizabeth Kyonka

Elizabeth Kyonka
California State University, East Bay | CSUEB · Department of Psychology

PhD
Experimental analysis of behavior

About

44
Publications
6,101
Reads
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397
Citations
Introduction
My research team investigates choice adaptation and temporal learning with the ultimate goal of applying our work to the development of strategies for facilitating learning and adaptive behavior change.
Additional affiliations
February 2019 - June 2020
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Position
  • Education Specialist
July 2016 - January 2019
University of New England (Australia)
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2009 - June 2016
West Virginia University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
February 2006 - September 2009
University of Canterbury
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 2000 - May 2004
Brown University
Field of study
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Much has been written about the potential benefits of translational research in behavior analysis, but a lack of consensus about what constitutes “translational” creates a barrier to effective knowledge–practice innovation within the discipline and across other sciences. We propose a tiered system, adapted from a biomedical translational pathway, f...
Article
Full-text available
Power analysis is an overlooked and underreported aspect of study design. A priori power analysis involves estimating the sample size required for a study based on predetermined maximum tolerable Type I and II error rates and the minimum effect size that would be clinically, practically, or theoretically meaningful. Power is more often discussed wi...
Article
Background and aims A number of studies have investigated connections between probability discounting and gambling. The aim of this research was to obtain a meta‐analytic weighted effect size for the relationship between shallow probability discounting, (the tendency to overvalue reinforcement with lower odds) and gambling intensity and to examine...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize treatment studies for some forms of problematic internet use and identify ways behavior analysts might contribute, we reviewed published treatment studies for two subtypes of problematic internet use, problem gaming and problem social media use. Our search identified forty-one treatment studies for problem gaming and none for proble...
Article
Full-text available
In slot-machine play, near wins are stimuli that visually approximate winning stimuli but deliver no reinforcers. In two experiments, a categorical discrimination task was embedded in a concurrent chain to investigate how near wins affect preference for probabilistic versus certain food. Pecking in variable-interval initial links produced access to...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of cue informativeness on human temporal discrimination was evaluated using a peak-interval (PI) procedure. A target moved across the computer monitor, reaching the center at 2 or 4 s. Key presses shot the center of the screen. Participants earned points when shots hit the target and lost points for misses. The target was masked durin...
Article
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This special section is about behavioral psychology and cell phone use. It includes six original articles that use behavioral economics and behavior analysis to explore text messaging, access to smartphones and problem gaming.
Article
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Debates about the utility of p values and correct ways to analyze data have inspired new guidelines on statistical inference by the American Psychological Association (APA) and changes in the way results are reported in other scientific journals, but their impact on the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) has not previously been...
Conference Paper
The scientific activities of behavior analysts are governed by the same principles that govern all behavior. Employing techniques from other fields to study behavior analysis research and education can clarify our identities and suggest avenues for advancing our field. Ecology is the study of how organisms relate to one another and to their physica...
Article
Full-text available
Forgetting is often thought of as the inability to remember, but remembering and forgetting allow behavior to adapt to a changing environment in distinct and separable ways. Learning and forgetting were assessed concurrently in two pigeon experiments that involved the same unconventional routine where the schedule of reinforcement changed every ses...
Article
Timing processes have been implicated as potential mechanisms that underlie self-controlled choice. To investigate the impact of an intervention that has been shown to increase self-controlled choice on timing processes, accuracy and precision of temporal discrimination were assessed in an 18-s peak procedure (18-s fixed interval trials; 54-s peak...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a tiered system for classifying behaviour analysis on a basic-applied continuum that is adapted from a biomedical translational pathway. The system classifies empirical research into five tiers (0-4) based on whether research subjects, target behaviour(s), relevant stimuli and setting were selected for experimental control or social impo...
Article
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Verbal rules or instructions often exert obvious and meaningful control over human behavior. Sometimes instructions benefit the individual by enabling faster acquisition of a skill or by obviating an aversive consequence. However, research has also suggested a clear disadvantage: “insensitivity” to changing underlying contingencies. The two experim...
Article
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Cues can vary in how informative they are about when specific outcomes, such as food availability, will occur. This study was an experimental investigation of the functional relation between cue informativeness and temporal discrimination in a peak-interval (PI) procedure. Each session consisted of fixed-interval (FI) 2-s and 4-s schedules of food...
Conference Paper
Most accounts of behaviour hold that, in general, the behaviour of different animals is more alike than it is different, or at least that it is parsimonious to assume that behavioural processes are shared across taxa unless evidence suggests otherwise. However, animals of different shapes, sizes and sensory capacities naturally react differently to...
Poster
Full-text available
To determine whether choosing between two terminal links took longer when two dimensions changed than when only one did, pigeons pecked in concurrent chain schedules. Either terminal-link immediacy, reinforcer magnitude, or both were changed each session. Response allocation was sensitive to both dimensions, but estimates of sensitivity obtained fr...
Article
Behavior and events distributed in time can serve as markers that signal delays to future events. The majority of timing research has focused on how behavior changes as the time to some event, usually food availability, decreases. The primary objective of the two experiments presented here was to assess how behavior changes as time passes between t...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent investigations focusing on interventions to improve self-controlled choice have centered upon timing processes. However, it is unclear how these interventions have their effects on timing. In the present study, timing in mice was assessed using an 18-s peak procedure (18-s FI trials; 54-s peak trials) with an intervention consisting of a DRL...
Article
Full-text available
Pigeons were exposed to a novel variation of a stimulus discrimination task previously used with rats as a slot machine analog. We sought to replicate and extend characterizations of structural characteristics of responding, determine relations between those characteristics and identify predictors of individual differences in performance. Pecking d...
Poster
Full-text available
Analysis of changepoints from Christensen & Grace (2009). When immediacy ratios change predictably across days, the number of sessions with changepoints systematically changes.
Article
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Recent research on interval timing in the behavioral and neurological sciences has employed a concurrent fixed-interval (FI) procedure first reported by Platt and Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 9, 160-170, 1983). Studies employing the task typically assess just 1 dependent variable, the switch/bisection point;...
Poster
Full-text available
Results from my thesis experiment. A rapid acquisition concurrent VR VR schedule wherein sessions were run back-to-back with an overnight break in the middle.
Article
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Models of interval timing typically include a response threshold to account for temporal production. The present study sought to evaluate the dependent concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement as a tool for selectively isolating the response threshold in rats, pigeons, and humans. In this task, reinforcement is available e...
Article
Full-text available
Different events can serve as time markers that initiate intervals in schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) schedules in which the onset of the interval was signaled by the illumination of a key light or initiated by a peck to a lighted key. Food was delivered following the first response after the interval elapsed...
Article
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Response-sequence learning is often studied by manipulating consequences for sequence completion. Results of research evaluating how changes in discriminative stimuli disrupt the accuracy of response sequences suggest that transitions to reversed but highly predictive discriminative stimuli are more disruptive than the removal of discriminative sti...
Article
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State-dependent valuation learning (SDVL) is a preference for stimuli associated with relative food deprivation over stimuli associated with relative satiety. Pigeons were exposed to experimental conditions designed to investigate SDVL and to test the hypothesis that obtained relative immediacy during training predicts choice during test probes. En...
Article
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Research based on the matching law has demonstrated empirically that the physical and temporal properties of the events, the context in which they occur and the signals that mark them in space and time all contribute to response allocation. When the physical or temporal properties of different outcomes change in ways that affect their relative valu...
Article
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Previous research has shown rapid learning of multiple temporal relations between signals and food by pigeons when these relations are changed unpredictably each session (Kyonka & Grace, 2007). The goal of the present study was to test whether contextual temporal cues-that is, an alternative signal-food delay that was a valid predictor of a target...
Article
Full-text available
In fixed-interval (FI) and response-initiated fixed-interval (RIFI) schedules of reinforcement, a response is required after an interval has elapsed for delivery of reinforcement. In RIFI schedules, a response is required to initiate each interval as well. The objective of this experiment was a systematic comparison of performance in the two schedu...
Article
Full-text available
Eight pigeons responded in a concurrent-chains procedure in which terminal-link schedules changed pseudorandomly across sessions. Pairs of terminal-link delays either summed to 15 s or to 45 s. Across sessions, the location of the shorter terminal link changed according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. On some terminal links, food was withheld to...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequently occurring event in childhood that may have significant ongoing effects. Little is known about the child and family characteristics that predispose children to these injuries. A greater understanding of the risk factors associated with childhood TBI may provide an opportunity to prevent their occurrence....
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive theories of timing and conditioned reinforcement provide two different theoretical perspectives on choice between delayed rewards. The primary objective of this research was to identify the process that generates choice in the concurrent-chains procedure and to characterize its relationship with temporal control. Experiments 1-3 investiga...
Article
Four pigeons responded in a concurrent-chains procedure in which terminal-link schedules were fixed-interval (FI) 10s and FI 20s. Across sessions, the location of the shorter terminal-link changed according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. Each session, the variable-interval initial-link schedule value was sampled from a uniform distribution that...
Article
Four pigeons responded in a concurrent-schedule procedure in which reinforcer rates and magnitudes changed unpredictably across sessions according to independent random series. Programmed relative reinforcement rates and magnitudes were always either 2:1 or 1:2. Pigeons' response allocation tended to stabilize within sessions and multiple regressio...
Article
Full-text available
Pigeons responded in a concurrent-chains procedure in which terminal-link reinforcer variables were changed unpredictably across sessions. In Experiment 1, the terminal-link schedules were fixed-interval (FI) 8 s and FI 16 s, and the reinforcer magnitudes were 2 s and 4 s. In Experiment 2 the probability of reinforcement (100% or 50%) was varied wi...
Article
Pigeons were trained on a concurrent-chains procedure in which the initial link associated with the shorter terminal-link delay to food changed unpredictably across sessions. In the minimal-variation condition, delays were always 10 s and 20 s, whereas in the maximal-variation condition delays were generated pseudorandomly for each session. On some...
Article
Theories of timing have been applied to choice between delayed rewards by assuming that delays are represented in memory and that subjects sample from memory when choosing between alternatives. To search for covariation in single-trial measures of performance that might confirm this assumption, we used a procedure that allowed for convergent measur...
Article
The fast and frugal heuristics of ABC and rules of thumb of behavioural biologists represent strategies that humans and other animals might use to make decisions under time constraints and with a minimum of information. If experimental psychologists could demonstrate use of simple heuristics by non-humans in experimental settings, quantitative and...
Article
We used immunohistochemistry to localize vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus. The lateral geniculate nucleus is intensely immunoreactive for both transporters. Monocular eye removal abolished staining for VGLUT2 in a pattern corresponding to the distribution of terminals from the missing eye, wit...