Elizabeth S. Barnert

Elizabeth S. Barnert
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Pediatrics

About

54
Publications
10,316
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878
Citations
Citations since 2017
39 Research Items
780 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Background: Girls impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the juvenile legal system are three times more likely to have suicide attempts than girls without histories of exploitation. Yet, research on risk profiles and correlates that contribute to elevated suicide risk among girls with CSE histories remains scant. Objective: We sough...
Article
Full-text available
Every year, about 700,000 youth arrests occur in the United States, creating significant neurodevelopmental strain; this is especially concerning as most of these youth have early life adversity exposures that may alter brain development. Males, Black, and Latinx youth, and individuals from low socioeconomic status households have disproportionate...
Article
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Aims We sought to gather experts’ perspectives on Medicaid coverage gaps during reentry to identify high-yield policy solutions to improve the health of justice-involved individuals in the United States. Subject and methods We interviewed 28 experts at the intersection of Medicaid and criminal justice via telephone between November 2018 and April...
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Youth justice minimum age thresholds vary widely and are garnering increased global attention. In 1984, legislation in Canada excluded all children under age 12 from its youth justice system, yet few studies have examined implementation of the statute. We interviewed 22 experts across Canada to understand how the law functions and to guide response...
Article
Objectives: National data on the health of children and adolescents exposed to commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) are lacking, during both adolescence and adulthood. Using nationally representative data, we examined the health of male and female adolescents in grades 7-12 who experienced CSE exposure and subsequent adult health outcomes and acce...
Article
In this study, the authors explore how young adults navigated the dual challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and jail reentry in a large urban environment. Fifteen young adults (aged 18-25) participated in up to nine monthly semi-structured interviews to discuss their experiences of reentry during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., spring and...
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OBJECTIVES We applied a Life Course Health Development (LCHD) framework to examine experts’ views on Canada’s youth justice minimum age law of 12, which excludes children aged 11 and under from the youth justice system. METHODS We interviewed 21 experts across Canada to understand their views on Canada’s youth justice minimum age of 12. The 7 prin...
Article
Therapeutic dance has been increasingly used as a treatment modality for sexual trauma, yet its evidence-based efficacy has not yet been catalogued. We therefore conducted a systematic review to summarize the existing evidence for therapeutic dance as an intervention for healing after sexual trauma. We searched 5 major databases to identify interve...
Article
Although many justice-involved youth (JIY) rely on Medicaid, due to the federal "inmate exclusion," Medicaid is often suspended or terminated upon youth's intake to detention, which can lead to coverage gaps at release. We interviewed 28 experts on Medicaid and the justice system and conducted thematic analysis to identify solutions for reducing Me...
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With 2.3 million individuals incarcerated in the United States, incarceration remains a pressing social influence on health. While risk factors for incarceration are known, research has been slow to identify protective factors. Characterizing adolescent protective and risk factors for incarceration outcomes can inform interventions to prevent incar...
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Fears and perceived lack of tools should not be obstacles
Article
In February 2020, video of Kaia, a Black 6-year-old child being arrested for a temper tantrum at her school in Orlando, Florida, emerged on social media.¹ Footage shows her crying out for help as officers place zip ties on her wrists and remove her from school. Although Kaia’s charges were eventually dropped, the outrage surrounding her case prompt...
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The American juvenile justice system is characterized by the overrepresentation of youth of color that is particularly acute for Black children even at young ages. Despite policy solutions targeting this problem, the Black-White gap in juvenile justice involvement continues to widen. Using mixed methods, this study examines rates of disproportional...
Article
Objectives School racial/ethnic segregation in U.S. schoolsDifferences in school racial/ethnic composition may increase health disparities by concentrating educational opportunities that confer long-term health benefits in schools serving predominantly wwhite students. For racial minority students, high concentrations of white students may increase...
Article
Historically, youths who are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the United States have been implicated as perpetrators of crime and overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As an intriguing example of the “smart decarceration” social work grand challenge, policy and practice initiatives have converged to decriminalize cisgen...
Chapter
This chapter presents a case of an adolescent facing both commercial sexual exploitation and drug addiction. The chapter reviews existing research on substance use among youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation. In particular, the chapter highlights the intersecting risks and contexts of substance use and commercial sexual exploitation, as...
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Prior research has examined the high health care needs and vulnerabilities faced by survivors of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), yet their perspectives are frequently absent. We sought to understand the narratives and views of individuals affected by CSE on their bodies, health, and motivations to seek health care treatment. Twenty-one girls...
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We sought to understand the role of parent engagement in overcoming barriers to care for youth re-entering the community following incarceration. For this mixed methods study, we conducted quantitative surveys on healthcare needs and access with youth (n = 50) at 1-month post-incarceration, and semi-structured interviews with a subset of these yout...
Article
Incarcerated youth have numerous healthcare needs, yet access to healthcare following community reentry is limited. Healthcare and juvenile justice providers, along with parents, strongly influence access to care for youth undergoing reentry. However, their perspectives are often missing from the literature. We examined parent and provider perspect...
Article
Objectives. To examine barriers to health care for Latino youths during reentry after incarceration. Methods. For this in-depth qualitative study, we conducted 69 semistructured interviews with 22 Latino youths and their parents at 1, 3, and 6 months after incarceration. We performed thematic analysis of interview transcripts, from which a prelimin...
Article
Objective: We measured pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes among girls with histories of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), and then quantified the associations between the outcome of pregnancy with: a) girls' exposure to childhood adversity, and b) their behavioral health. This is the largest study of pregnancy outcomes and associated facto...
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Introduction Despite the significant healthcare policy and program implications, a summary measure of health for children with medical complexity (CMC) has not been identified. It is unclear whether existing population health approaches apply to CMC. We conducted a systematic review of the existing peer-reviewed research literature on CMC to descri...
Article
Background: Specialty courts have emerged as a model of care for U.S. youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) to ensure comprehensive service provision. However, there is a lack of published research that documents the extent to which these programs achieve this goal. Objective: We sought to understand a specialty juvenile justice...
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There is a dearth of knowledge concerning statutes and practices designed to protect younger children from formal juvenile court petitions. This case study examines minimum age laws and related statutes in the six largest U.S. states and explores implementation of these policies and practices in major metropolitan areas within these states. The pri...
Article
This study aimed to identify substance use initiation among justice-involved adolescents transitioning into adulthood. Lifetime use of 11 substances was extracted from the U.S. Pathways to Desistance Study (N = 1,354) and modeled using latent class/transition analyses. Users were categorized into five classes: no/occasional use of alcohol and canna...
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This article explores family separation and reunification of the disappeared Salvadoran children separated from their families during El Salvador’s civil war (1980-1992) from the perspectives of adult relatives. During separation, adult relatives experienced an “unresolvable loss.” Following reunion, families experienced an immediate relief that wa...
Article
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Study objective: Because of the high reproductive health risks that commercially sexually exploited youth (CSEY) face, we sought to understand facilitators and barriers related to their use of condoms and hormonal contraception. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted semistructured interviews with 21...
Article
Background and objectives: Defining and measuring health for children with medical complexity (CMC) is poorly understood. We engaged a diverse national sample of stakeholder experts to generate and then synthesize a comprehensive list of health outcomes for CMC. Methods: With national snowball sampling of CMC caregiver, advocate, provider, resea...
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Objective: We sought to quantify the association between child incarceration in the U.S. and subsequent adult health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data from 1,727 adult (Wave IV) participants first incarcerated at age <25. Using Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression mode...
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Several U.S. states are considering setting or raising a minimum age of juvenile court jurisdiction. However, there is scant evidence to suggest if a state minimum age law would protect children from developmentally inappropriate proceedings beyond existing capacity and competency statutes. To address this central question, this case study focuses...
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Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. Design/methodology/approach We analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult...
Article
The current study sought to understand commercially sexually exploited (CSE) youths' health care experiences, barriers to care, and recommendations for improving health care services. We conducted focus groups (N=5) with 18 CSE youth from February 2015 through May 2016 at two group homes serving CSE youth in Southern California. We performed themat...
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Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and st...
Article
Objectives: Because children with medical complexity (CMC) display very different health trajectories, needs, and resource utilization than other children, it is unclear how well traditional conceptions of population health apply to CMC. We sought to identify key health outcome domains for CMC as a step toward determining core health metrics for t...
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Background and objectives: Despite the widespread epidemic of mass incarceration in the US, relatively little literature exists examining the longitudinal relationship between youth incarceration and adult health outcomes. We sought to quantify the association of youth incarceration with subsequent adult health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed dat...
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Background and objectives: Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We develo...
Article
Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly...
Article
Mental health providers are frequently at the forefront of addressing the multifaceted needs of commercially sexually exploited youth. This article provides an overview of the definition of commercial sexual exploitation of children and relevant legislation including the shift toward decriminalization of commercially sexually exploited youth. To pr...
Article
Objective: To understand the health care access issues faced by Los Angeles (LA) County's uninsured and residually uninsured after implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and to identify potential solutions using a community-partnered dialogue. Design: Qualitative study using a community-partnered participatory research framework. Setti...
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Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide sta...
Article
Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly...
Article
Full-text available
Despite previous studies demonstrating no difference in mortality or morbidity, the various surgical approaches for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants have not been evaluated economically. Our goal was to compare total in-hospital cost and mortality by using propensity score-matched infants treated with peritoneal drainage alone, peritoneal...
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Objectives: We sought to understand incarcerated youths' perspectives on the role of protective factors and risk factors for juvenile offending. Methods: We performed an in-depth qualitative analysis of interviews (conducted October-December 2013) with 20 incarcerated youths detained in the largest juvenile hall in Los Angeles. Results: The ad...
Article
Background We examined the experiences of incarcerated adolescent males (N = 29) who participated in a one-day meditation retreat and 10-week meditation programme. Method Self-report surveys assessing mindfulness, self-regulation, impulsivity and stress; behavioural assessments; and focus group data were examined. ResultsWe observed significantly h...
Conference Paper
Background: During El Salvador's civil war (1980-1992), hundreds of children were separated, often forcibly, from their biological families and turned over to orphanages or given up for adoption overseas. Years later, many of these children-now adolescents or young adults-were reunited with their biological families. Understanding the reunification...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Incarcerated youth have disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. Prior research has demonstrated that meditation provides physical and mental health benefits to youth, as well as to incarcerated adults, however, no published studies examine whether these courses benefit incarcerated youth. Objective: To assess if a one-day intensive and 1...
Article
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Vines and epiphytes contribute importantly to the biodiversity of temperate rainforests of southern South America. However, compared with their tropical counterparts, these functional groups have received less attention. We evaluated diversity, floristic composition and relative abundance of vascular epiphytes and vines within a humid temperate for...

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