Elise Smith

Elise Smith
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston | UTMB · Department of Preventive Medicine & Community Health

PhD

About

46
Publications
34,988
Reads
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828
Citations
Introduction
Elise Smith is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Tx. As a bioethics scholar with a background in philosophy, law, and the social sciences, she works on projects in research ethics, public health ethics and environmental health ethics.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - March 2017
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Lecturer
July 2016 - present
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Position
  • PostDoc Position
November 2015 - July 2016
Université de Montréal
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2011 - August 2015
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Applied Social Sciences, Bioethics option
September 2008 - May 2011
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Bioethics
September 2005 - May 2008
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Philosophy, ethics, law

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
While there has been significant discussion in the health sciences and ethics literatures about problems associated with publication practices (e.g., ghost- and gift-authorship, conflicts of interest), there has been relatively little practical guidance developed to help researchers determine how they should fairly allocate credit for multi-authore...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, I study the challenges that make database and material bank sharing difficult for many researchers. I assert that if sharing is prima facie ethical (a view that I will defend), then any practices that limit sharing require justification. I argue that: 1) data and material sharing is ethical for many stakeholders; 2) there are, howe...
Article
Full-text available
National and international organisations have implemented governance mechanisms to address a diversity of ethical, security and policy challenges raised by advances in research and innovation. These challenges become particularly complex when research or innovations are considered ‘dual-use’, i.e. can lead to both beneficial and harmful uses, and i...
Article
Full-text available
In response to growing public and policy concern about conflicts of interest (COI) in university research, academic institutions in North America and Europe have introduced policies to manage COI. However, depending on their form and content, COI policies can be more or less helpful in the effective management of COI. In this paper, we examine and...
Article
Full-text available
Authorship is the primary form of symbolic capital in science. Despite this, authorship is rife with injustice and malpractice, with women expressing concerns regarding the fair attribution of credit. Based on an international survey, we examine gendered practices in authorship communication, disagreement, and fairness. Our results demonstrate that...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific authorship serves to identify and acknowledge individuals who “contribute significantly” to published research. However, specific authorship norms and practices often differ within and across disciplines, labs, and cultures. As a consequence, authorship disagreements are commonplace in team research. This study aims to better understand...
Article
Full-text available
Authorship is commonly used as the basis for the measurement of research productivity. It influences career progression and rewards, making it a valued commodity in a competitive scientific environment. To better understand authorship practices amongst collaborative teams, this study surveyed authors on collaborative journal articles published betw...
Article
Full-text available
Health promotion involves social and environmental interventions designed to benefit and protect health. It often harmfully impacts the environment through air and water pollution, medical waste, greenhouse gas emissions, and other externalities. We consider potential conflicts between health promotion and environmental protection and why and how t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studies have shown that various types of biases can impact scientific peer review. These biases may contribute to a type of groupthink that can make it difficult to obtain funding or publish innovative or controversial research. The desire to achieve consensus and uniformity within a research group or scientific discipline can make it difficult for...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,540 researchers concerning their experiences with and attitudes towards the ethics of equal contribution (EC) designations in publications. Over half the respondents (58.3%) said they had been designated as an EC at least once. Although most respondents agreed that EC designations can be a useful way of pr...
Article
Full-text available
In “Four Faces of Fair Subject Selection,” MacKay and Saylor (2020) rigorously assess the “multidimensional requirement” of fair subject selection as regards to four generally accepted sub-principles: fair inclusion, fair burden sharing, fair opportunity, and fair distribution of third-party risks. They suggest that each sub-principle has a differe...
Article
Full-text available
Citizen Science refers to the consultation, participation, engagement or involvement of the general public in research. Rationales for this interaction include increased public access and involvement of citizens in research, immersion of community values relevant to research, outreach, and educational potential with the public, and ultimately, the...
Article
Background: Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that there are sex-based differences at the genetic, cellular, biochemical, and physiological levels. Despite this, numerous studies have shown poor levels of inclusion of female populations into medical research. These disparities in sex inclusion in research are further complicated by the ab...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In biomedical research, there have been numerous scandals highlighting conflicts of interest (COIs) leading to significant bias in judgment and questionable practices. Academic institutions, journals, and funding agencies have developed and enforced policies to mitigate issues related to COI, especially surrounding financial interests....
Article
Full-text available
One of the most significant changes to the Common Rule is the requirement that institutions use a single institutional review board (IRB) for cooperative research in the U.S., unless more than one IRB is required by state, local or tribal law, or a signatory federal agency decides an exception is warranted. We surveyed human research protection pro...
Article
Full-text available
Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider...
Article
Full-text available
Using a database of recent articles published in the field of Global Health research, we examine institutional sources of stratification in publishing access outcomes. Traditionally, the focus on inequality in scientific publishing has focused on prestige hierarchies in established print journals. This project examines stratification in contemporar...
Article
Full-text available
On May 22, 2017, administrative law Judge Leslie Rogall of the Department of Health and Human Services’ Departmental Appeals Board, Civil Remedies Division, ruled in favor of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) concerning its decision to charge former University of California at Riverside biochemistry professor Frank Sauer with research miscondu...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors. Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is a...
Data
Calculating the probability of chance and intentional alphabetical order. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
In academia, authorship on publications confers merit as well as responsibility. The respective disciplines adhere to their “typical” authorship practices: individuals may be named in alphabetical order (e.g., in economics, mathematics), ranked in decreasing level of contribution (e.g., biomedical sciences), or the leadership role may be listed las...
Article
Full-text available
Background In 1982, the Annals of Virology published a paper showing how Liberia has a highly endemic potential of Ebola warning health authorities of the risk for potential outbreaks; this journal is only available by subscription. Limiting the accessibility of such knowledge may have reduced information propagation toward public health actors who...
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. As a consequence, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the byline of biomedical articles, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors for their work. Typically, more importance is given to...
Article
Full-text available
Misunderstanding and disputes about authorship are commonplace among members of multi/interdisciplinary health research teams. If left unmanaged and unresolved, these conflicts can undermine knowledge sharing and collaboration, obscure accountability for research, and contribute to the incorrect attribution of credit. To mitigate these issues, cert...
Conference Paper
Table of contents I1 Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research Integrity Concurrent Sessions: 1. Countries' systems and policies to foster research integrity CS01.1 Second time around: Implementing and embedding a review of responsible conduct of research policy and practice in an Australian research-intensive university Susan Patricia O'...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article begins by providing an overview of several historical tragedies in research involving humans and how they can serve to promote the awareness and development of ethical practices and policies. We highlight several norms specific for ethical clinical research and what they mean in terms of corresponding practices for researchers and ethi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibi...
Article
Full-text available
Research on research ethics-regarding both the governance and practice of the ethical review of human subjects research-has a tumultuous history in North America and Europe. Much of the academic literature focuses on issues to do with regulating the conduct and quality of ethics review of research protocols by ethics committees (research ethics boa...
Article
Full-text available
Background There has been significant discussion about the need to manage conflict of interest (COI) in medical journals. This has lead many journals to implement policies to manage COI for authors and reviewers; however, surprisingly little attention has been focused on the COI of journal editors. Objective The goal of this exploratory study was t...
Article
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This case study presents the story of a typical North American couple searching for fertility treatments on the Internet. This search leads to sites of clinics in other countries, which gets them thinking about traveling abroad for medical services – also known as medical tourism.
Article
Full-text available
Medical tourism is a general term that describes patients traveling to obtain health services. The growth of medical tourism is due to a broad range of motivators and increasingly, developing countries are seeking to capitalize on these flows and are linking medical care with actual tourist activities. This commercial linkage between healthcare and...
Article
Full-text available
A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To...
Article
Full-text available
Le présent rapport a pour but d’apporter une aide constructive pour la mise à jour de la politique universitaire concernant les conflits d’intérêts (CI). Le rapport est une évaluation détaillée des politiques actuelles de l’Université afin d’aider une meilleure gestion de celles-ci. L’Université de Montréal a déjà une longueur d’avance sur plusieur...

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