Elise Kalokerinos

Elise Kalokerinos
University of Melbourne | MSD · Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences

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54
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (54)
Preprint
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers have tried to balance the effectiveness of lockdowns (or stay-at-home orders) with their potential mental health costs. Yet, two years into the pandemic, we are still lacking solid evidence about the emotional toll of lockdowns. Across two intensive longitudinal datasets with 14,511 observations colle...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social sharing, or talking with others about one’s emotional experiences, is an ever-present part of people’s lives. Lay people think that talking about their emotional experiences with others will improve their understanding of these experiences. However, the idea that expressing one’s emotions helps people to describe their own emotions in a more...
Article
Climate change anxiety is a growing problem for individual well-being the world over. However, psychological interventions to address climate change anxiety may have unintended effects on outcomes other than individual well-being, such as group cohesion and pro-environmental behavior. In order to address these complexities, we outline a multiple ne...
Article
Recent theory conceptualizes emotion regulation as occurring across three stages: (a) identifying the need to regulate, (b) selecting a strategy, and (c) implementing that strategy to modify emotions. Yet, measurement of emotion regulation has not kept pace with these theoretical advances. In particular, widely used global self-report questionnaire...
Preprint
Affective forecasting—how people think they will feel in the future—is theorized to benefit well-being, but there is scarce evidence for this link. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether (1) people can accurately forecast their affect for the next day and week, and (2) whether accurate forecasts benefit well-being. Participants (N = 209) complete...
Preprint
How often do people intend to engage in interpersonal emotion regulation in day-to-day life? Existing literature has focused primarily on asking about the strategies people use to regulate, which means researchers have little understanding of how often people actually aim to engage in regulation to begin with. To answer this foundational question,...
Preprint
Real-world emotions are often more vivid, personally meaningful, and consequential than those evoked in the lab. Therefore, studying emotions in daily life is essential to test theories, discover new phenomena, and understand healthy emotional functioning; in short, to move affective science forward. The past decades have seen a surge of research u...
Preprint
Climate change anxiety is a growing problem for individual well-being the world over. However, psychological interventions to address climate change anxiety may have unintended effects on outcomes other than individual well-being, such as group cohesion and pro-environmental behavior. Reflecting this complexity, we outline a multiple needs framewor...
Preprint
Full-text available
While emotion regulation often happens in the presence of others, little is known about how social context shapes regulatory efforts and outcomes. One key element of the social context is social support. In two experience sampling studies (Ns = 179 and 123), we examined how the use and affective consequences of two fundamentally social emotion regu...
Article
Research has begun to investigate how goals for emotion experience-how people want to feel-influence the selection of emotion regulation strategies to achieve these goals. We make the case that it is not only how people want to feel that affects strategy selection, but also how they want to be seen to feel. Incorporating this expressive dimension d...
Preprint
Research has begun to investigate how goals for emotion experience—how people want to feel—influence the selection of emotion regulation strategies to achieve these goals. We make the case that it is not only how people want to feel that affects strategy selection, but also how they want to be seen to feel. Incorporating this expressive dimension d...
Preprint
Lay wisdom suggests feeling negative in advance of an outcome – anticipatory negative emotion – shields against the blow of bad news. However, evidence is mixed, with different lines of research finding that anticipatory negative emotion is helpful, harmful, or has no effect on emotional outcomes. We set out to reconcile the competing findings by e...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion differentiation refers to the tendency to label emotions in a granular way. While differentiation is an important individual difference in the context of psychological well-being, it is unknown how it fluctuates within individuals. Such a within-person measure is important, since it would allow the study of how changes in differentiation pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emotion differentiation refers to the tendency to label emotions in a granular way. While differentiation is an important individual difference in the context of psychological well-being (Kashdan et al., 2015), it is unknown how it fluctuates within individuals. Such a within-person measure is important, since it would allow the study of how change...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions unfold in the context of social interactions and relationships, where they serve social ends. In this review, we discuss recent research on the social functions served by positive emotions. We identify three functions of positive emotions: intimacy, impression, and influence functions. Intimacy functions refer to the benefits individuals a...
Article
In this paper, we briefly review the large research literature on emotion in social psychology, and show how it is now firmly embedded in language and communication. As a springboard, we look at the history of emotion studies in JLSP. Then, we consider theory and methodology, and evaluate how standard and more recent methods of measurement have led...
Preprint
Emotion regulation researchers often assume that global self-report questionnaires capture momentary emotion regulation processes that occur in everyday life; however, this assumption remains largely untested. To test this assumption, we analyzed data from 10 daily life studies (Total N = 1,198) in which participants reported their use of cognitive...
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Full-text available
The Density Distribution approach to personality characterizes traits using both mean levels and within-person variability of behaviors. Recent theory highlights that emotion regulation (ER) is inherently variable, and this Density Distribution approach seems particularly suitable to understand both average tendencies and dynamics of ER as person-s...
Preprint
Experience and expression are orthogonal emotion dimensions: we do not always show what we feel, nor do we always feel what we show. However, the experience and expression dimensions of emotion are rarely considered simultaneously. We propose a model outlining the intersection of goals for emotion experience and expression. We suggest that these go...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroticism is one of the major traits describing human personality, and a predictor of mental and physical disorders with profound public health significance. Individual differences in emotional variability are thought to reflect the core of neuroticism. However, the empirical relation between emotional variability and neuroticism may be partially...
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In this article we introduce mobileQ, which is a free, open-source platform that our lab has developed to use in experience sampling studies. Experience sampling has several strengths and is becoming more widely conducted, but there are few free software options. To address this gap, mobileQ has freely available servers, a web interface, and an And...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are often categorized as universally adaptive or maladaptive. However, it has recently been proposed that this view is overly simplistic: instead, adaptive ER involves applying strategies variably to meet contextual demands. Using data from four experience-sampling studies (Ns = 70, 95, 200, and 179), we tested th...
Article
Can we experience positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) separately (i.e., affective independence), or do these emotional states represent the mutually exclusive ends of a single bipolar continuum (i.e., affective bipolarity)? Building on previous emotion theories, we propose that the relation between PA and NA is not invariable, but rather fluctua...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce mobileQ, which is a free, open-source software that our lab has developed to use in experience sampling studies. Experience sampling studies have several strengths and are becoming more widely conducted, but there are few free software options. To address this gap, mobileQ has freely available servers, a web interface, an...
Article
Emotion differentiation, which involves experiencing and labeling emotions in a granular way, has been linked with well-being. It has been theorized that differentiating between emotions facilitates effective emotion regulation, but this link has yet to be comprehensively tested. In two experience-sampling studies, we examined how negative emotion...
Article
Recent work suggests that what is harmful about secrecy is not active concealment within social interactions but rather mind wandering to a secret outside of concealment contexts. However, it is not yet clear what predicts mind wandering to and concealing secrets. We proposed that emotional appraisals of shame and guilt for secrecy would predict ho...
Article
Full-text available
In everyday life, people often combine strategies to regulate their emotions. However, to date, most research has investigated emotion regulation strategies as if they occur independently from one another. The current study aims to better understand the sequential interplay between strategies by investigating how reappraisal and rumination interact...
Article
People's relationship between positive and negative affect varies on a continuum from relatively independent to bipolar opposites, with stronger bipolar opposition being termed affective bipolarity. Experiencing more depressive symptoms is associated with increased bipolarity, but the processes underlying this relation are not yet understood. Here,...
Article
Although selecting emotion regulation strategies constitutes means to achieve emotion goals (i.e., desired emotional states), strategy selection and goals have been studied independently. We propose that the strategies people select are often dictated by what they want to feel. We tested the possibility that emotion regulation involves choosing str...
Article
Full-text available
Both older and younger employees experience age-based stereotype threat in the workplace, but only older employees appear to be vulnerable to disengagement as a consequence. The present study examines two mechanisms that might explain this age difference: (1) stress appraisals of challenge and hindrance and (2) rumination. Using a weekly diary stud...
Preprint
Full-text available
People’s relationship between positive and negative affect varies on a continuum from relatively independent to bipolar opposites, with stronger bipolar opposition being termed affective bipolarity. Experiencing more depressive symptoms is associated with increased bipolarity, but the processes underlying this relation are not yet understood. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
Experience and expression are orthogonal emotion dimensions: we do not always show what we feel, nor do we always feel what we show. However, the experience and expression dimensions of emotion are rarely considered simultaneously. We propose a model outlining the intersection of goals for emotion experience and expression. We suggest that these go...
Article
As in many areas of psychological inquiry, context matters for how emotion is experienced, expressed, perceived, and regulated. While this may sound like a truism, emotion research does not always directly theorize, manipulate, or measure emotion with context in mind. To facilitate this process, we present a framework of contextual features that sh...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion differentiation, the ability to make fine-grained distinctions between emotional states, has mainly been studied as a trait. In this research, we examine within-person fluctuations in emotion differentiation and hypothesize that stress is a central factor in predicting these fluctuations. We predict that experiencing stress will result in l...
Article
Research has shown that people who express positive emotion following victory risk appearing unlikeable and inconsiderate. We investigated whether these relational costs might be offset by status benefits, and the processes underlying such benefits. Across eight experiments (N = 1456), we found that winners who expressed positive emotion were perce...
Article
Full-text available
Male employees are a traditionally advantaged group, but when working in a female-dominated industry they may be vulnerable to negative gender stereotypes. The current research examined stereotype threat among men in two traditionally feminine jobs. Study 1 measured stereotype threat among primary school teachers and found that men experienced more...
Article
Full-text available
Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and lay people alike have tended to focus on social benefits of expressing positive emotion and, as a result, tend to overlook potential social costs. In this paper, we consider limits to the idea that expressing positive emotion is universally beneficial and review literature demonstrating that, in some contexts, expressing positive em...
Article
Full-text available
People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outsi...
Article
Full-text available
In their efforts to recruit and retain female employees, organizations often attempt to make their workplaces “family-friendly.” Yet there is little research on how women view family-friendly policies, particularly women who experience gender-based stereotype threat, or the concern of being viewed through the lens of gender stereotypes at work. Pil...
Article
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Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we inve...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that posi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates interest in, and factors associated with, bridge employment and phased retirement. A survey of 609 older employees undertaken in 2010 at a large, diverse organization in Australia revealed that job attitudes were differentially linked to interest in these retirement options, with moderately high levels of interest in working...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter describes six prominent measures of coping that are broken into two categories covering (1) trait coping and (2) state coping. The measures reviewed are The Miller Behavioral Style Scale (Miller, 1987); The Mainz Coping Inventory (Krohne, 1993); The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990, 1994); The COPE Invent...
Article
The emotion regulation literature is growing exponentially, but there is limited understanding of the comparative strengths of emotion regulation strategies in downregulating positive emotional experiences. The present research made the first systematic investigation examining the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reapprais...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes about different groups persist in organizations. Employees from such groups may experience stereotype threat, or the concern that they are being judged on the basis of demeaning stereotypes about groups to which they belong. The goal of this focal article is to discuss whether stereotype threat is a useful construct for organizational p...
Article
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Older adults favor emotionally positive material over emotionally negative material in information processing. Given the potentially harmful consequences of avoiding negative information, this aging positivity effect may provide benefits that offset its costs. To test this possibility, we assessed positivity in recall and blood indicators of immune...
Article
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People who express positive emotion usually have better social outcomes than people who do not, and suppressing the expression of emotions can have interpersonal costs. Nevertheless, social convention suggests that there are situations in which people should suppress the expression of positive emotions, such as when trying to appear humble in victo...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotype threat, or the belief that one may be the target of demeaning stereotypes, leads to acute performance decrements and reduced psychological well-being. The current research examined stereotype threat among older employees, a group that is the target of many negative stereotypes. Study 1 surveyed older workers in two different organization...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the causes and consequences of permanent employees' perceptions that temporary employees are a threat to their job security. Design/methodology/approach – The underlying theme of the current research is that an important reason why temporary employees can disrupt the work environment is that perm...

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