• About
    Introduction
    -associate professor in marketing, consumer behaviour, tourism; - Coordinator of Tourism Studies at University of Aveiro. - research interests: consumer behavior in tourism, rural/ nature tourism, wine tourism, accessible tourism, destination marketing,sustainable tourism - supervisor of 5 master and 12 phd studies - coordinator of a 3-years FCT research project on the "overall rural tourism experience" (http://cms.ua.pt/orte/) - member of GOVCOPP,SPER,DGT
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    Oct 2011
    Associate Professor
    University of Aveiro · Division of Tourism
    Aveiro, Portugal
    Description
    I am working (lecturing and researching) in marketing and tourism, currently being the coordinator of tourism at the Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering (where we have a graduation course, master and phd program in tourism).
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    Projects
    Projects (8)
    Project
    My phd student Luis Sousa is working on the experience lived in airbnb contexts, trying to assess its nature and dimension, as well as implications on destination attachment and loyalty towards the host and the destination. it's co-supervised by Maria de Lourdes de Azevedo Barbosa da UFPE.
    Project
    This is another phd project, by Mariana Cabral, under my supervision and Co-supervision of Maria João Carneiro. It's in the phase of defining the research model, based on an extensive literature review on food tourism and experience co-creation.
    Project
    This phd project developed by Eva Milheiro, under my supervision and that of Maria João Carneiro, yields the understanding of the nature and dynamics of co-creating TER and connected rural destination experiences, from both the hosts' and guests' perspective.
    Research
    Research Items (195)
    The present study had two main objectives: (i) to understand the relationship between tourism and stress-coping for individuals with disabilities, and (ii) to develop an empirical basis for therapeutic purposes and for improving new tourism products and policies, in a biopsychosocial framework. An empirical study was conducted using participants with disabilities (N = 306) who were assessed with the Leisure Coping Scale adapted to the Accessible Tourism context. The positive influence of tourism on these individuals’ biopsychosocial dimensions of stress-coping is identified and discussed. Results suggest that accessible tourism should be recognized as a new stress-coping resource for disabled people, supporting the rebalancing of their personal and social resources, positively contributing to their health and well-being. These findings provide further evidence for the development of new tourism products targeted to a population with special needs, and for accurate policies of alternative therapeutic interventions in the context of their rehabilitation.
    Rural tourism is driven by the search for unique and memorable experiences in particular settings, but knowledge on visitors’ experiences in rural destinations is still scarce. This paper analyzes the rural tourism experience of Portuguese tourists who answered an online survey (N = 252). The paper aims at validating, in the rural tourism context, a previously proposed tourist experience scale, and analyzing the relationships between the experience, arousal, memory, and satisfaction. Results reveal that the rural tourism experience dimensions of education and esthetics positively predict rural tourists’ arousal, whereas escapism and esthetics determine memorability. Finally, implications for rural tourism marketing are discussed.
    Project - Study of needs for access to recreation, leisure and tourism of individuals with disabilities at the municipality of Lousã
    Update
    Tourism destinations are facing intense and increasing competition worldwide, while consumers are ever more demanding, requiring not only service quality but also socially responsible and sustainable destinations. In this context, developing accessible tourism at a destination may help not only gain competitiveness in an underserved, typically most loyal market, but also create a culture and image of social responsibility, valued by a growing number of tourists and thus enhance the development of a shared, human and involving vision of tourism development amongst destination stakeholders. The development of this approach is shown for Lousã, a small tourism destination focusing on accessible tourism as a core of its development strategy, a strategy developed through a stakeholder participatory approach. In order to understand the dynamics of the municipality of Lousã as a potential accessible tourism destination - as well as the needs, motivations and behaviors of tourists with some…
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing actions developed for rural tourism lodgings and the effect of these actions on lodgings’ performance. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected with a questionnaire-based survey, addressing promoters of rural tourism supply in Portugal and were analysed using SPSS. Descriptive analysis was undertaken along with a cluster analysis aimed at identifying groups of suppliers according to the types marketing activities they carried out. Findings: Results show that the majority of the suppliers are engaged in other professional activities, aside from running a tourist lodging. These “other activities” provide the bulk of lodging suppliers’ household income. Moreover, they dedicate very little of their time to managing the tourism lodging and develop few marketing activities. Despite this, there is a small group of lodging suppliers who, even though in minority, show a more entrepreneurial and professional attitude regarding marketing actions. They are correspondingly more successful and more satisfied with the performance of their business. Research limitations/implications: A more qualitative in-depth case study approach with a systematic triangulation of findings from diverse sources and approaches might have permitted an even deeper understanding of some of the results, such as the reasons for the identified passivity of suppliers or their lack of marketing initiatives, as well as possible solutions to overcome these identified barriers. Originality/value: This study is important, as there is little existing work connecting rural tourism and marketing. Apart from providing knowledge from theory, the empirical results indicate from a practical perspective some of the potential benefits of assuming a marketing perspective in rural tourism.
    Tourism implies movement. This study tests the effect of past experience on tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour in the context of urban multi-attraction visitation. Differences between first-time and repeat visitors are examined using global positioning systems technology and a post-visit survey of tourists staying at 10 different hotels in Lisbon. The impact of prior destination experience is assessed regarding intra-destination movements as well as multi-attraction visitation patterns, within a systematic framework in order to assess tourists’ intra-destination spatiotemporal behaviour. Hypothesis testing confirmed destination familiarity as an influential factor of urban tourists’ behaviour in space and time.
    Question - With the issue of seasonal tourism, what strategies can be put in place to combat this and spread tourism out through the year?
    Answer
     An interesting issue, I have supervised a thesis on (António Lopes de Almeida), who did a very sound literature review on the topic identifying distinct factos affecting seasonality (he wrote it in Portuguese and I hope he'll publish it soon in English, too). I also analysed the topic in my rural tourism research and agree to both previous comments that it depends both on the destination specifictity (nature, climate, activities available) and the market (purpose of trip, benefits sought, family lifecycle, age- senior market being more available all year long; families with children more conditioned, institutional constraints- eg.holiday agendas, but also social habits of taking holidays in a certain time of the year), with management of  demand (market-portfolio) as important as management of supply (alternative activities- experience  options). 
    Question - Can you please help me to get information about traditional dyeing silks?
    Answer
    Dear Jorge, 
    an interesting topic, I don't know much about, but I have participated in discussing a phd thesis on the Silk Road, mostly focusing on built heritage, but also historical background, usage and meaning of that Road (although not only dedicated to Silk). It may be an interesting source for context and perhaps the author, from Iran and with links to Portugal (his supervisor was João Sarmento from UMinho), knows people who have studied the field more. He is Mohammad Bagherian Sararoudi.
     and the thesis is ” Built Heritage and Tourism on the Silk Road: Caravanserais in Isfahan, Iran.”
    Good luck!
    O planeamento dos destinos turísticos pode ser interpretado na perspetiva do planeamento do espaço, das políticas que o suportam e dos seus instrumentos. Se pensarmos no caso específico de Portugal, há duas situações territoriais que se destacam e que, por isso, utilizaremos como matriz da nossa reflexão. A primeira destas situações, ou paradigmas territoriais, será a faixa costeira do litoral atlântico, que esteve na génese da grande expansão da procura turística em Portugal e melhor reflete o modelo dominante da nossa oferta turística desde o início do seu desenvolvimento. Em conjunto com algumas cidades, sobretudo Lisboa, os destinos turísticos balneares afirmaram-se como os principais territórios turísticos em Portugal, corporizando um fenómeno com fortes repercussões, por via da pressão do turismo no uso do solo, na estruturação de um território já de si frágil. Aliás, a proximidade do mar tornou-se um ingrediente determinante, mesmo para produtos que não dependeriam deste recurso, como, por exemplo, o golfe ou mesmo o turismo rural. Em contraponto, interessa-nos observar a afirmação do turismo de cidades, com especial manifestação nas áreas urbanas históricas, cujo crescimento tem sido complementar, e eventualmente para mercados distintos, àqueles “destinos de sol e mar”. Sendo a cidade de Lisboa, desde há muito, um dos nossos principais destinos turísticos e apresentando-se também a cidade do Porto como destino city-break cada vez mais apetecível, o reconhecimento que estes territórios patrimoniais vêm merecendo e as dinâmicas induzidas pelo turismo, permitem considerar que estará aqui a emergir uma alternativa àquele modelo, com assinalável potencial. Sem iludir a sua importância, os esforços que o planeamento turístico tem desenvolvido, no sentido de reduzir os efeitos negativos – e aqui relevam os efeitos territoriais e ambientais – associados ao turismo de sol e mar massificado, passam pela aposta em territórios e produtos alternativos. Esta aposta também se justifica na perspetiva das novas abordagens do marketing turístico que se centram na experiência turística distintiva como chave da competitividade dos destinos (Binkhorst & Dekker, 2009; Buhalis, 2000), experiência essa associada tanto a novos espaços como a novas formas de usufruir dos espaços de vocação turística tradicionais. Depois de uma ênfase no turismo em espaço rural, que aqui optamos por não desenvolver, o foco tem-se dirigido para o potencial turístico dos valores do património urbano. Reconhecendo-se que o conceito de destino turístico inclui elementos funcionais e espaciais (Gunn, 2002), centrar-nos-emos nestes últimos, apresentando brevemente as problemáticas que tem defrontado o planeamento territorial do turismo em áreas costeiras e em áreas urbanas históricas em Portugal. Estarão, assim, em causa as estratégias públicas e os instrumentos de gestão que têm enquadrado o desenvolvimento destes dois paradigmas do espaço turístico. Introduzir-se-á ainda uma perspetiva de marketing do destino, na medida em que o sistema turístico inclui e é desenhado em função do próprio viajante, consumidor do espaço e cocriador da sua experiência (Binkhorst & Dekker, 2009), um marketing territorial que pressupõe uma orientação tanto pelo mercado como pelo próprio território, base da experiência turística (Kastenholz, 2006; Middleton & Hawkins, 1998). Na nossa opinião, este aspeto dinâmico da procura e do “consumo” do espaço por parte do mercado turístico, ao qual se associam preocupações ao nível da gestão da mobilidade, dos fluxos turísticos, da localização e concentração de atrações e estabelecimentos turísticos, da capacidade de carga, não pode ser esquecido no âmbito do próprio planeamento físico do território, uma vez que este último condiciona (e poderá otimizar) as dinâmicas do uso do espaço. Esta perspetiva dinâmica de mercado e marketing de destino, ainda num contexto de competitividade face à concorrência global, complementará as reflexões sobre o planeamento territorial, para cada um dos dois tipos de destino aqui analisados em maior pormenor.
    As a result of a well-debated set of transformations, rural areas are increasingly perceived as consumption rather than productive places, mainly associated to leisure and tourism. This paper aims to analyse the heterogeneity of domestic tourism consumption of rural areas. Based on a cluster analysis derived from a sample of the Portuguese population (N = 866) four clusters based on activities carried out in Portuguese rural areas were obtained – The Active Visitors, The Passive Nature Observers, The Inactives and The Summer Family Vacationers. These clusters of domestic market show diversity in the ways rural areas are perceived and consumed. They also differ regarding familiarity with rural areas, travel behaviour and sociodemographic profile. Results reveal the importance of offering different rural tourism products to these groups, thereby improving rural destination management and marketing.
    Project - "The overall rural tourism experience and sustainable development of local communities
    Update
    Carlos Peixeira Marqes
    Abstract|This paper examines the tourism experience lived by visitors in mountain destinations, particularly focusing on the sensory dimension of the tourist experience. This study aims to understand the importance of the five senses in the experience lived by visitors in the Serra da Estrela Natural Park. Primary data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey, answered by 241 visitors of the Serra da Estrela Natural Park, during the summer of 2015. The results of the study suggest that all senses are important, but not all have the same importance in the tourist experience. Resumo | O presente artigo analisa a experiência turística vivida pelos visitantes nos destinos de mon-tanha, focando particularmente a dimensão sensorial da experiencia turística. O objetivo deste artigo é entender a importância dos cinco sentidos na experiência vivida pelos visitantes do Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela. Recolheram-se dados primários, via inquérito por questionário, dirigido a 241 visitantes do Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela, durante o verão de 2015. Os resultados sugerem que todos os sentidos são importantes, mas nem todos têm a mesma importância na experiência turística. Palavras-chave | Turismo de montanha, experiência turística, dimensão sensorial, marketing sensorial, Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela
    Project - "The overall rural tourism experience and sustainable development of local communities
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    Project - "The overall rural tourism experience and sustainable development of local communities
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    Project - "The overall rural tourism experience and sustainable development of local communities
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    Rural tourism is not very new in many parts of the world, but it has recently received increasing attention from researchers, politicians and managers alike. This is mostly due to new market trends, the growing recognition of the “rural crisis” and of the urge to solve it, as well as the belief in the potential of tourism as a development tool for rural areas (Cánoves, Villarino, Priestley, & Blanco, 2004; OECD, 1994; Sharpley, 2002; Wang & Pfister, 2008). As a matter of fact, research concerning “rural tourism” has increased substantially over the past 30 years. A search regarding articles published on the topic, indexed in the Scopus platform (www.scopus.com) (widely used for bibliometric analysis in tourism; see Hall, 2011) shows that in the year 2000 there were about 50 papers published or in press, while numbers have increased since then, reaching 264 in the year of 2014 (Lane & Kastenholz, 2015). This strong interest is related to the many economic opportunities that have been identified, but also to the need to develop new products, new formats for experience, more professional market approaches and cooperative destination-management efforts. These must be based on appealing and distinctive destination resources, in an attempt to adapt to new and changing market needs, in an ever increasing competitive global business context. Investment needs to be carefully planned and successfully managed, and local actors empowered and integrated, so as to enhance sustainable rural destination development (Kastenholz, Carneiro, Marques & Lima, 2012; Lane & Kastenholz, 2015). However, there is also evidence that rural tourism is not a miraculous antidote for the previously mentioned crisis, particularly not in all places and under all circumstances (Ribeiro & Marques, 2002; Sharpley, 2002). Despite some suggestions for critical factors of success for rural tourism in the literature (e.g. Gannon, 1994; Sharpley, 2002; Wilson, Fesenmaier, Fesenmaier & Van Es, 2001), there is still a need for a more thorough understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon and the nature of the tourism experience, lived and conditioned by so many actors and factors, and also of ways to optimise it to the benefit of all, while making the best use of endogenous resources and competences, landscapes, attractions and people, yielding sustainable destination development (Gannon, 1994; Kastenholz, Carneiro, Marques & Lima, 2012; Lane & Kastenholz, 2015; Saxena, Clark, Oliver & Ilbery, 2007). This book contributes to this ongoing debate, focusing on the tourist experience, here conceptualised as “co-created” between hosts and guests, based on destination-specific elements of the “countryside capital” (Garrod, Wornell, & Youel, 2006) and aiming at sustainability (Kastenholz, Carneiro & Marques, 2012). It contains both conceptual and empirical chapters, with diverse and new perspectives, methodological approaches and cases from several countries, developed in three parts: Part I. The Visitor’s view This part focuses on the visitors’ perspective, considering sensorial, spatial, emotional and spiritual experience dimensions, their link to local resources and communities, but also conditioning factors, outcomes and meanings of these experiences and managerial implications, within the new paradigm of experience marketing. Part II. Local actors and communities, local resources and conditions This part highlights experience co-creation with local actors and communities, based on local resources and conditions. Relevant issues are the perspectives and involvement of local actors and communities, the debate on lifestyle entrepreneurs, leadership, social capital and networks, mobilization of endogenous resources, as well as the socio-economic context. The perceptions, attitudes and willingness of local residents to support tourism are also addressed within this part, as they are of fundamental relevance to exploring the relationship between hosts and guests in rural tourism destinations. Part III. Rural tourism and sustainable destination development The final part discusses how far rural tourism experiences may contribute to sustainable development of rural destinations, a debate stressing the complex nature and relevance of integrated and locally controlled tourism development and strategies to make the best use of the endogenous potential for the best of all stakeholders and resources involved, while simultaneously aiming at preservation of scarce and valuable resources. All these parts start with an initial conceptual chapter, reflecting on the nature of the particular rural tourism dimension on which the subsequent chapters focus, and which have been written by several selected authors who presented their studies at the 2013 International Rural Tourism Conference “Re-inventing rural tourism and the rural tourism experience—Conserving, innovating and co-creating for sustainability” (Kastenholz, Eusébio, Cunha, et al., 2013). Authors were invited to develop their papers as chapters of the present book, based on several rounds of reviewing, considering a) the conference reviewers’ comments1 and b) the comments and suggestions made by the coordinators of this book. Rural tourism is not very new in many parts of the world, but it has recently received increasing attention from researchers, politicians and managers alike. This is mostly due to new market trends, the growing recognition of the “rural crisis” and of the urge to solve it, as well as the belief in the potential of tourism as a development tool for rural areas (Cánoves, Villarino, Priestley, & Blanco, 2004; OECD, 1994; Sharpley, 2002; Wang & Pfister, 2008). As a matter of fact, research concerning “rural tourism” has increased substantially over the past 30 years. A search regarding articles published on the topic, indexed in the Scopus platform (www.scopus.com) (widely used for bibliometric analysis in tourism; see Hall, 2011) shows that in the year 2000 there were about 50 papers published or in press, while numbers have increased since then, reaching 264 in the year of 2014 (Lane & Kastenholz, 2015). This strong interest is related to the many economic opportunities that have been identified, but also to the need to develop new products, new formats for experience, more professional market approaches and cooperative destination-management efforts. These must be based on appealing and distinctive destination resources, in an attempt to adapt to new and changing market needs, in an ever increasing competitive global business context. Investment needs to be carefully planned and successfully managed, and local actors empowered and integrated, so as to enhance sustainable rural destination development (Kastenholz, Carneiro, Marques & Lima, 2012; Lane & Kastenholz, 2015). However, there is also evidence that rural tourism is not a miraculous antidote for the previously mentioned crisis, particularly not in all places and under all circumstances (Ribeiro & Marques, 2002; Sharpley, 2002). Despite some suggestions for critical factors of success for rural tourism in the literature (e.g. Gannon, 1994; Sharpley, 2002; Wilson, Fesenmaier, Fesenmaier & Van Es, 2001), there is still a need for a more thorough understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon and the nature of the tourism experience, lived and conditioned by so many actors and factors, and also of ways to optimise it to the benefit of all, while making the best use of endogenous resources and competences, landscapes, attractions and people, yielding sustainable destination development (Gannon, 1994; Kastenholz, Carneiro, Marques & Lima, 2012; Lane & Kastenholz, 2015; Saxena, Clark, Oliver & Ilbery, 2007). This book contributes to this ongoing debate, focusing on the tourist experience, here conceptualised as “co-created” between hosts and guests, based on destination-specific elements of the “countryside capital” (Garrod, Wornell, & Youel, 2006) and aiming at sustainability (Kastenholz, Carneiro & Marques, 2012). It contains both conceptual and empirical chapters, with diverse and new perspectives, methodological approaches and cases from several countries, developed in three parts: Part I. The Visitor’s view This part focuses on the visitors’ perspective, considering sensorial, spatial, emotional and spiritual experience dimensions, their link to local resources and communities, but also conditioning factors, outcomes and meanings of these experiences and managerial implications, within the new paradigm of experience marketing. Part II. Local actors and communities, local resources and conditions This part highlights experience co-creation with local actors and communities, based on local resources and conditions. Relevant issues are the perspectives and involvement of local actors and communities, the debate on lifestyle entrepreneurs, leadership, social capital and networks, mobilization of endogenous resources, as well as the socio-economic context. The perceptions, attitudes and willingness of local residents to support tourism are also addressed within this part, as they are of fundamental relevance to exploring the relationship between hosts and guests in rural tourism destinations. Part III. Rural tourism and sustainable destination development The final part discusses how far rural tourism experiences may contribute to sustainable development of rural destinations, a debate stressing the complex nature and relevance of integrated and locally controlled tourism development and strategies to make the best use of the endogenous potential for the best of all stakeholders and resources involved, while simultaneously aiming at preservation of scarce and valuable resources. All these parts start with an initial conceptual chapter, reflecting on the nature of the particular rural tourism dimension on which the subsequent chapters focus, and which have been written by several selected authors who presented their studies at the 2013 International Rural Tourism Conference “Re-inventing rural tourism and the rural tourism experience—Conserving, innovating and co-creating for sustainability” (Kastenholz, Eusébio, Cunha, et al., 2013). Authors were invited to develop their papers as chapters of the present book, based on several rounds of reviewing, considering a) the conference reviewers’ comments1 and b) the comments and suggestions made by the coordinators of this book. http://www.cambridgescholars.com/meeting-challenges-for-rural-tourism-through-co-creation-of-sustainable-tourist-experiences-
    Rural tourism is frequently considered a development tool for rural areas. In particular, demand for local products may stimulate local economy and is simultaneously an important part of the tourist experience. Little is known, however, of the role of local product purchase within and as a result of the rural tourist experience. The present article addresses this gap by analysing the impact of the tourist experience on (a) the decision to purchase local products and (b) the amount of respective expenditures made, based on survey data on rural tourists in Portugal. Results reveal a positive impact of the knowledge, sensorial and interaction dimensions of the tourist experience in both models, and length of stay, age, place attachment and nationality also play a role.
    This paper suggests a framework for assessing the economic relevance of social tourism programmes for tourism destinations, based on two simultaneous approaches: an analysis of the stakeholders’ perceptions of the economic impacts and a quantitative assessment of the impacts on the national economy. This framework was applied to a Portuguese social tourism programme directed at the senior market. A survey of supply agents (N=220) was carried out to analyse the stakeholders’ perceptions of the Programme impacts. An integrated model, including a senior survey (N=1000) and an input-output model, was used to estimate the total economic impact of the Programme on output, household income, employment and Value-added. The supply agents surveyed perceived considerable positive impacts of the Programme on their companies regarding profitability, employment, occupancy rate in the low season, loyalty and attraction of new consumers. They also perceived important positive impacts on local communities regarding decrease of seasonality, diversification and revitalization of local economy. The quantitative assessment also revealed high total economic impacts (direct, indirect and induced) of the Programme on the national economy. Finally, some suggestions to maximize the economic benefits of social tourism programmes for tourism destinations are presented.
    The senior market has gained increasing interest from the tourism industry, mainly because of its considerable size and time flexibility. However, seniors are also a group facing many constraints to participating in tourism, which has led some countries to promote social tourism programmes for this market. However, little is known about the success of these programmes, while research showing the benefits derived by participants would be useful to continuously improve these initiatives. This paper presents a segmentation analysis of senior participants in a Portuguese social tourism programme, based on benefits derived. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken, yielding a total of 848 valid responses, which were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis. Three clusters emerged: the least benefitted, the most benefitted and active and the highly benefitted and locally socializing seniors. The clusters were compared regarding socio-demographic profile, travel behaviour, satisfaction and loyalty. Several statistically significant differences among the clusters were observable, providing relevant inputs for managing social tourism programmes for this market.
    This paper charts the evolution of rural tourism in the developed world as an alternative tourism form, popular since the 1970s with the market and with policy makers as a rural regeneration and conservation tool. It outlines parallels with the Butler tourism area life cycle: emergence; volume growth, complexity and geographical spread; followed by problems arising from increasing competition, lack of governance and leadership, societal change and technical developments. Research responses to rural tourism's growth and change are examined, analysing 1848 articles published since 2000 by interrogating Scopus to reveal responses by subject category and geographic distribution. The papers in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism’s new rural tourism Special Issue are discussed, noting how researchers have explored the conversion of rural tourism from sightseeing to numerous experiential activities, together with papers discussing governance, leadership, networking, product development and marketing. The paper concludes by calling for the research-led creation of a New Generation Rural Tourism, based on informed destination development and management, better understanding of markets and modern marketing, and professional approaches to holistic and sustainability enhancing management. The formation of an international rural tourism research group to explore, assist and assess New Generation Rural Tourism is suggested.
    Tourism is a social phenomenon and host–guest interaction has been identified as particularly relevant in the rural tourism experience. This paper extends previous research on social interaction, rural tourism and experience marketing, by analysing, via visitor survey (N = 819), the contacts that visitors of three Portuguese villages establish with (a) residents and (b) other visitors during their stay. A cluster analysis based on interaction patterns identifies three distinct visitor groups: those showing little interest in interaction with others, those mainly interacting with other visitors and those intensely interacting with residents. Significant differences between segments reveal distinctly lived rural tourism experiences and a positive impact of socializing on these experiences. Destination management and marketing implications as well as suggestions for future research are also presented.
    Tourism, although a relevant part of the modern lifestyle in economically more developed countries, is even in these countries not accessible to all, with particular barriers existing for persons with disabilities. These barriers are not only physical, but also internal, cultural and social. Tourism and leisure have revealed many benefits for individuals with a disability, enhancing personal development, quality of life, recovery and contribution to social inclusion. This article discusses the potential of tourism for people with disability and presents the results of an exploratory study undertaken in Portugal aiming at a better understanding of this market and its profile, desires and constraints experienced when participating in holidays and leisure activities. This information should contribute to the debate on the potential contributions of tourism to improving social inclusion of persons with disability, while simultaneously permitting tourism providers to better integrate this group in their clientele.
    As a result of a long-term set of transformations, rural areas in many European countries are increasingly being perceived as places for tourism and leisure consumption related activities, mainly by urban dwellers. In Portugal, the urban consumption of the countryside is mainly oriented to remote rural areas, i.e., those neglected by the socioeconomic strategies during the last 60 years, in which production activities (namely agriculture) are no longer relevant. Nowadays these are post-productivist areas seemingly devoted to fulfil urban tourists’ needs, demands and quests for authentic experiences. In fact, many remote Portuguese rural areas are nowadays places in which almost every element of the remaining (sometimes untouched) rurality seems to may be commodified and constituted as an amenity. The progressive commodification of the Portuguese countryside is based (as in other parts of Europe) on very positive and idyllic imaginaries on rurality. Rural areas are frequently perceived as authentic, genuine, offering a vast set of activities and rewarding experiences to the urban visitors. Based on the data analysis from a survey applied to a sample of the Portuguese society (N=1853) this paper aims at understanding the demands and consumptions of the countryside, highlighting the main characteristics, consumption motivations and practices of rural visitors. The evidence gathered demonstrates the positive images of the countryside, often materialized in its perception as a ‘green and pleasant’ environment to rest, to be immersed in nature, to contemplate the landscape and to be in touch with the ‘authentic’ soul of Portuguese culture and traditions.
    Question - What are we talking about when discussing co-creation in tourism?
    Answer
    Dear Shiang-Loong, Thank you for this interesting contribution, many thoughts I share, it's a topic deserving attention from diverse disciplines, but certainly most important in Tourism, where experiences cannot be "delivered" without any (more or less) active participation (and interpretation- meaning giving!) of the tourist him/herself... So, in a way I think, all tourist experiences are co-creative by nature, they may have diverse degrees of activity and/or immersion versus absorption (if we want to follow Pine & Gilmore's conceptualization), may be more or less intense in its diverse dimensions (emotional, cognitive, symbolic, sensorial...) and lead to more or less impact, but still a global framework for the tourist experience (eventually -or not- specialized in diverse experience contexts)  seems to be missing.
    thanks for the reading suggestions! Best Elisabeth  
    Question - How can I tackle the social services in European countries?
    Answer
    Dear Helena,
     well, I am not really expert about social services in Europe, but from what I know from comparing Portugal with Germany, the welfare state is much more developed in the latter and social services have definitely suffered important drawbacks in Portugal (and obviously in Greece) in the past years due to the crisis. In these countries, probably the social networks, families and charity has substituted what I think would be a State responsibility, simply due to missing funds within the public sector.
    In the public services in Portugal, first salaries were cut (and are still not back to the 2008 level), then the staff was drastically reduced, making the remaining staff work harder. Even the weekly work load was increased to 40 hours/ week and several public holidays were eliminated… I wonder how this will pay off on the long run, in terms of health and family conditions of public servants, but also in terms of assistance towards all citizens in need  (and there are always news…
    Question - What are we talking about when discussing co-creation in tourism?
    Answer
    Thanks a lot, Eduardo, for this interesting suggestion! 
    Wind energy is recognized as a relevant alternative and renewable energy source, frequently exploited in rural areas, and potentially competing for land and resources with rural tourism. This study reviews the growing but limited research literature on the interactions between wind farms and rural tourism. Using results from a Portuguese village case study, it presents new and often complex insights regarding the potential impacts of these structures on the tourist experience, giving new understanding of the impact of wind farms on a rural tourism destination from the viewpoint of both visitors and residents who actively participate in experience co-creation and are directly affected by investment in both tourism and wind energy, with comparisons between national and international visitors, and between visitors and residents. Possible managerial actions of universal relevance are discussed, exploring the potential for integrating tourism with wind energy production, including tourism-research-related guidelines for wind farm planners, quality and market-targeted information and interpretation development, and efforts to include wind farms in tourist experience planning such as guided tours and event creation. More research is needed to promote wind farms as “green destinations”, capable of attracting a growing number of environmentally concerned visitors.
    Question - What are we talking about when discussing co-creation in tourism?
    Answer
    Yes, I agree that there are still immense empirical challenges, for both consumer co-creation in general and tourist-experience co-creation in particular. How measure the "tourist experience" itself, and specifically the quality of "co-creation"? What dependent variable should be most useful, and what antecedent or moderating variables considered?  I confess, this is an intriguing field of study. Thank you very much for the most  interesting reading!  
    The way tourists move in space and time is part of their travel experience while at the same time moulding it. In the urban context, tourists usually include multiple attractions on their intra-destination itineraries. Understanding tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour may help improve the quality of their experience as well as provide useful information to the management of attractions and destination. Nevertheless, tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour is a complex phenomenon, influenced by numerous factors related to both destination and tourists. Distance travelled from country of origin has been empirically found as one of these factors influencing tourist spatiotemporal behaviour. Visitors from more distant residential locations invest more time and money in their trip; therefore, variety/multiple benefit seeking, risk and uncertainty reduction and economic rationalization may impact their time-space activity. However, there has been no research examining the impact of distance travelled from country of origin specifically on tourist spatiotemporal behaviour in an urban setting. This article fills this gap both theoretically and empirically, through a dual analysis of a time-space GPS tracking study and a survey, conducted among tourists (n=413) staying at 10 different hotels in Lisbon. Hypothesis testing allowed the identification of statistically significant differences between long-haulers and short-haulers in their spatiotemporal behaviour when visiting this urban destination.
    The way tourists move in space and time is part of their travel experience while at the same time moulding it. In the urban context, tourists usually include multiple attractions on their intra-destination itineraries. Understanding tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour may help improve the quality of their experience as well as provide useful information to the management of attractions and destination. Nevertheless, tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour is a complex phenomenon, influenced by numerous factors related to both destination and tourists. Distance travelled from country of origin has been empirically found as one of these factors influencing tourist spatiotemporal behaviour. Visitors from more distant residential locations invest more time and money in their trip; therefore, variety/multiple benefit seeking, risk and uncertainty reduction and economic rationalization may impact their time-space activity. However, there has been no research examining the impact of distance travelled from country of origin specifically on tourist spatiotemporal behaviour in an urban setting. This article fills this gap both theoretically and empirically, through a dual analysis of a time-space GPS tracking study and a survey, conducted among tourists (n=413) staying at 10 different hotels in Lisbon. Hypothesis testing allowed the identification of statistically significant differences between long-haulers and short-haulers in their spatiotemporal behaviour when visiting this urban destination.
    “Image” may be understood as the way in which the public views products, brands, or companies. In an increasingly competitive business environment a product/brand needs to be recognized and evaluated as appealing before any subsequent purchase and satisfaction can occur. “Image” is hypothesized to impact consumer preference, choice and satisfaction. In fact, image might be more decisive for business success than other “objective” characteristics of an offering (Park et al. 1986). This is particularly true for products which are of high risk, difficult to judge, possess high status value and are of high personal importance to the buyer.
    Using a sample of 600 international tourists travelling in Portugal, Spain and Italy, this study identifies key issues related with terrorism, risk perception, involvement and safety concerns of international tourists. A structural equation model reveals that tourists are motivated to acquire information about terrorism in the media, revealing attention to and interest in news regarding this topic, which in turn influences directly their risk perception. This risk perception influences directly the tourist’s involvement in trip planning, specifically information seeking before and during the trip. Tourists’ risk perception and involvement finally influences their safety concern. Discussion centres on the implications of this model for both theory and tourism management strategies. Last, recommendations are proposed to tourism service and destination managers and promoters regarding ways to deal with terrorism and tourists’ safety concerns.
    This paper addresses the views of the residents of two Portuguese small villages on tourism and tourists. Starting by discussing rural areas as tourism destinations, the paper aims at unveil local perceptions and attitudes regarding the impacts and the benefits of tourism activities in the communities, as well as local views on the interaction processes with tourists. Empirical evidence demonstrates that interaction, although appreciated, is not valued in the same way in the two villages, reflecting diverse stages of tourism development. However, perceptions on the impacts and main beneficiaries of tourism activities are quite similar in the two communities, following the main findings of literature regarding residents’ attitudes towards rural tourism and demonstrating a clear valorisation of the economic and social over the environmental impacts. In the same sense, local residents identify the main beneficiaries of tourism positive economic impacts with the agents related to the supply of tourism activities. http://www.apdr.pt/siteRPER/EN/revistaEN.html
    Special issue on RURAL TOURISM EXPERIENCES of PASOS. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Heritage (ISSN 1695-7121), edited by Elisabeth Kastenholz and Elisabete Figueiredo~ free download here: http://www.pasosonline.org/Publicados/12314/PASOS38.pdf
    The special issue on “Rural tourism experiences” is one outcome of the International Conference on Rural Tourism entitled “Re‑inventing rural tourism and the rural tourism experience ‑ Conserving, innovating and co‑creating for sustainability” that took place in early September 2013 at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The conference was a milestone at the end of a 3-years research project undertaken in 3 Portuguese villages (Favaios, Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira), with the collaboration of 15 researches from 7 distinct Portuguese institutions, 4 research assistants and 5 master students at the University of Aveiro, and one international consultant (Bernard Lane), who critically discussed with us and confronted findings with those from diverse studies in other contexts and parts of the world. (part of the Editorial of Rural Tourism Experiences)
    The topic of sustainable development has become an increasingly popular field of research since the late 1980s, as a result of the report Our Common Future, which suggests the satisfaction of the current generation’s needs without affecting those of future generations. Rural tourism has been identified as potentially contributing to sustainable development, guaranteeing the satisfaction of all stakeholders, both from the demand and supply side, without jeopardizing natural, cultural and social resources. However, there is empirical evidence pointing at a relatively modest role of rural tourism as a development tool, with this potential depending on several factors. It is in this context that the present paper analyses the views of several stakeholders of rural tourism in the Portuguese schist village Janeiro de Cima (visitors, residents, private sector supply agents, and local and regional tourism planning entities), regarding the tourism phenomenon in the village and its implications on sustainable development. These views were obtained through a qualitative approach, interviewing stakeholder groups, in the context of a larger three year research project, financed by FCT, analysing the overall rural tourism experience and its potential for sustainable tourism development at the village scale.
    Rural tourism is frequently considered a development tool for rural areas contributing with an alternative economic activity to combat the agricultural crisis, create jobs and income and stimulate other connected activities. Particularly demand for local products may contribute to stimulating local economy, while simultaneously being an important part of the rural tourism experience sought, contributing to its appeal, meaningfulness and prolonging in time. Little is known, however, on the role of local product purchase within and as a result of the rural tourist experience. Based on a survey of visitors of three Portuguese villages , this study aims at filling this gap by analyzing the impact of the tourist experience on a) the decision of purchasing or not local products and on b) the amount of respective expenditures made.
    In this paper a framework for assessing the economic relevance of a social tourism programme for tourism destinations is developed and tested. In order to accomplish this, two approaches were used simultaneously to assess the economic relevance of a Portuguese social tourism programme for the senior market: (i) an analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions of impacts and (ii) an input-output model to quantify the total economic benefits.
    ALGUNS ESTUDOS REVELAM QUE OS TURISTAS RESIDENCIAIS REGRESSAM COM FREQUÊNCIA E DEMONSTRAM GRANDE CONHECIMENTO, FIDELIZAÇÃO E VALORIZAÇÃO DO DESTINO VISITADO (HALL E MÜLLER, 2004), CONSTITUINDO, ASSIM, UM SEGMENTO DE IMPORTÂNCIA ACRESCIDA PELOS POTENCIAIS IMPACTES QUE PODEM GERAR. O RECONHECIMENTO DESTA IMPORTÂNCIA FOI SALIENTADO, EM PORTUGAL, PELA REFERÊNCIA NO PENT (MEE, 2013) AO TURISMO RESIDENCIAL COMO “PRODUTO DE RELEVÂNCIA ESTRATÉGICA ACRESCIDA”. NESTE CONTEXTO, A PRESENTE COMUNICAÇÃO TEM POR OBJECTIVO ANALISAR O FENÓMENO DO TURISMO RESIDENCIAL EM CONTEXTO RURAL. ATRAVÉS DE RESULTADOS DE UMA ABORDAGEM EXPLORATÓRIA EM DUAS ALDEIAS DO INTERIOR CENTRO DE PORTUGAL, ESTUDA-SE EM CONCRETO E DO PONTO DE VISTA DOS PRÓPRIOS TURISTAS RESIDENCIAIS, QUAL O PERFIL DESTES TURISTAS, QUAL A SUA MOTIVAÇÃO PARA ADQUIRIR UMA SEGUNDA RESIDÊNCIA NO MEIO RURAL E COMO VIVEM A SUA EXPERIÊNCIA TURÍSTICA NAQUELAS ALDEIAS, BEM COMO A SUA PERSPETIVA EM RELAÇÃO AO FENÓMENO TURÍSTICO E OS SEUS IMPACTES NAS ALDEIAS EM QUE ADQUIRIRAM UMA SEGUNDA HABITAÇÃO. PRETENDE-SE UMA REFELXÃO SOBRE O SIGNIFICADO DESTES RESULTADOS, COMPARADOS COM OUTROS SOBRE TURISMO RESIDENCIAL, PARA A COMPREENSÃO DESTE FENÓMENO E PARA POSSÍVEIS IMPLICAÇÕES AO NÍVEL DA GESTÃO E DO MARKETING DOS DESTINOS RURAIS EM CAUSA, APONTANDO-SE AINDA AS LIMITAÇÕES DESTE ESTUDO E ALGUMAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES DE PESQUISA FUTURA
    The way tourists move in space and time is part and at the same time moulds their travel experience. In the urban context, tourists usually include multiple attractions on their intra-destination itineraries. Understanding tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour may help improve their experience quality as well as provide useful information to attractions and destination management. Nevertheless, tourists’ spatiotemporal behaviour is a complex phenomenon, influenced by numerous factors related both to destination and tourists. Distance travelled from country of origin has been empirically found as one of these factors influencing tourist spatiotemporal behaviour (Koo, Wu, & Dwyer, 2012). Visitors from more distant residential locations are investing more time and money into their trip; therefore, variety/multiple benefit seeking, risk and uncertainty reduction and economic rationalization may impact their time-space activity (Tideswell & Faulkner, 1999). However, there has been no research examining the impact of distance travelled from country of origin specifically on tourist spatiotemporal behaviour in an urban setting. This article fills this gap both theoretically and empirically, through a dual analysis of a time-space GPS tracking study and a survey, conducted among tourists (n=413) staying at 10 different hotels in Lisbon. Hypotheses testing allowed identifying statistically significant differences between long-haulers and short-haulers in their spatiotemporal behaviour visiting this urban destination.
    The entrepreneur in small rural tourism businesses, as in other contexts of small businesses in tourism, is characterized by assuming "lifestyle" objectives as the main drive in creating a firm, a fact that is considered relevant when assuming the lack of ambition of these entrepreneurs, their conscious resistance to growth (Hollick and Braun, 2005). However, the entrepreneurial drive can, apparently, be also found in those businesses, where the owners demonstrate economic as well as quality of life concerns. In this paper we explore the entrepreneurial nature of some small scale and lifestyle oriented tourism businesses, located in three villages of North and Central Portugal. The analysis attempts to identify and highlight, along with lifestyle motivations, the entrepreneurial attitudes of entrepreneurs (like opportunity recognition or the willingness to take risks), as well as to analyze whether lifestyle oriented businesses can also be entrepreneurial, and may therefore contribute to enhance local economy as suggested in some previous studies (Komppula, 2004; Shaw and Williams, 2004; Morrison, 2006; Morrison et al., 2007). The paper provides some guidelines to foster entrepreneurship in rural tourism and to maximise the benefits of lifestyle oriented businesses.
    Editorial note (Guest Editors): The special issue on “Rural tourism experiences” is one outcome of the International Conference on Rural Tourism entitled “Re-inventing rural tourism and the rural tourism experience - Conserving, innovating and co-creating for sustainability” that took place in early September 2013 at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The conference was a milestone at the end of a 3-years research project undertaken in 3 Portuguese villages (Favaios, Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira), with the collaboration of 15 researches from 7 distinct Portuguese institutions, 4 research assistants and 5 master students at the University of Aveiro, and one international consultant (Bernard Lane), who critically discussed with us and confronted findings with those from diverse studies in other contexts and parts of the world. The relatively broad interest and active participation in this “home-made”, specifically themed event, not integrated in any large-scale association, network or professional organization of continuously held and internationally acknowledged conferences in the tourism or rural development field, confirms the existence of a dynamic research community addressing rural tourism issues from very distinct perspectives, and analyzing them in quite distinct contexts. After a process of double (sometimes triple) blind reviewing, we were very pleased about the final result, with 168 authors contributing to 80 accepted presentations. At the Conference, 85 authors contributed to the debate with 62 paper and 17 poster presentations, reporting research from 23 countries (book of abstracts available from- http://cms.ua.pt/orte/sites/default/files/book_abstracts_27ago.pdf). Discussions at the conference, together with very interesting keynote presentations (by Bernard Lane, Keith Halfacree, Richard Sharpley, Nancy McGehee, Hio Jung, Apolónia Rodrigues and Elisabeth Kastenholz), were most inspiring and some of the papers were selected for special issues of three journals (Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais and Pasos - Journal of Tourism and Cultural Heritage). A Cambridge Scholars Publishing book with some of the conference contributions, directed at an international audience, is still in preparation. This special issue elaborated for PASOS is based on a selection of papers with a main focus on social, anthropologic and cultural themes, and a particular emphasis on community and sustainability implications of new experience- based tourism production (or rather co-creation) in rural territories, in a context of transformation of the rural space, presenting additionally particular cases from diverse geographical and cultural contexts. Indeed, studies looking at distinct themes, from diverse scientific perspectives, reveal distinct realities in Portugal, Poland, Italy, Australia, Jamaica and Brasil. All authors were invited to present improved and extended versions of their conference papers with a particular reviewing process, undertaken by the co-editors of this issue, aiming at the best possible quality of each paper and a consistent and well integrated combination of contributions rounding up a complex, diverse and challenging field of research, reflection and contesting views. We also asked one of the keynote speakers, Keith Halfacree, to add his view on the changing rural world and its representations as a global point of departure for our discussion and finish this special issue with three book reviews on topics related to the tourist experience and corresponding challenges to rural territories. As far as the full articles of this special issue are concerned, a thematic division is possible with a focus on: a) the context of rural tourism development, from the perspective of the rural areas’ transformations, its main activities and resources, as well as their communities’ and stakeholders’ strategies and initiatives to find alternative and complementary roads of development; b) the market-based perspective, understanding rural tourists’ motivations and new opportunities suggested by experience marketing, particularly in the context of co-creation, sensorial marketing and post-modern consumption patterns and trends.
    Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar el perfil de los agro-turistas y sus motivaciones para el agro - y el turismo rural, desde el punto de vista de los propietarios de los establecimientos de agroturismo en la mitad sur del estado de Río Grande do Sul, en Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en un enfoque del censo de las propiedades de turismo rural en cuatro momentos distintos en el tiempo, entre 1997 y 2011. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los turistas son nacionales, ven para estancias cortas, a pesar de que la superación de distancias de varios cientos de kilómetros, con muchas proyección lealtad a la unidad. Aunque la relajación y escapar de la vida urbana es un motivo principal visible, existe una clara tendencia hacia las motivaciones turísticas más diversificadas, y actividades buscaba, produciendo experiencias relajantes, recreativas, saludables y culturalmente enriquecedores y emocionales turísticos, asociada a las especificidades del territorio visitado y la propiedad de turismo rural.
    Ao longo do século XX, a cultura tem vindo a assumir um papel distintivo na atividade turística, nas áreas rurais, em particular. As tradições, os costumes e a identidade local são recursos endógenos que têm integrado a experiência do rural, procurada por turistas cada vez mais exigentes. Neste artigo procurar-se-á compreender a experiência cultural vivida em Janeiro de Cima, uma aldeia do Interior Centro de Portugal, através das perceções de vários stakeholders do destino, e identificar potencialidades para desenvolver alternativas criativas que possam melhorar a experiência turística rural global. Os resultados demonstram que uma abordagem integrada do desenvolvimento turístico já está a ser implementada, mas ainda há potencial para explorar os recursos culturais existentes visando melhorar a experiência turística nesta aldeia, com todos os grupos entrevistados a reconhecerem o valor atrativo resultante da junção das tradições com a co-criação de experiências.
    Innovation is an important source of competitive advantage, being a key research topic. Some authors consider that tourism entrepreneurs typically show scarce business skills and limited innovativeness. Many studies additionally conclude that accommodation businesses are not particularly innovative. This study intends to demonstrate the opposite. Tourism enterprises rarely have research and development (R&D) departments or resources dedicated to systematically enhance innovation. However, the research and knowledge acquisition process takes place in a complex and informal way. Therefore, beyond presenting and classifying some examples of innovation in tourism, this research aims to highlight the role played by social networks as a source of knowledge acquisition, and specifically online reviews as an important basis for innovation of tourism businesses.
    veja o link: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/11848
    veja link http://hdl.handle.net/10773/11848
    Tourism can be seen as an activity that may contribute to the development of rural areas. In this context, this article aims to analyze scientific studies that have been published on the potential impacts of tourism on the development of rural areas. In order to achieve this objective, searches were carried out in a database of scientific articles (SCOPUS), yielding a total of 123 articles published in the last decade resulting, after filtering out, in 20 articles that were considered relevant to this study. After analysing the articles, we can conclude that: i) the authors are relatively consensual regarding the importance of tourism for the development of rural areas, ii) two main dimensions of analysis emerge in the articles analyzed, namely the impacts of tourism and the perceptions and attitudes of residents regarding tourism in rural areas, iii) quantitative methodologies stand out in the empirical studies developed, especially when analysing the perceptions of residents, with the survey being the most used data collection instrument. The paper concludes with some reflections on research needs in this area.
    O comportamento espácio-temporal dos turistas é um fenómeno complexo, influenciado por inúmeros fatores relativos quer aos turistas quer ao próprio destino. No entanto, conhecer e, até certo ponto, gerir a forma como os turistas se movem no espaço e no tempo é crucial para assegurar a qualidade da sua experiência, bem como a gestão eficaz e sustentável de destinos e atrações. Sobretudo com base em estudos relativos à viagem multidestino, há evidência de que os constrangimentos temporais são um dos fatores mais influentes sobre o itinerário e a atividade espaço-tempo dos turistas. Isto porque, em presença de um orçamento temporal reduzido, o turista tende a querer tirar o máximo partido da sua estada, ampliando a intensidade da visita e a amplitude dos seus movimentos. No contexto urbano, os turistas geralmente incluem várias atrações nos seus itinerários intra-destination, o que faz da cidade o palco por excelência da visita multi-attraction. No entanto, são ainda relativamente poucos os estudos empíricos nesta área em especial no contexto intra-destination. Assim, para além de procurar aprofundar a investigação neste domínio, a presente pesquisa tem como aspeto inovador testar este impacto da duração da estada sobre o comportamento espácio-temporal do turista entendido no seu âmbito global, combinando as suas duas dimensões – ‘movimento’ e ‘multi-attraction’. Com base nos dados recolhidos por inquérito e estudo de rastreamento GPS junto de turistas hospedados em 10 diferentes hotéis na cidade de Lisboa (n = 408), foi possível identificar diferenças estatisticamente significativas com base na duração da estada, confirmando a importância deste impacto sobre o comportamento espácio-temporal dos turistas.
    This chapter focuses on the “overall rural tourism experience”, suggested as a particular and rather complex phenomenon that deserves special attention from researchers in tourism, in an approach that would at best be interdisciplinary in nature. This is the aim of a three years research project, funded by FCT (PTDC/CS-GEO/104894/2008), in which the phenomenon, its nature, dimensions, determinants and consequences, as well as possible way to plan and manage it sustainably, are studied from the perspectives of marketing, in particular consumer behavior research, sociology and social psychology, economics, anthropology, geography, general management and planning. This is done, based on extensive field work in 3 case study villages in North and Central Portugal: Janeiro de Cima (Fundão), Linhares da Beira (Celorico da Beira) and Favaios (Alijó). I first present some conceptual aspects that help understand the “overall rural tourism experience”, based on a selection of literature that has been reviewed extensively in the context of the project. I will privilege the perspective of experience or experiential marketing - however trying to incorporate dimensions of the before mentioned disciplines that need to be integrated to produce relevant inputs for a sustainable rural tourism marketing strategy. I will then briefly present the project in further detail and in the third part of the presentation show some first results from two of the villages analysed, where field work is most advanced: Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira. These results are work in progress and refer to the qualitative data collection, focusing here on the interviews directed at tourists visiting the villages. Finally, some experience and destination marketing implications are suggested.
    Kastenholz, E., 2009, "Turismo", in CCDRC (ed.), Road-Book do projecto MIT - Mobilidade, Inovação e Território. Coimbra: Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional do Centro, pp. 131-175. (ISBN: 978-972-569-157-1).
    Le tourisme peut apporter d’importants bénéfices aux seniors (aînés) en leur offrant des occasions de nouer des liens sociaux, de réduire leur isolement, d’élargir leurs horizons culturels, d’améliorer leur santé et de leur offrir plus souvent l’occasion de se détendre et de profiter de moments agréables. Les seniors représentent en outre un important marché touristique, compte tenu de la taille considérable de ce groupe, de sa croissance et de la propension de ses membres à voyager toute l’année, ce qui pourrait contribuer à réduire la saisonnalité et à promouvoir le développement des destinations. Or, pour de nombreux seniors, le tourisme reste peu accessible. Dans ce contexte, le tourisme social pourrait jouer un rôle important en offrant aux seniors des occasions plus nombreuses de pratiquer des activités touristiques. Le présent document vise à analyser deux programmes de tourisme social mis de l’avant au Portugal par la fondation INATEL et financés par le gouvernement portugais : le Programa Turismo Sénior (programme de tourisme pour les seniors) et le Programa Saúde e Termalismo Sénior (programme de tourisme de santé et balnéaire pour les seniors). L’étude évalue autant les retombées des programmes pour les seniors qui y participent que leurs retombées économiques. Elle révèle ainsi des retombées favorables et pertinentes pour les participants comme pour le développement économique du pays. L’étude, qui, preuves à l’appui, démontre la nécessité de ces programmes, confirme la pertinence de la promotion et du financement de ce type d’initiatives, et souligne le fait que le gouvernement recouvre en grande partie l’investissement consenti à ces programmes, tout en s’acquittant d’une mission sociale fondamentale. Cependant, ce document met également en relief l’importance de l’élaboration de stratégies visant à étendre ces initiatives à une proportion nettement plus grande de seniors et à d’autres destinations touristiques. (full text in English)
    Este capítulo que nos foi pedido que apresentássemos, no âmbito da nossa participação no VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Turismo Rural, em Novembro de 2013 em São Paulo, aborda o tema de "experiência global em turismo rural", enquanto fenómeno particular e complexo que foi estudado, de uma forma multidisciplinar, no contexto de um projeto de investigação de três anos, financiado pela Fundação de Ciência e Tecnologia portuguesa (PTDC/CS-GEO/104894/2008). O projeto tem como título “A experiência global em turismo rural e desenvolvimento sustentável de comunidades locais” (em inglês “The Overall Rural Tourism Experience”, justificando a sigla ORTE). O projeto ORTE procura analisar o fenómeno desta experiência, a sua natureza, dimensões e facetas, condicionantes e consequências, assim como apontar caminhos, com base nessa compreensão, para um desenvolvimento turístico nas comunidades rurais em questão, que possam contribuir para uma mais sustentável evolução do fenómeno, benéfica para todos os intervenientes, sejam eles visitantes ou agentes do destino. O projeto assenta em perspetivas tanto do marketing, em particular de comportamento do consumidor e do marketing estratégico de destinos turísticos, da sociologia, psicologia social, economia, antropologia, geografia, gestão e planeamento e tem sido concretizado, em várias fases, através da revisão de literatura, análise documental e de um extenso trabalho de campo em 3 comunidades rurais, freguesias localizadas no Norte e Centro de Portugal: Janeiro de Cima (Fundão), Linhares da Beira (Celorico da Beira) e Favaios (Alijó). São todas comunidades localizadas no interior, em zonas periféricas do país, economicamente desfavorecidas, à procura de novo estímulo para o desenvolvimento, e que têm apostado estrategicamente no turismo para a sua respetiva dinamização. Assim, foram feitos investimentos públicos de alguma relevância nestas comunidades que integram redes temáticas de aldeias, com vocação turística, refletindo assim a referida aposta estratégica: Janeiro de Cima pertence à Rede das Aldeias do Xisto, Linhares da Beira à Rede das Aldeias Históricas e Favaios à Rede das Aldeias Vinhateiras. Seguidamente traçar-se-á um breve enquadramento conceptual daquilo que se designa de "experiência global em turismo rural", em resultado de uma extensa revisão de literatura, posteriormente apresentar-se-á o projeto ORTE em maior pormenor, e, apontam-se, finalmente, alguns dos resultados das análises dos dados recolhidos nas três comunidades rurais, bem como possíveis implicações desses resultados para estratégias de desenvolvimento sustentável das comunidades estudadas. Como ainda não se conseguiu finalizar a análise de todos os dados recolhidos no âmbito deste estudo, e como também o trabalho de integração de todos os resultados ainda está em curso, exigindo leituras várias e partilhadas de toda a equipa de investigação, o presente capítulo apontará apenas parte das conclusões iniciais e parciais deste projeto abrangente mais focalizadas na perspetiva do marketing de destinos rurais.
    Question
    Question - Can semi-subsistance in developed countries either be linked to aspects of control over food production or to the desire for a rural lifestyle?
    Answer
    Lifestyle entrepreneurship has been frequently associated to the develpment of rural tourism units, either with or without agricultural production, to the "return to nature" movement, a search for a more healthy life and also a nostalgically embellished "rural idyll", with more personalized human contacts, associated to traditional communities, being at the basis of what Keith Halfacree discusses as "counterurbanization", also referred to as "neo-rural" movement of individuals discontent with urban life and choosing an idealized "rural lifestyle".
    Lifestyle entrepreneurship in rural tourism has been discussed by Ateljevic and Doorne (2000) and Komppula (2004) as comprising social and cultural values as success factors along with economic benefits, with maximization of profit generally not being the main objective. Here, a certain type of food production as a statement of concern with health and econolgical sustainability, may be part of this lifestyle, thought by both rural tourism…
    Rural tourism is receiving increasing interest, but not all areas have the same tourism potential, whereas evidence also reveals negative impacts on tourism. It is therefore important to analyse the tourism phenomenon at the local scale and understand a most important dimension of the rural tourism experience – social interaction. This is sought and appreciated, for distinct reasons, by both tourists and local communities, but little is still known about concrete interactions taking place, how these are interpreted, and may become more satisfactory for all involved. These questions are discussed based on results of an in-depth, qualitative approach on rural tourism in two Portuguese villages, comparing perspectives of hosts and guests, as well as of two distinct destination realities.
    Although tourism is recognized as a major industry worldwide, many people do not have access to tourism yet. In order to increase seniors’ access to tourism, some countries have been developing social tourism programmes for this market. However, few studies analyse the relevance and the motivations for participating in these programmes. This paper presents a market segmentation of a Portuguese social tourism programme for seniors based on motivations and a comparison of the resulting segments regarding the following features: socio-demographic profile; travel behaviour; benefits obtained; satisfaction; and loyalty. A questionnaire was applied and 667 valid answers were obtained. A K-means cluster analysis was adopted to segment the market and clusters were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. Three clusters emerged: “the passive seniors”, “the socio-cultural seniors” and “the active seniors”. Several statistically significant differences among the clusters were detected. Results highlight the importance of social tourism programmes for the senior market.
    This study identifies factors determining repeat visitation of cultural tourists, a market particularly motivated by novelty and thus theoretically less loyal to positively experienced destinations. After a conceptual discussion of the potential role of repeat visitation in the cultural tourism context, binary regression analysis, applied to the data collected in a European research project, identifies factors explaining repeat visitation. Differences between domestic and international tourists are also discussed. Results should contribute to a better understanding of the cultural tourist market and to the development of differentiated marketing strategies enhancing repeat visitation within this market.
    O meio rural e natural tem vindo a suscitar um interesse crescente no mercado turístico contemporâneo, atraindo sobretudo residentes de espaços urbanos, ansiosos pelo reencontro com a natureza, com um mundo mais harmonioso, tradicional, calmo e saudável, de relações próximas entre pessoas que vivem, supostamente, numa relação perfeita com a natureza (Figueiredo, 2003; Kastenholz, 2005; Silva, 2009). Existe, efetivamente, um imaginário romanticamente idealizado associado ao rural, mas há também uma diversidade de motivações que levam o turista contemporâneo às áreas rurais e de natureza. Este facto tem suscitado o interesse de investidores, políticos e académicos neste “novo” (ou renovado) produto turístico, por muitos visto como potencial motor de desenvolvimento das áreas rurais, que na Europa se encontram em crise devido ao declínio da atividade agrícola (OCDE, 1994), embora as expectativas face a esse potencial sejam por vezes exageradas (Ribeiro & Marques, 2002). Este capítulo tem por objetivo analisar a natureza e evolução deste produto turístico, sobretudo do ponto de vista do mercado, mas também tendo em conta a especificidade dos territórios, de modo a fornecer, tanto a investigadores como a profissionais do setor, informação relevante e linhas de reflexão pertinentes sobre o potencial deste produto em trazer nova competitividade a espaços estruturalmente desfavorecidos. Mais concretamente, analisa-se o mercado, o seu perfil e comportamento, a experiência procurada e vivida pelos turistas nas áreas rurais e naturais, bem como a sua evolução e tendências observáveis, relevantes para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Procura-se, assim, compreender quais os fatores críticos de sucesso de um produto de turismo rural e de natureza e como poderá ser desenvolvido, perspetivando o desenvolvimento sustentável dos respetivos territórios.
    Tourism is a social phenomenon and social interaction has been identified as a fundamental dimension of the tourist experience, in general (Eusébio & Carneiro, 2012; Pizam et al., 2000; Reisinger & Turner, 1998), particularly valued in rural tourism (Kastenholz & Sparrer; 2009 Tucker, 2003; Kastenholz et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2006). This interaction refers to several socializing contexts, associated with distinct motivations. Most important is the travel party itself, the group of individuals the tourist has chosen to travel with, being the wish of togetherness, of refreshing and deepening existing bonds a most relevant tourist motivation when travelling, but also the sharing of new experiences with friends and family, people one trusts and likes to be with, is an important, reassuring factor decreasing perceived risk and increasing the potential enjoyment of the unfamiliar. Another aspect is the opportunity of getting to know new people, of socializing and bonding with other tourists, eventually permitting the development of new friendships or even more romantic bonds. For some this is a (not always conscious or admitted) reason for travelling, for others it might be an unplanned outcome of a journey. Last, but not least, similar new bonds may arise through the contact with the local population, being those involved in the tourism industry or not. But also, less close relationships, just interesting and pleasant encounters and exchange may occur amongst tourists, as well as between tourists and local residents. According to De Kadt (1979) the personal encounters between visitors and hosts can occur when visitors obtain goods and services, when both use the same tourism facilities and attraction and exchange information and ideas. In rural tourism, it has been argued that an exchange between hosts and guests is frequently sought, due to the tourists’ interest in getting to know something about the “rural way of life”, about the visited place’s culture, in a more “authentic” way, and frequently in a context of familiar rural tourism accommodation units, where the owners sometimes play the role of “cultural brokers” (Kastenholz & Sparrer, 2009; Kastenholz et al, 2013; Tucker, 2003). Hosts of rural tourism destinations play a crucial role in tourist experience providing relevant information (Garrod et al., 2006), influencing, both visitors’ satisfaction and their intention to return (Eusébio & Carneiro, 2012; Kastenholz et al., 2013; Reisinger & Turner, 2003). On the other hand, an overview of previous studies about social contact in tourism reveals that several factors (e.g. travel motivation, type of tourism destination, interpersonal attraction, perceived costs and benefits of the social contact and cultural background of both contact participants) may determine the intensity and nature of encounters both between visitors and hosts and between visitors and other visitors of this destination (Eusébio & Carneiro, 2012). The majority of studies published on the interaction between tourists and hosts focus on the view of residents (e.g. Andereck et al., 2005; McNaugton, 2006; Sinkovics & Penz, 2009). A limited number of studies analyze the social contact in tourism from the viewpoint of tourists (Eusebio & Carneiro, 2012). The present study extends research in two areas. First, the focus of the study is to assess the interactions that visitors have with other visitors and with hosts of the rural tourism destination during their trip. Second, this research presents a segmentation study of rural visitors, based on the type of interaction with hosts and other visitors of rural tourism destinations. The way these socializing experiences are lived, the contexts in which they occur, the kind of relationships developed, all shape the experience lived at the destination and is analyzed in the here presented study in the context of a rural tourism experience, lived in three Portuguese villages (Linhares da Beira, Janeiro de Cima and Favaios).
    Some tourism destinations have powerful symbolic features that exert a strong influence on destination image formation, such as mountain places (Silva, Kastenholz & Abrantes, 2013). Mountains are cultural, natural, social and physical spaces (Robertson & Hull, 2001). But they are also socially, cognitively and emotionally constructed sites (Evernden, 1992; Greider & Garkovich, 1994; Cronon, 1995; Soper, 1995), made up of ideas and perceptions that exist in the minds of individuals and partly shared with others (Robertson & Hull, 2001). Until very recently, tourism studies concerned with mountain places mainly focused on physical, ecological and environmental perspectives (Smethurst, 2000). A perspective of mountain tourism within the corresponding image context is therefore most interesting. Furthermore, residents are an important part of the tourism system, which are many times ignored. Residents have a distinct image of their own place, which could and should be measured and taken into account when promoting mountain tourism (Andriotis, 2005). Therefore, the study aims to analyze, in a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach, residents’ images of mountain destinations. The aim is to develop the RMDI Residents’ Mountain Destination Image Scale - in order to assess a wider set of cognitive and affective mountain destination image parameters. Based on a extensive literature review on destination image (125 studies) and on social and cultural meanings of mountains overtime, the conceptual model was developed integrating seven destination image dimensions regarding mountain places: (1) Mystique/ Sacred, (2) Natural/ Ecological, (3) Historic-Cultural, (4) Social and Prestige, (5) Sport and Leisure, (6) Facilities and Infrastructures, and (7) Affective.
    The online travel market shows a considerable size and a continuing growth is predicted for the next years. With the development of web platforms, tourists are even more interested in booking hotels on the internet. Moreover, the number of customers who prefer and trust in sites with amateur reviews is increasing. This new digital form of word-of-mouth is becoming a key topic for researchers. However, despite an already significant body of literature on e-marketing, there is a lack of research that analyses the relationship between e-WOM and e-satisfaction, in the context of the tourism industry. In an e-commerce perspective, customer satisfaction is an important business concern. Therefore we will present a comprehensive model that incorporates antecedents of e-satisfaction and its implications regarding the e-WOM activity, using a website based approach in the context of online hotel reservations. This model is expected to contribute to both the academic debate on the factors driving success of e-marketing in tourism as well as to its corresponding implications for practitioners in the hotel industry.
    The present article analyses patterns of seasonal tourist consumption, based on data collected in the Minho region, a rural region situated in the Northeast of Portugal. The study aims at identifying and discussing main differences regarding socio-demographic profile and tourist behavior between tourists visiting the region in the high, medium and low season. Results permit a further discussion of implications on destination management and marketing. More specifically, the understanding of these differences, considering the existing resources, constraints and potentialities of the destination, shall help develop strategies yielding the diversification of demand, creating conditions for attracting, satisfying and possibly ensuring loyalty of different tourist types in different seasons of the year (Jeffrey & Barden, 2001). That is, the here discussed results should help strategically manage demand yielding sustainable destination development (Kastenholz, 2004).
    Wind energy is recognized as an increasingly relevant alternative, renewable energy source, frequently exploited in rural areas, and eventually competing for land and resources with rural tourism, which is oftentimes acclaimed as an important driver of rural development. Compatibility of or eventual conflicts between both activities are here analyzed from the point of view of stakeholders with an interest in a particular village and its resources. Specifically, results from a case study approach in the Portuguese village Linhares da Beira are presented, particularly considering the views of tourists, residents and local agents of development and supply. We try to understand the potential of integrating tourism with wind energy exploitation, yielding the best possible and sustainable use of existing natural resources. The results of this exploratory qualitative study, the first on this theme in Portugal, suggest that wind farms seem to be perceived as neutral elements in the rural destination context studied, with the influence on the visitors’ tourist experience apparently depending on the scale of exploitation. Additionally, differences of view between visitors and residents are visible, as well as between domestic and international visitors. Implications for rural destination management are finally discussed.
    This paper addresses the views of the residents of two Portuguese small villages on tourism and tourists. Starting by discussing rural areas as tourism destinations, the paper aims at unveil local perceptions and attitudes regarding the impacts and the benefits of tourism activities in the communities, as well as local views on the interaction processes with tourists. Empirical evidence demonstrates that interaction, although appreciated, is not valued in the same way in the two villages, reflecting diverse stages of tourism development. However, perceptions on the impacts and benefits of tourism activities are quite similar in the two communities, following the main findings of literature regarding residents’ attitudes towards rural tourism and demonstrating a clear valorisation of the economic and social over the environmental impacts. In the same sense, local residents identify the main beneficiaries of tourism positive economic impacts with the agents related to the supply of tourism activities.
    This article aims to assess the profile of agro-tourists and their motivations for agro- and rural tourism, from the point of view of the owners of agro-tourism establishments in the Southern Half of the state Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. Data was collected from 9 rural properties in 1997/1998, 43 in 2002/2003, 52 in 2005/2006, and 70 in 2011, corresponding to a census of the rural properties in four distinct moments in the 15 years period. Results show that most tourists stay for one or two nights, come back twice a year, and seek relaxing, recreational, healthy, culturally enriching and emotional tourist experiences.
    The topic of sustainable development has become an increasingly popular field of research since the late 1980s, as a result of the report Our Common Future, which suggests the satisfaction of the current generation’s needs without affecting those of future generations. Rural tourism has been identified as potentially contributing to sustainable development, guaranteeing the satisfaction of all stakeholders, both from the demand and supply side, without jeopardizing natural, cultural and social resources. However, there is empirical evidence pointing at a relatively modest role of rural tourism as a development tool, with this potential depending on several factors. It is in this context that the present paper analyses the views of several stakeholders of rural tourism in the Portuguese schist village Janeiro de Cima (tourists, residents, private sector supply agents, and local and regional tourism planning entities), regarding the tourism phenomenon in the village and its implications on sustainable development. These views were obtained through a qualitative approach, interviewing stakeholder groups, in the context of a larger information concealed due to confidentiality issues research project, information concealed due to confidentiality issues rural tourism experience and its potential for sustainable tourism development at the village scale .
    All over the 20th century, culture has progressively assumed a distinctive role in tourism, also and particularly in rural areas. Traditions, customs and local identity are endogenous resources that have become part of the tourism experience sought by ever more demanding rural tourists. Creativity is seen as a promising concept in reshaping traditional culture through reinventing the past and reinforcing the attractiveness of the present rural cultural tourism resources. This paper tries to understand the cultural experience lived in Janeiro de Cima, a village in Central Portugal, through the perceptions of all stakeholders involved, and to identify potential for developing creative alternatives that may improve the overall rural tourism experience by enhancing its co-creative cultural dimension. A brief theoretical reflection on cultural and creative tourism and the particularity of the rural context helped structure a case study approach, which involved documentary analysis, field observation, and interviews with all experience stakeholders. Results show that an integrative approach in tourism development has already been implemented, but there is still potential to explore existing cultural resources to improve the tourist experience offered by this village, with all groups interviewed recognizing the mix between traditions and innovative co-creation as an attraction value.
    Scientific literature has dedicated increasing attention to the impacts of tourism development, since the tourism industry inevitably leads to both benefits and negative consequences, with large impact on destination communities. Particularly in mountain areas tourism is known to trigger a series of social, cultural, ecological and economic changes, which are much of the times irreversible. These impacts and the stakeholders’ perception of them should be assessed for improved impact management and stakeholder sensitization. The study aims at the construction of scales assessing the perception of the impacts of tourism development in mountain areas, based on a study undertaken at European mountain destinations. More specifically, empirical data was collected via survey, applied to 315 tourists and 315 residents in the Austrian Alps, the Spanish Picos da Europa and the Portuguese Serra da Estrela. The development of this instrument may contribute to an improved understanding of tourists’ and residents’ sensitivity towards impacts of the tourism activity and thereby to the development of means for sensitising visitors and residents at rural and nature destinations, as well as to strategies aiming at the minimization of negative and optimization of positive impacts. Additionally, limitations of the study are presented as well as guidelines for future research.
    If rural tourism has been addressed as one of the means that can lead to the sustainable development of rural territories, it is argued that its success depends on the way that the respective tourist enterprises are run. The present study analyses the marketing actions developed in rural tourism accommodation units and their effects on these unit´s performance as well as on the rural territories as a whole. The sample is formed by promoters of TER (Turismo no Espaço Rural) units in two rural regions in the country´s hinterland. Results show that the majority of the promoters dedicate little of their time managing the TER unit and develop only few marketing actions. Specifically the study of tourist market, being central to the success of both the unit and the territory, is generally neglected by promoters. They also tend to devalue the marketing-mix tools available as well as potential joint marketing approaches in network structures, which could help the activity become more successful. This fact is reflected in low bed occupancy rates of rural accommodation units and by a weak contribution to local rural development.
    Rural tourism is not so new, neither in Portugal, nor in many European countries, although it has different roots, traditions and manifestations in distinct countries and has definitely received increasing attention in the past decades from researchers, politicians and managers, alike, mostly associated to both new market trends and the recognition of the “rural crisis” and the urge to solve it. However, despite this increasing interest, there is also evidence that rural tourism is not a miraculous antidote for the rural crisis, particularly not in all places and all conditions. Several suggestions have been made concerning critical factors of success for rural tourism, such as “a critical mass” of tourism attractions and facilities, presence of dynamic entrepreneurs, public support, networking at the destination level to overcome the limits of small scale and business fragmentation, integration of endogenous resources and local communities, networks connecting rural destinations and urban tourism generating regions, but there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon, its dynamics, drivers, potentials and inhibitors of success, at a macro and micro level. It is particularly the micro-level, more specifically the experience level, as lived, shared and co-created by tourists and locals in three Portuguese villages that attracted our attention in the ORTE project (official title: The Overall Rural Tourism Experience and sustainable local community development): Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira in the Central Region and Favaios in the Northern Region. All three have been subject to public intervention aiming at their physical restoration and heritage conservation, simultaneously yielding increased tourism attractiveness, supported by the development of network structures (Janeiro within the Schist Villages Network; Linhares in the Network of Historical Villages of Portugal and Favaios within the Network of Wine Producing Villages). This project, analyzing the nature and dynamics of the rural tourism experience in the villages and its potential for inducing sustainable development, derives most of its results from primary data collection in the villages, mainly from field observation, interviews and surveys directed at all stakeholder groups involved in co-creating this experience (local actors as well as tourists) and finally from session where results were discussed with local actors. Based on the assumption that the tourist experience is the core of tourist attraction, satisfaction and retention, with its uniqueness and distinctiveness from other tourist experiences being essential for destination competitiveness, we understand that this experience is lived and co-created by several agents, not all of whom involved in a commercial transaction or relation, with the experience clearly surpassing the commercial dimension. We understand the relevance of social exchange in the rural tourism context, both for visitors and locals and had the opportunity to confirm this with primary data from the villages. We also encountered an interesting discourse regarding the visitors´ sensorial experience, revealing a vivid imagery and involvement of all senses, likely to mark the experiences retained and later shared with significant others, shaping future tourist expectations. Many discourses mirror the symbols and images of a rather “global rural” or the frequently quoted “rural idyll”, although also locality- and experience-specific elements stand out. These images are naturally also (pre-) shaped by promotional material available on each destination, its networks and the global, predominantly urban discourse on “the countryside”. From the locals’ point of view, a globally positive attitude towards tourism and tourists is evident, particularly where locals more actively engage in co-creating tourist experiences, although in a rather informal manner. It is interesting to note that locals recognize that tourism economic impacts are not too impressive and tend to only benefit a few (those directly involved in tourism service provision), but they also perceive that tourism is one possible way (according to some, the most important) of stimulating development and retaining inhabitants in these small, somehow abandoned, hinterland localities. Agents of supply, agents of planning and development and local communities all agree, however, that the existing potential might be better used, particularly by setting into value concrete assets of their “countryside capital”. Locals typically refer to agriculture products and local gastronomy, which are, indeed, sought and appreciated by visitors, but more intangible elements of the rural context, way of life and history also seem to be underexplored and could be successfully integrated in more significant, innovative and distinctive co-created tourist experiences. For this purpose, know-how still seems to be lacking as does a strong, common vision, and actively participated and well led, collaborative effort in designing and implementing appealing village experiences. The pre-existing networks the villages take part in are important tools for enhancing the villages’ visibility, but still need to stimulate local capacities to prepare successful co-creative experience designs. This understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon, its conditions and potentialities, became evident in the interviews and surveys directed at tourist, local agents and residents, and also in the sessions of presentation of the project´s preliminary results in the three villages. Fortunately, these sessions were quite participative and we are still working on the integration of all results, comments, critiques and ideas to prepare several recommendations and specific suggestions for initiatives to improve the tourist experience lived by all stakeholders and meant to benefit sustainable community development through attractive and distinct, village-specific tourist experiences. In this keynote speech, I will first present the objectives, scope and assumptions of the ORTE project, then briefly introduce the villages and their context and finally discuss some of the results regarding the nature and dynamics of the rural tourism experience lived in the villages, in an attempt to integrate results from distinct sources and approaches, regarding diverse stakeholders, and comparing with findings from other studies. Last, but not least, I will outline some possible ways of action to enhance sustainable destination development in the villages. I could not present this speech without the continuous effort of several researchers, research assistants and master students who are integrated in the project team and have assisted in developing the conceptual framework, in designing the research instruments, in collecting, analyzing and interpreting primary data, which we are still integrating, looking at results from diverse angles, making this project so rich, fascinating and ambitious. I also could not present this speech nor could we present any meaningful results without the active and generous participation of all respondents, particularly of local actors in the villages, helping us with their time and effort to obtain valid data and I hope we may compensate with results and ideas that may help them on their way to a more successful and sustainable tourism development, apparently desired by these local communities. We are aware of some limitations of this project and of the difficulty of its full implementation, as we are of the need to deepen some of the just initiated approaches. We, finally, recognize the great opportunity of sharing our results (some of which in greater detail in specific presentations along this conference) and ideas with other researchers from diverse geographical, political, economic and social contexts and hope that this is just the beginning of new, interdisciplinary, possibly international research projects in the field of rural tourism, ideally contributing to innovative and sustainable rural development in different places. Rural tourism is not so new, neither in Portugal, nor in many European countries, although it has different roots, traditions and manifestations in distinct countries and has definitely received increasing attention in the past decades from researchers, politicians and managers, alike, mostly associated to both new market trends and the recognition of the “rural crisis” and the urge to solve it. However, despite this increasing interest, there is also evidence that rural tourism is not a miraculous antidote for the rural crisis, particularly not in all places and all conditions. Several suggestions have been made concerning critical factors of success for rural tourism, such as “a critical mass” of tourism attractions and facilities, presence of dynamic entrepreneurs, public support, networking at the destination level to overcome the limits of small scale and business fragmentation, integration of endogenous resources and local communities, networks connecting rural destinations and urban tourism generating regions, but there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon, its dynamics, drivers, potentials and inhibitors of success, at a macro and micro level. It is particularly the micro-level, more specifically the experience level, as lived, shared and co-created by tourists and locals in three Portuguese villages that attracted our attention in the ORTE project (official title: The Overall Rural Tourism Experience and sustainable local community development): Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira in the Central Region and Favaios in the Northern Region. All three have been subject to public intervention aiming at their physical restoration and heritage conservation, simultaneously yielding increased tourism attractiveness, supported by the development of network structures (Janeiro within the Schist Villages Network; Linhares in the Network of Historical Villages of Portugal and Favaios within the Network of Wine Producing Villages). This project, analyzing the nature and dynamics of the rural tourism experience in the villages and its potential for inducing sustainable development, derives most of its results from primary data collection in the villages, mainly from field observation, interviews and surveys directed at all stakeholder groups involved in co-creating this experience (local actors as well as tourists) and finally from session where results were discussed with local actors. Based on the assumption that the tourist experience is the core of tourist attraction, satisfaction and retention, with its uniqueness and distinctiveness from other tourist experiences being essential for destination competitiveness, we understand that this experience is lived and co-created by several agents, not all of whom involved in a commercial transaction or relation, with the experience clearly surpassing the commercial dimension. We understand the relevance of social exchange in the rural tourism context, both for visitors and locals and had the opportunity to confirm this with primary data from the villages. We also encountered an interesting discourse regarding the visitors´ sensorial experience, revealing a vivid imagery and involvement of all senses, likely to mark the experiences retained and later shared with significant others, shaping future tourist expectations. Many discourses mirror the symbols and images of a rather “global rural” or the frequently quoted “rural idyll”, although also locality- and experience-specific elements stand out. These images are naturally also (pre-) shaped by promotional material available on each destination, its networks and the global, predominantly urban discourse on “the countryside”. From the locals’ point of view, a globally positive attitude towards tourism and tourists is evident, particularly where locals more actively engage in co-creating tourist experiences, although in a rather informal manner. It is interesting to note that locals recognize that tourism economic impacts are not too impressive and tend to only benefit a few (those directly involved in tourism service provision), but they also perceive that tourism is one possible way (according to some, the most important) of stimulating development and retaining inhabitants in these small, somehow abandoned, hinterland localities. Agents of supply, agents of planning and development and local communities all agree, however, that the existing potential might be better used, particularly by setting into value concrete assets of their “countryside capital”. Locals typically refer to agriculture products and local gastronomy, which are, indeed, sought and appreciated by visitors, but more intangible elements of the rural context, way of life and history also seem to be underexplored and could be successfully integrated in more significant, innovative and distinctive co-created tourist experiences. For this purpose, know-how still seems to be lacking as does a strong, common vision, and actively participated and well led, collaborative effort in designing and implementing appealing village experiences. The pre-existing networks the villages take part in are important tools for enhancing the villages’ visibility, but still need to stimulate local capacities to prepare successful co-creative experience designs. This understanding of the rural tourism phenomenon, its conditions and potentialities, became evident in the interviews and surveys directed at tourist, local agents and residents, and also in the sessions of presentation of the project´s preliminary results in the three villages. Fortunately, these sessions were quite participative and we are still working on the integration of all results, comments, critiques and ideas to prepare several recommendations and specific suggestions for initiatives to improve the tourist experience lived by all stakeholders and meant to benefit sustainable community development through attractive and distinct, village-specific tourist experiences. In this keynote speech, I will first present the objectives, scope and assumptions of the ORTE project, then briefly introduce the villages and their context and finally discuss some of the results regarding the nature and dynamics of the rural tourism experience lived in the villages, in an attempt to integrate results from distinct sources and approaches, regarding diverse stakeholders, and comparing with findings from other studies. Last, but not least, I will outline some possible ways of action to enhance sustainable destination development in the villages. I could not present this speech without the continuous effort of several researchers, research assistants and master students who are integrated in the project team and have assisted in developing the conceptual framework, in designing the research instruments, in collecting, analyzing and interpreting primary data, which we are still integrating, looking at results from diverse angles, making this project so rich, fascinating and ambitious. I also could not present this speech nor could we present any meaningful results without the active and generous participation of all respondents, particularly of local actors in the villages, helping us with their time and effort to obtain valid data and I hope we may compensate with results and ideas that may help them on their way to a more successful and sustainable tourism development, apparently desired by these local communities. We are aware of some limitations of this project and of the difficulty of its full implementation, as we are of the need to deepen some of the just initiated approaches. We, finally, recognize the great opportunity of sharing our results (some of which in greater detail in specific presentations along this conference) and ideas with other researchers from diverse geographical, political, economic and social contexts and hope that this is just the beginning of new, interdisciplinary, possibly international research projects in the field of rural tourism, ideally contributing to innovative and sustainable rural development in different places.
    The entrepreneur in small rural tourism businesses, as in other contexts of small businesses in tourism, is characterized by assuming "lifestyle" objectives as the main drive in creating a firm, a fact that is considered relevant when assuming the lack of ambition of these entrepreneurs, their conscious constraint of growth and reluctance to employ staff outside the family (Hollick and Braun, 2005). However, the entrepreneurial drive can, apparently, be also found in those businesses, where the owners demonstrate economic as well as quality of life concerns. In this paper we explore the entrepreneurial nature of some small scale and lifestyle oriented tourism businesses, located in three villages of North and Central Portugal. The analysis attempts to find, along with lifestyle characteristics, the entrepreneurial traits or attitudes at a firm level (like opportunity recognition or the willingness to take risks), so as to analyze whether the lifestyle oriented businesses can also be entrepreneurial, and may therefore contribute to local economy and development.
    This book contains the abstracts of all papers presented at the ORTE Conference 2013 and also the programme of the Conference.
    A relevância da colaboração em rede para fomentar a competitividade e sustentabilidade dos destinos turísticos é, hoje em dia, reconhecida pela maior parte dos estudiosos da gestão e do planeamento em turismo. Contudo, a colaboração transfronteiriça, embora incentivada pelas políticas de coesão da Comunidade Europeia, coloca desafios particulares que foram analisados no âmbito do aqui apresentado projecto “MIT - Mobilidade, Inovação e Território” que visou suscitar dinâmicas de desenvolvimento conjunto das regiões Centro de Portugal e Castilla y León. Alguns dos resultados deste projecto, na área de Turismo, estão aqui resumidamente apresentados, após uma breve reflexão sobre a pertinência das redes em turismo. Serão, assim, apontadas as áreas de atuação que foram identificadas como tendo maior potencial para uma colaboração entre parceiros das duas regiões, bem como algumas sugestões de potenciais iniciativas concretas que resultaram de várias análises e, sobretudo, da auscultação de um vasto conjunto de atores do território. Finalmente refletir-se-á sobre o ponto de situação atual, passados alguns anos do diagnóstico prospetivo.
    The countryside is currently undergoing a transition from a primarily agricultural identity to a rural one. As part of this, the role of rural tourism is growing, and is increasingly discussed in the context of the current debate about applying conventional marketing theory to special interest tourism, This paper presents an alternative tourism concept, combining two different consumer behavioural theories, the ‘experience economy’ and the ‘intimacy’ theory. Given the link between local food and sustainable rural tourism, the paper presents a range of case-studies related to the consumption of food specialities by tourists in different geographical and cultural contexts. It argues that traditional local food can be successfully promoted in tourist businesses by marketing strategies based on the above-mentioned theories. The paper concludes by suggesting a range of considerations for future research or for policy-makers, planners and entrepreneurs who wish to enhance rural tourism and economic, cultural, environmental sustainability in their regional development models.
    Rural territories all over Europe are gradually losing their traditional productive function, rendering themselves a new terrain for the urban populations’ recreational and aesthetic needs and desires, transforming themselves into places of hedonic consumption. Particularly in remote or marginal rural areas, these ‘consuming idylls’ (Halfacree, 2006: 57) are gaining expression and consumption-oriented practices, particularly related to leisure and tourism, are taking over production-oriented activities, contributing to reconfiguration processes and to a recreated rurality. These processes also imply the redefinition and meaning of the rural, especially of the rural ‘in the minds’ of its inhabitants as well as of those who increasingly seem to define its destiny: the urban dwellers. These changes occur in a context of increasingly dynamic and far-reaching global relations, which make even the most remote European village a potential spot of interest and interaction with a particular type of ‘urban species’: the rural tourist who frequently lives in metropolitan areas but dreams with the ‘lost rural paradise’. Central elements in this paradise and at the core of its increasing consumption practices seem to be the environmental and natural perceived qualities of rural areas, their supposedly traditional and authentic cultural features, the idealized rural way of life, portraying the rural from a pastoralist perspective, therefore based on strongly positive images and feelings about the countryside. These images and feelings seem to be increasingly hegemonic and global, due to the diffusion or certain symbols and signs of rurality which seem ever detached from the materiality of rural territories. Rural populations themselves have progressively adopted these images and, to a certain extent, commodified the manifestations of the rural and rurality, apparently in quest of alternative sources of income, but certainly as ‘mirror images’ of urban perceptions. Therefore, signs and symbols of authenticity are (re)created and staged in a discourse of a rather romantic and pastoral tourism ideal, in a context of tensions between global and local, representations of the past and demands of the present. However, conflicts may arise, since urban populations confer to rural territories a meaning that is frequently not in accordance with the representations and practices of the local people even if these partially adapt to this new conceptualization of the rural to create another economic avenue for survival. This chapter aims to debate all the above mentioned aspects, based on the analysis of the visions held by both residents and visitors of two small Portuguese villages – Janeiro de Cima and Linhares da Beira, assessed using a case-study approach and semi-structured interviews. These visions reflect distinct interests, prior experiences, meanings associated to the territory and to rurality and, naturally, imply distinct behaviours regarding rural areas, those living there and those visiting it. At the same time, however, some similarities between residents and visitors are evidenced, suggesting the globalization of the social meanings and representations of rurality as well as the commodification of the rural based on urban desires adopted and, to a certain extent, materialized by rural residents.
    The social web is the ideal place to share information, experiences and preferences among consumers. Nowadays, online reviews and recommendations are becoming increasingly important and seen as a new digital form of word-of-mouth, a key topic for researchers. Despite the significant body of literature about electronic word-of-mouth (EWOM), there is a lack of research that analyzes the phenomenon in the context of the hospitality industry, its drivers, conditioning factors and impacts. This research aims to highlight the online reviews as a reliable and important source of information for travellers, with possible implications in their decision making process. It is expected to yield some relevant contributions to academia, marketing and management in the tourism and hotel businesses.
    Travel decision making of international tourists has, over the past decade, been significantly affected by external events, such as the fear of pandemics and terrorist attacks. Yet, little attention has been paid to heterogeneity among tourists with respect to risk perceptions. The question whether some segments are less sensitive to external risks and thus more attractive to the tourism industry in times of crises remains largely unanswered. We contribute to knowledge in this field by conducting the first data-driven segmentation study investigating whether heterogeneity exists in the tourist population with respect to perceived risks of international travel and if so, whether market segments with different risk perception patterns are distinct also with respect to other behavioral and personal characteristics, particularly nationality as a proxy for “cultural background”, here analyzed in light of Hofstede’s (1983) model. Practical implications are also discussed.
    All over Europe, rural territories are gradually losing their traditional productive function and try to find new ways of stimulating their development, with tourism becoming an increasingly important alternative activity. Tourists’ continuous quest for new and diverse experiences in distinct contexts increases these territories’ potential as tourism destinations. The present paper tries to contribute to a better understanding of the rural tourism experience as lived and co-created by tourists, residents and agents of supply and development in a village in Central Portugal – Janeiro de Cima. Specific elements of the tourism experience in the village are identified, as well as the way this experience is perceived and conditioned by diverse destination stakeholders. Conceptually relevant issues of tourist experience marketing and the particularity of the rural tourism experience emerged from the literature review, helping to structure a case study approach, which involved, apart from documentary analysis and field observation, interviews with planning agents, agents of supply, residents and visitors. Results reveal common themes of the idealized rural tourism experience, but also distinct perspectives, raising issues that might help improve the overall experience for all involved, simultaneously enhancing sustainable rural tourism development.
    Tourism mountain destinations are places with powerful symbolic features that exert strong influence on destination image formation. They are particularly apt to create strong links with the people who visit them. Additionally, mountains are nature spaces that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of tourism development, more or less visible to visitors. The present study analyzes, in a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach, the relation between perceptions of tourism impacts, tourists’ destination image and their place-attachment regarding mountain destinations. Based on data collected in a survey of 315 tourists visiting three European mountain areas - Peaks of Europe (Spain), the Alps (France, Austria and Switzerland) and Serra da Estrela (Portugal), the relationship between these variables was analyzed, using structural equation modelling. The structural model reveals that tourists’ perceptions towards tourism development in mountain destinations affect their cognitive and affective destination images as well as tourists’ place-attachment. Discussion centres on the implications of this model on both theory and mountain destination management. Additionally, limitations of the study are presented and guidelines for future research proposed.
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