Elisabeth S Bakker

Elisabeth S Bakker
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) | NIOO-KNAW · Aquatic Ecology

Dr.

About

136
Publications
47,763
Reads
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5,257
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2005 - present
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
Full-text available
Ecological models predict that the effects of mammalian herbivore exclusion on plant diversity depend on resource availability and plant exposure to ungulate grazing over evolutionary time. Using an experiment replicated in 57 grasslands on six continents, with contrasting evolutionary history of grazing, we tested how resources (mean annual precip...
Article
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Many angiosperms rely on vertebrates for seed dispersal via gut passage, an interaction that has been traditionally classified as a mutualism. The seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) framework provides a mechanistic approach to evaluate evolutionary and ecological characteristics of animal‐mediated seed dispersal, by synthesising the quantity and th...
Article
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Wind‐induced turbulence can strongly impact ecological processes in shallow lake ecosystems. The creation of shelter against wind can be expected to affect both primary producers and herbivores in aquatic food webs. Shelter may benefit particular primary producers more than others by changing relative resource availabilities for different primary p...
Article
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Wetlands provide vital services on which human societies depend. As they have been rapidly degrading due to anthropogenic impacts worldwide, wetland restoration is increasingly applied. When a return to the original state of a wetland is constrained, forward-looking restoration can provide a new way to enhance an ecosystem's ecological integrity. H...
Article
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Phytoplankton stand at the base of the marine food‐web, and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Rising CO2 levels and temperatures are expected to enhance growth and alter carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of marine phytoplankton, with possible consequences for the functioning of marine food‐webs and the oceanic carbon pump. To date, however, t...
Article
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p>Construction of artificial wave shelters is a promising measure to stimulate submerged vegetation in large wind exposed lakes. Here we tested whether the construction of shelter results in the colonization of submerged vegetation and whether grazing by waterbirds hampers vegetation development under those sheltered conditions. We studied the effe...
Article
Wind-induced sediment resuspension in shallow lakes may enhance nutrient availability while reducing light availability for phytoplankton growth, thereby affecting the entire food-web. Lake restoration projects that reduce wind-induced resuspension are expected to enhance trophic transfer efficiencies, thereby improving food-web structure and funct...
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The success of invasive macrophytes can depend on local nutrient availability and consumer pressure, which may interact. We therefore experimentally investigated the interacting effects of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) addition, the exclusion of large herbivorous fishes and mimicked grazing on the expansion rates of the invasive seagrass Halop...
Article
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1. Ecosystems are increasingly managed to provide multiple benefits to humans, which often degrades their ecological integrity. This strongly applies to aquatic ecosystems, in which engineering can enhance flood protection, drinking water supply, fisheries and recreation. Although these activities typically increase ecosystem functionality to human...
Article
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Land abandonment has been increasing in recent decades in Europe, usually accompanied by biodiversity decline. Whether livestock grazing and mowing can safeguard biodiversity across spatial scales in the long term is unclear. Using a 48‐year experiment in a salt marsh, we compared land abandonment (without grazing and mowing) and seven management r...
Article
Aquatic plants are vital components of shallow aquatic ecosystems, and they can substantially contribute to food webs. However, the large spatial and temporal variations of δ13C and δ15N signatures of aquatic plants have hindered the interpretation of their trophic interactions with organisms at higher trophic levels, and the effects of temperature...
Preprint
Land abandonment is increasing in recent decades in Europe, usually accompanied by a decline in biodiversity. Whether livestock grazing and mowing can safeguard biodiversity across spatial scales in the long term is unclear. Using a 48-year experiment in a salt marsh, we compared land abandonment (without grazing and mowing) and seven management re...
Article
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Tropical forests play a critical role in the global nitrogen cycle. These forests are populated by many animals that feed mostly on fruits, including some of the largest mammals such as tapirs and peccaries. Now a new study in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil has found that these so called “large frugivores” and their hyperdominant fruiting resources...
Article
Climate extremes are expected to become more commonplace and more severe, putting species and ecosystems at unprecedented risks. We recommend that rewilding programs can create conditions for ecosystems to endure and recover rapidly from climate extremes by incorporating ecosystem engineers of various body sizes and life forms.
Article
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Seagrasses provide an important ecosystem service by creating a stable erosion‐resistant seabed that contributes to effective coastal protection. Variable morphologies and life history strategies, however, are likely to impact the sediment stabilisation capacity of different seagrass species. We question how opportunistic invasive species and incre...
Article
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Biotic resistance mediated by native plant diversity has long been hypothesized to reduce the success of invading plant species in terrestrial systems in temperate regions. However, still little is known about the mechanisms driving invasion patterns in other biomes or latitudes. We help to fill this gap by investigating how native plant community...
Article
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Higher temperatures as a consequence of global climate change may considerably alter trophic interactions. Ectothermic herbivores and carnivores generally ingest more food with rising temperature as their metabolic rates increase with rising temperature. However, omnivorous ectotherms may respond in two ways: quantitatively by consuming more food a...
Article
Globally, freshwater ecosystems are under threat. The main threats come from catchment land-use changes, altered water regimes, eutrophication, invasive species, climate change and combinations of these factors. We need scientific research to respond to these challenges by providing solutions to halt the deterioration and improve the condition of o...
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The abundance and stoichiometry of aquatic plants are crucial for nutrient cycling and energy transfer in aquatic ecosystems. However, the interactive effects of multiple global environmental changes, including temperature rise and eutrophication, on aquatic plant stoichiometry and palatability remain largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that (1)...
Article
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Grasslands are subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely...
Article
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1‐ Biotic resistance to alien plant invasions is mainly determined by ecological interactions in two layers of the food web: competition with native plant species, and herbivory by native herbivores. While the direct effect of native plants on alien plant performance via competition has been well documented across ecosystems, less is known about th...
Article
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Livestock grazing can have a strong impact on herbivore abundance, distribution and community. However, not all species of herbivores respond the same way to livestock grazing, and we still have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving these differential responses. Here, we investigate the effect of light intensity cattle grazing o...
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Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species rep...
Article
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Many aquatic ecosystems have deteriorated due to human activities and their restoration is often troublesome. It is proposed here that the restoration success of deteriorated lakes critically depends on hitherto largely neglected spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading and hydrology. A modelling approach is used to study this hypothesis by consid...
Article
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Global warming is expected to strengthen herbivore-plant interactions leading to enhanced top-down control of plants. However, latitudinal gradients in plant quality as food for herbivores suggest lower palatability at higher temperatures, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. If plant palatability would decline with temperature rise, th...
Article
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Global warming is expected to strengthen herbivore-plant interactions leading to enhanced top-down control of plants. However, latitudinal gradients in plant quality as food for herbivores suggest lower palatability at higher temperatures, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. If plant palatability would decline with temperature rise, th...
Article
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Herbivores alter plant biodiversity (species richness) in many of the world’s ecosystems, but the magnitude and the direction of herbivore effects on biodiversity vary widely within and among ecosystems. One current theory predicts that herbivores enhance plant biodiversity at high productivity but have the opposite effect at low productivity. Yet,...
Article
The response of macrophytes to herbivory and mowing in freshwater ecosystems is ambiguous. A recent study based on a plant growth model and a meta-analysis of field studies suggested that submerged macrophytes are more susceptible to plant removal by herbivory when additionally shaded by periphyton. Here, we test whether such synergistic effects of...
Article
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Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) beds are important habitat for marsh birds, but are declining throughout Europe. Increasing numbers of the native marsh bird, the Greylag goose (Anser anser L.), are hypothesized to cause reed bed decline and inhibit restoration of reed beds, but data are largely lacking. In this study, we experime...
Data
(A) Characteristic reed belt growing at the fringe of the shore of Lake Waterleidingplas. Part of it grows on the shore and part of it extends into the water, up to about 2 m from the shore. The bright green patch of reed is growing in one of the exclosures in the first year on 28 June 2006. Several more exclosures are recognizable in the backgroun...
Data
Design and development of the reed planting experiment at Lake Terra Nova. (A) Wooden bank protection to create a sheltered habitat for reed development. (B) Freshly planted reed plants. (C) Exclosure at the start of the experiment, planted reed is visible inside and outside (on the right side of) the exclosure. (D) After one year, the planted reed...
Article
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Human induced eutrophication has strongly altered aquatic ecosystems. With increasing eutrophication, plant nutrient concentrations increase, making them more attractive as food for herbivores. However, most aquatic consumers are omnivorous. Ecological stoichiometry theory predicts that animals prefer to consume food which has a similar nutrient (N...
Article
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Temperatures have been rising throughout recent decades and are predicted to rise further in the coming century. Global warming affects carbon cycling in freshwater ecosystems, which both emit and bury substantial amounts of carbon on a global scale. Currently, most studies focus on the effect of warming on overall carbon emissions from freshwater...
Article
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1. Peat‐forming wetlands, particularly floating fens that form the initial stages of these ecosystems, are declining globally due to excavation, dehydration and eutrophication. Restoration typically involves reestablishment of early‐successional open‐water stages, with oligotrophic conditions that are characteristic for these systems. However, rest...
Article
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The presence of a high diversity of different successional stages in a landscape may help to conserve and promote landscape-wide biodiversity. A strategy to achieve this is using Cyclic Rejuvenation through Management (CRM), an approach employed in a variety of different ecosystems. CRM periodically resets the successional stages in a landscape. Fo...
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Rising temperatures likely affect the trophic interactions in temperate regions as global warming progresses. An open question is how a temperature rise may affect consumer pressure and plant abundance in shallow aquatic ecosystems, where most consumers are omnivorous. Interestingly, herbivory (plant-eating) is more prevalent toward low latitudes i...
Article
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Aquatic plants fulfil a wide range of ecological roles, and make a substantial contribution to the structure, function and service provision of aquatic ecosystems. Given their well-documented importance in aquatic ecosystems, research into aquatic plants continues to blossom. The 14th International Symposium on Aquatic Plants, held in Edinburgh in...
Article
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Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submer...
Article
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Invasive plant species are among the major threats to freshwater biodiversity. Few experimental studies have investigated whether native plant diversity can provide biotic resistance to invaders in freshwater ecosystems. At small spatial scales, invasion resistance may increase with plant species richness due to a better use of available resources,...
Article
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Papers collected for the present special issue of Aquatic Invasions are representative samples of topics from the ICAIS, CWE and SIL meetings. Highlights of these studies are structured into five themes: 1) Early detection and monitoring of invasive species, 2) Drivers of biological invasions, 3) Factors determining invasion success, 4) Impacts on...
Article
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Invasions of tropical and subtropical aquatic plants threaten biodiversity and cause ecological and economic impacts worldwide. An urgent question is whether native herbivores are able to inhibit the spread of these alien species thus providing biotic resistance. The potential for biotic resistance to these plants depends on plant traits that affec...
Article
Water quality is still poor in many freshwater ecosystems around the world as a result of anthropogenic nutrient loading. Constructed wetlands can be used to remove excess nutrients. In these wetlands, helophytes or free floating aquatic plants are traditionally used to absorb the nutrients. The nutrients are subsequently exported upon harvesting o...
Article
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Throughout the world, mass development of native and non-native submerged macrophytes leads to nuisance problems for humans. However, often neither the type of nuisance nor the characteristics of nuisance vegetation have been uniformly quantified, leaving nuisance vegetation as a largely unsubstantiated qualification. The lack of a consensus about...
Article
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Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat,...
Article
After restoration, eutrophicated shallow freshwaters may show mass development of only one or two submerged macrophyte species, lowering biodiversity and hampering recreation. It is unclear which environmental factors govern this high percentage of the volume inhabited (PVI²) by submerged macrophytes, and whether the development of a more diverse,...
Article
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Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary compounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of natives. This may be explained by other factors, bes...