Elisa Palazzi

Elisa Palazzi
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate ISAC

Researcher

About

105
Publications
33,060
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,688
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
3118 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
Various studies reported an elevation dependent precipitation and temperature changes in mountainous regions of the world including the Himalayas. Various mechanisms are proposed to link the possible dependence of the precipitation and temperature on elevation with other variables, including, long-and shortwave radiation, albedo, clouds, humidity,...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain regions have been recognized to be more sensitive to climate and environmental changes, and in particular to global warming. Several studies report on elevation-dependent warming (EDW), i.e., when warming rates are different in different altitude ranges, particularly focusing on the enhancement of warming rates with elevation. The Andean c...
Article
As climate change persists, amplified temperature increases in mountains and changes in precipitation will diminish snow and ice.
Article
Full-text available
Mountain regions cover approximately a quarter of the Earth’s land surface, although the exact percentage depends on criteria used to define them. The rain and snow that fall in mountains eventually move downstream and provide water for millions of people. China and India, the two most populous countries in the world, depend on water supply from th...
Article
In this essay, we highlight some challenges the atmospheric community is facing concerning adequate treatment of flows over mountains and their implications for numerical weather prediction (NWP), climate simulations and impact modeling. With recent increases in computing power (and hence model resolution) numerical models start to face new limitat...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying rates of climate change in mountain regions is of considerable interest, not least because mountains are viewed as climate “hotspots” where change can anticipate or amplify what is occurring elsewhere. Accelerating mountain climate change has extensive environmental impacts, including depletion of snow/ice reserves, critical for the wor...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial and temporal variability of air temperature , precipitation, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and their related water balance components, as well as their responses to anthropogenic climate change, provide fundamental information for an effective management of water resources and for a proactive involvement of users and stakeholders, in...
Article
Full-text available
The numerous processes implicated in the rapid and profound climate-driven changes that are underwayacross the world’s mountains must be well monitored, understood, and—as far as possible—accurately pro-jected. However, not only are the available environmental data upon which such activities hinge oftenseverely limited, but interdisciplinary consen...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spatial and temporal variability of temperature, precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and of the related water balance components, as well as their responses to anthropogenic climate change, provide fundamental information for an effective management of water resources. In this study we evaluated the past, present and future quantity of gro...
Preprint
Full-text available
A set of experiments is performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean configurations of the Planet Simulator, an Earth-system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), in order to identify under which set of parameters the model output better agrees with observations and reanalyses of the present climate. Different model configurations are explored, in wh...
Article
Full-text available
Snow models are usually evaluated at sites providing high-quality meteorological data, so that the uncertainty in the meteorological input data can be neglected when assessing model performances. However, high-quality input data are rarely available in mountain areas and, in practical applications, the meteorological forcing used to drive snow mode...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural heritage is widely recognized to be at risk due to the impact of climate change and associated hazards, such as events of heavy rain, flooding, and drought. User-driven solutions are urgently required for sustainable management and protection of monumental complexes and related collections exposed to changes of extreme climate. With this p...
Article
Full-text available
TEAMx is an international research programme that aims at improving the understanding of exchange processes in the atmosphere over mountains at multiple scales and at advancing the parameterizations of these processes in numerical models for weather and climate prediction–hence its acronyms stands for Multi-scale transport and exchange processes in...
Book
Full-text available
TEAMx is an international research programme that aims at improving the understanding of exchangeprocesses in the atmosphere over mountains at multiple scales and at advancing the parameterizationsof these processes in numerical models for weather and climate prediction–hence its acronyms standsforMulti-scale transport and exchange processes in the...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding risks to biodiversity requires predictions of the spatial distribution of species adapting to changing ecosystems and, to that end, Earth observations integrating field surveys prove essential as they provide key numbers for assessing landscape-wide biodiversity scenarios. Here, we develop, and apply to a relevant case study, a method...
Article
Before about 500 million years ago, most probably our planet experienced temporary snowball conditions, with continental and sea ices covering a large fraction of its surface. This points to a potential bistability of Earth’s climate that can have at least two different (statistical) equilibrium states for the same external forcing (i.e. solar radi...
Chapter
In this chapter we synthesize our current understanding of projected climate change in the greater Himalayan region during the twenty-first century. This understanding has been constrained by the sparsity of climate observations and relatively greater limitations of our current modeling framework to represent the complex topographical influence of...
Preprint
Before about 500 million years ago, most probably our planet experienced temporary snowball conditions, with continental and sea ices covering a large fraction of its surface. This points to a potential bistability of Earth's climate, that can have at least two different (statistical) equilibrium states for the same external forcing (i.e., solar ra...
Article
Full-text available
Fires have significant impacts on soil erosion and water supply that may be exacerbated by future climate. The aims of this study were: To simulate the effects of a large fire event in the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological model previously calibrated to a medium-sized watershed in Portugal; and to predict the hydrological impacts o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Snow models are usually evaluated at sites providing high-quality meteorological data, so that the uncertainty in the meteorological input data can be neglected when assessing the model performances. However, high-quality input data are rarely available in mountain areas and, in practical applications, the meteorological forcing to drive...
Article
Full-text available
Mountainous regions are particularly vulnerable to climate change, and the impacts are already extensive and observable, the implications of which go far beyond mountain boundaries and the environmental sectors. Monitoring and understanding climate and environmental changes in mountain regions is, therefore, needed. One of the key variables to stud...
Chapter
Full-text available
The cryosphere (including, snow, glaciers, permafrost, lake and river ice) is an integral element of high mountain regions, which are home to roughly 10% of the global population. Widespread cryosphere changes affect physical, biological and human systems in the mountains and surrounding lowlands, with impacts evident even in the ocean. Building on...
Article
Full-text available
An association between climatic conditions and asthma mortality has been widely assumed. However, it is unclear whether climatic variations have a fingerprint on asthma dynamics over long time intervals. The aim of this study is to detect a possible correlation between climatic indices, namely the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Deca...
Poster
Full-text available
This work aimed to understand the hydrological impacts of future large fires and climate change on the provision of water supply and soil erosion control in Vez watershed (NW Portugal) using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). For this, burnt areas of a large fire in 2006 were calibrated in SWAT, including post-fire regeneration informed by sat...
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands have been declining worldwide over the last century with climate change becoming an additional pressure, especially in regions already characterized by water deficit. This paper investigates how climate change will affect the values and functions of Mediterranean seasonally-flooded wetlands with emergent vegetation. We simulated the future...
Article
Full-text available
The enhancement of warming rates with elevation, so-called elevation-dependent warming (EDW), is one of the regional, still not completely understood, expressions of global warming. Sentinels of climate and environmental changes, mountains have experienced more rapid and intense warming trends in the recent decades, leading to serious impacts on mo...
Article
Full-text available
The European Climate Research Alliance (ECRA) is an association of leading European research institutions in the field of climate research (http://www.ecra-climate.eu/, last access: 6 December 2018). ECRA is a bottom-up initiative and helps to facilitate the development of climate change research, combining the capacities of national research insti...
Article
Full-text available
Stochastic rainfall downscaling methods usually do not take into account orographic effects or local precipitation features at spatial scales finer than those resolved by the large-scale input field. For this reason they may be less reliable in areas with complex topography or with sub-grid surface heterogeneities. Here we test a simple method to i...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains are globally distributed environments providing significant societal benefits, a function increasingly compromised by climatic change, environmental stress, political and socioeconomic transformations, and unsustainable use of natural resources. Gaps in our understanding of these processes and their interactions limit our capacity to info...
Article
This work investigates the impact of long-term climate change on heritage sites in Latin America, focusing on two important sites in the Panamanian isthmus included in the World Heritage List: the monumental site of Panamá Viejo (16th century) and the Fortresses of Portobelo and San Lorenzo (17th to 18th centuries). First of all, in order to suppor...
Article
Full-text available
Spatiotemporal ecological modelling of terrestrial ecosystems relies on climatological and biophysical Earth observations. Due to their increasing availability, global coverage, frequent acquisition and high spatial resolution, satellite remote sensing (SRS) products are frequently integrated to in situ data in the development of ecosystem models (...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between climate change and its potential effects on the stability of slopes remains an open issue. For rainfall induced landslides, the point consists in determining the effects of the projected changes in the duration and amounts of rainfall that can initiate slope failures. We investigated the relationship between fine-scale climate...
Article
Full-text available
Stochastic rainfall downscaling methods usually do not take into account orographic effects or local precipitation features at spatial scales finer than those resolved by the large-scale input field. For this reason they may be less reliable in areas with complex topography or with sub-grid surface heterogeneities. Here we test a simple method to i...
Article
Full-text available
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation over central Asia over the year April 2005 through March 2006. Experiments are performed at 6.7 km horizontal grid spacing, with an emphasis on winter and summer precipitation over the Himalaya. The model and the Tropical Rainfall M...
Article
Full-text available
The estimate of the current and future conditions of snow resources in mountain areas would require reliable, kilometre-resolution, regional-observation-based gridded data sets and climate models capable of properly representing snow processes and snow–climate interactions. At the moment, the development of such tools is hampered by the sparseness...
Article
Full-text available
We use the output of twenty-seven Global Climate Models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to investigate the temperature changes and their dependence on the elevation in the Tibetan Plateau, Himalaya and Karakoram mountains and in the surrounding areas in historical model simulations and in future projection...
Article
Full-text available
The estimate of the current and future conditions of snow resources in mountain areas depends on the availability of reliable, high resolution, regional observation-based gridded datasets and of climate models capable of properly representing snow processes and snow-climate interactions. Owing to the sparseness of station-based reference observatio...
Chapter
Water is an essential element of climate, owing to its dynamical and thermodynamical effects. Water is, in addition, one of the main fluids active in the climate system: oceans, ice sheets and glaciers, snow and atmospheric water (in vapor, liquid or solid form) and the whole hydrological cycle are at the heart of the workings of the Earth System....
Book
This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on differen...
Book
The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the ‘‘third pole’’ of our planet, and the glaciers in this area are ‘‘water towers’’ of Asia. Recent studies postulated the existence of a ‘‘Karakoram anomaly’’, i.e. with substantially unchanged ice cover during the last decade, against noticeable area loss worldwide. Yet, r...
Article
The Tibetan plateau and the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya mountains, with mean elevation above 4,000 m a.s.l., are the world’s largest snow and ice reservoir outside the polar regions and they are often referred to as the “Third Pole”. These mountains provide water to about 1.5 billion people in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanma...
Article
Full-text available
This work analyzes the properties of precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya region as simulated by thirty-two state-of-the-art global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We separately consider the Hindu-Kush Karakoram (HKK) in the west and the Himalaya in the east. These two regions...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplified with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversit...
Article
Full-text available
We quantify climate change hot-spots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hot-spots. The main contributing...
Article
The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayas (HKH) are considered Earth’s ‘‘third pole,’’ and water from there plays an essential role for downstream populations. The dynamics of glaciers in Karakoram are complex, and in recent decades the area has experienced unchanged ice cover, despite rapid decline elsewhere in the world (th...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we have put forward a Bayesian framework for the analysis and testing of possible non-stationarities in extreme events. We use the extreme value theory to model temperature and precipitation data in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. Temporal trends are modeled writing the location parameter of the generalized extreme value distribut...
Chapter
Full-text available
Climate and environmental change is expected to affect hydrometeorological hazard and ecosystem functioning, with possible threats to human societies due to increased probability of extreme events and loss of ecosystem services. In mountain regions, the environmental response could be even larger. For this reason, it is important to obtain estimate...
Article
The Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalaya (HKKH) mountain ranges feed the most important Asian river systems, providing water to about 1.5 billion people. As a consequence, changes in snow dynamics in this area could severely impact water availability for downstream populations. Despite their importance, the amount, spatial distribution, and seasonal...
Article
Winter precipitation over the Hindu Kush-Karakoram (HKK) range in the western Himalayas is generated by westerly perturbations whose dynamics is affected by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAG). Larger precipitation is typically recorded during the positive NAO phase. In this work, the relationship between the NAO and winter precipitation in the HK...
Article
A geometrical method to determine the vertical distribution of a trace gas in the lower troposphere is presented. The technique is based on quasi-simultaneous measurements of diffuse solar radiation with spectrometric equipment observing the atmosphere from different viewing directions and a measurement of a distant lamp. Differential optical absor...
Article
Precipitation extremes and small-scale variability are essential drivers in many climate change impact studies. However, the spatial resolution currently achieved by global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) is still insufficient to correctly identify the fine structure of precipitation intensity fields. In the absence of a pr...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal,...
Article
This study discusses the analysis of a set of standard meteorological parameters measured at two high-altitude stations on the Baltoro glacier (Karakoram), which provide a detailed climatic characterization of this area. Temperature and precipitation data from other fourteen in-situ stations in northern Pakistan, located at different altitudes (fro...
Article
In this work we study western weather patterns (WWP), westerly perturbations responsible for most of the precipitation falling over the Hindu-Kush Karakoram (HKK) during winter, and the mechanisms responsible for their regulation. WWP originate from the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, move eastward and often intensify east of about 40°...
Article
The mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) are the "third pole" of our planet, and the glaciers in this area play the role of "water towers", delivering significant amounts of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. The recent dynamics of glaciers...
Article
Snow cover plays a key role in high-altitude environments, and changes in the snow spatial/temporal distribution and thickness affect energy, radiation and water budgets at the Earth's surface. In particular, a reduction in the snow amount has a direct effect on the availability and seasonal distribution of water resources. This is especially true...
Article
Full-text available
The possible influence on the Castel Porziano Presidential Estate pine forest (Italy) of pollutant-rich air masses from the neighboring metropolitan area of Rome is analyzed. This study aims to highlight the consequences which this natural reserve located along the coast may suffer due to the vicinity of the metropolitan area. Two case studies, one...
Article
Full-text available
We study the properties of precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region using currently available data sets. We consider satellite rainfall estimates (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), reanalyses (ERA-Interim), gridded in situ rain gauge data (Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluat...
Chapter
Knowledge of mass exchange between different parts of the atmosphere is essential for understanding the distribution of atmospheric trace constituents, such as ozone, water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, and aerosols. It is also important for understanding long- and short-term changes of key phenomena, such the springtime ozone hole over the Antar...