Elin Ekblom Bak

Elin Ekblom Bak
The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences | GIH · Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology

PhD

About

80
Publications
14,503
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,332
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2008 - November 2013
Karolinska University Hospital
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to describe accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA) patterns and fulfilment of PA recommendations in a large sample of middle-aged men and women, and to study differences between sub-groups of socio-demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle-related variables. A total of 27,890 (92.5% of total participants, 52% women, ag...
Article
Objective Overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for severe COVID-19, however, prospective cohort studies investigating the association between overweight early in life and severity of COVID-19 are lacking. Methods We included 1,551,670 Swedish men, born 1950-1987, with body mass index (BMI) registered at age 18. They were fol...
Article
Full-text available
Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of a submaximal cycling test to detect longitudinal changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and examine the conformity between changes in measured and estimated VO 2 max over a time span of 5–8 years. Methods A total of 35 participants (21 men and 14 women), aged 29 to 63 y...
Article
Aims: To describe time trends in combinations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body mass index (BMI) status, and to analyse their associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. Methods and results: Prospective cohort study with data from occupational health screenings in Swedish employees, i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To study how change in cardiorespiratory fitness over time is associated with the development of poor self-rated health in healthy Swedish adults, and whether this association varies with sex, age, body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline. A secondary aim was to study the influence of other predictors of self-rated health. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Reports have indicated a negative trend in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in the general population. However, trends in relation to different occupational groups are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the trends in CRF during the last 20 years, and to provide a prognosis of future trends in CRF, in different occup...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of a submaximal cycling test to detect longitudinal changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and examine the conformity between changes in measured and estimated VO2max over a time span of 5–8 years. Methods A total of 35 participants (21 men and 14 women), aged 29 to 63 years...
Article
Full-text available
Background Total sitting time is associated with a higher risk for cardio metabolic disease and mortality, while breaks in prolonged sitting attenuate these effects. However, less is known about associations of different specific domains and breaks of sitting on general health, back/neck pain and if physical activity could influence these associati...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may have affected lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigated perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and men...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may affect lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigates perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental hea...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate and compare ratio and allometric scaling models of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) for different body size measurements in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and all-cause mortality. Methods 316 116 individuals participating in occupational health screenings, initially free from CVD, were included. VO 2...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To describe physical activity habits, sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among alcohol abstainers, hazardous and non-hazardous drinkers. Design Cross-sectional study with data collected between 2017-19. Setting Sweden. Subjects Adults aged 18-65 years (n = 47,559; 59.4% male). Measures During a routine health asses...
Article
Full-text available
Background Identify and compare health risk indicators for common chronic diseases between different occupational groups. Methods A total of 72,855 participants (41% women) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014–2019 were included. Occupation was defined by the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupation, and divided i...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Differences in socioeconomic status contribute to inequalities in lifestyle habits and burden of noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to examine how the effects of a 1-year structured lifestyle education program associate with the participant’s educational level and socioeconomic area (SEA) of residence. Methods. One hundred individuals (...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To explore how change in cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with incident hypertension in adults, and whether the association varies between sex, age, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline and follow-up time. A second aim is to study how change in other lifestyle-related variables affects the results. Methods A total of...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Regular exercise has been associated with better mental health, but relationships of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with mental health symptoms are less certain. We conducted a large cross-sectional study to examine associations of exercise frequency and objectively measured CRF with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Data o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Identify and compare health risk indicators for common chronic diseases between different occupational groups. Methods A total of 72,855 participants (41% women) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014–2019 were included. Occupation was defined by the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupation, and divided in...
Article
Full-text available
Interruptions to time spent sitting can ameliorate detrimental metabolic-health consequences of high volumes of sedentary time, but their potential mental health benefits have not been examined. We used the Swedish Health Profile Assessment database, a general health assessment offered to all employees working for companies or organisations connect...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The purpose of this research was to describe the current prevalence and historic trends in overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Sweden. Methods: Data on BMI, age, gender, education and geographic region were obtained in n=447,925 Swedish adults through a nationwide screening test (1995–2017). To account for sampling variations, we quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To identify and describe the characteristics of naturally occurring patterns of exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness, and the association of such profiles with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms. Methods 64,970 participants (42% women, 18–75 years) participating in an occupat...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of leisure-time physical activity of different intensities at baseline, and cardiovascular disease incidence, cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality in a population-based sample of 60-year-old men and women with and without established metabolic syndrome, for more tha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite well-known preventive effects for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through lifestyle changes, scientific evaluations of lifestyle programmes in primary care are scarce. Moreover, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated in everyday clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate change in cardiovascular risk fact...
Article
Full-text available
An improved method of physical activity accelerometer data processing, involving a wider frequency filter than the most commonly used ActiGraph filter, has been shown to better capture variations in physical activity intensity in a lab setting. The aim of the study was to investigate how this improved measure of physical activity affected the relat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Trend analyses of active commuting and potential variations in trends and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk within sub-groups are unknown. Objectives: To a) describe trends in active commuting between 1998 to 2015 and b) to study the association between different amounts of active commuting and the incidence risk of...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population. Methods Participants (n = 104), aged 65–75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-repor...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The aims were to describe VO2peak, explore the potential influence of anthropometrics, demographics and level of physical activity within each cohort; b) to define common, standardized activities as percentages of VO2peak and categorize these as light, moderate and vigorous intensity levels according to present classification systems, and...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GI...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerometer calibration for physical activity (PA) intensity is commonly performed using Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) as criterion. However, MET is not an age-equivalent measure of PA intensity, which limits the use of MET-calibrated accelerometers for age-related PA investigations. We investigated calibration using VO2net (VO2gross − VO2st...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as esti...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Descriptive. Objective: The present aim was to define accelerometer cut-point values for wrist-worn accelerometers to identify absolute- and relative-intensity physical activity (PA) levels in people with motor-complete paraplegics (PP) and tetraplegics (TP). Settings: Rehabilitation facility in Sweden. Methods: The participant...
Article
Full-text available
In objective physical activity (PA) measurements, applying wider frequency filters than the most commonly used ActiGraph (AG) filter may be beneficial when processing accelerometry data. However, the vulnerability of wider filters to noise has not been investigated previously. This study explored the effect of wider frequency filters on measurement...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to describe the participants' experiences of a structured lifestyle program for persons with high cardiovascular risk. Method: Sixteen participants with high cardiovascular risk participating in a one-year structured lifestyle intervention program were interviewed regarding their experiences of the...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Physical activity, healthful dietary habits, and not smoking are associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined how counselling to improve poor lifestyle habits might be carried out in clinical practice. In Swedish primary care, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated...
Article
Full-text available
Background Long‐term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in the general population are limited. Objectives To describe trends in VO2max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions. Methods 354.277 participants (44% women, 18‐74 years) wh...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19-70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of premature death world-wide with factors like abdominal obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia being central risk factors in the etiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk after 6 months and 1 year, in i...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Cross-sectional. Objectives: This study aimed to describe and compare VO2 and energy expenditure at rest (REE) and during standardized sedentary, non-exercise physical activity, and exercise activities, in people with motor-complete tetraplegia (C5-C8). Further, REE and energy expenditure (EE) for the different activities were comp...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life after six months and one year in participants with increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: Participants aged ≥18 years with increased cardiovascular risk were referred from primary health care and hospitals. The...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise in field conditions where energy is intake inadequate. Here, 17 male and 7 female soldiers performed an 8 days long field-based military operation. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, in which autophagy, the ubiquitin–proteasome system, and the mTORC1 s...
Article
Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of...
Article
Full-text available
Spinal Cord is the official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society. It provides complete coverage of all aspects of spinal injury and disease.
Article
Background: Perceived health and physical fitness have been shown to correlate, and low levels of either variable increase the risk for future illness and mortality. However, risk factors and their interrelationship may vary between societies and over time. In this study, the associations of physical fitness and perceived health were therefore ass...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: The present descriptive clinical and laboratory study is cross-sectional in design. Objectives: The primary aim is to describe and compare resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy expenditure (EE) during different standardized sedentary, non-exercise and exercise activities in people with motor-complete paraplegia (Th7 to Th12.)...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To further develop the Ekblom Bak-test prediction equation for estimation of VO2max from submaximal cycle ergometry. Methods: The model group (117 men and 100 women, aged 48.3 ± 15.7 and 46.1 ± 16.8 years, VO2max 46.6 ± 11.1 and 40.4 ± 9.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and the cross-validation group (60 men and 55 women, aged 40.6 ±...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Time spent being sedentary, regardless of time in exercise, has been associated with metabolic risk using regression modelling. By using isotemporal substitution modelling, the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equal amount of time in physical activity (PA) of different intensities can be considered. The present study aims to...
Article
Full-text available
Background As the understanding of how different aspects of the physical activity (PA) pattern relate to health and disease, proper assessment is increasingly important. In clinical care, self-reports are the most commonly used assessment technique. However, systematic comparisons between questions regarding concurrent or criterion validity are rar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The effects of physical activity on prescription (PAP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight adults are unclear. We therefore aimed to explore the effects of the Swedish PAP model on HRQoL in overweight older adults. Methods: Participants were recruited from a cohort of men and women born between 1937 and 1938, and...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared. The aims of the present stud...
Article
Full-text available
Different aspects of the daily movement pattern-sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity-have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of...