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Elie Georges Karam

Elie Georges Karam
University of Balamand/IDRAAC/MIND · Department of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology

MD

About

232
Publications
78,365
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31,287
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1980 - June 2015
University of Balamand/IDRAAC
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (232)
Article
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Purpose Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, and LB women specifically, have an increased risk for psychiatric morbidity, theorized to result from stigma-based discrimination. To date, no study has investigated the mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual AQ1individuals in a large cross-national population-based comparison. T...
Article
Aim Exposure to traumatic events (TEs) is associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). However, most studies focus on a single TE, and are limited to single countries, rather than across countries with variation in economic, social and cultural characteristics. We used cross-national data to examine associations of diverse TEs with SUD onset, an...
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Background Most individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) receive either no care or inadequate care. The aims of this study is to investigate potential determinants of effective treatment coverage. Methods In order to examine obstacles to providing or receiving care, the type of care received, and the quality and use of that care in a repre...
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Patient‐reported helpfulness of treatment is an important indicator of quality in patient‐centered care. We examined its pathways and predictors among respondents to household surveys who reported ever receiving treatment for major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, post‐traumatic stress disorder, bipolar diso...
Article
Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and predictors of perceived helpfulness of treatment in persons with a history of DSM-IV social anxiety disorder (SAD), using a worldwide population-based sample. Methods: The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys is a coordinated series of community epidemiological surveys of non-institutio...
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Background Mental healthcare is delivered across service sectors that differ in level of specialization and intervention modalities typically offered. Little is known about the perceived helpfulness of the combinations of service sectors that patients use. Methods Respondents 18 + years with 12-month DSM-IV mental or substance use disorders who sa...
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Aim We examined prevalence and factors associated with receiving perceived helpful alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment, and persistence in help-seeking after earlier unhelpful treatment. Methods Data came from 27 community epidemiologic surveys of adults in 24 countries using the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys (n = 93,843)....
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Aims Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by a recurrent course and high comorbidity rates. A lifespan perspective may therefore provide important information regarding health outcomes. The aim of the present study is to examine mental disorders that preceded 12-month MDD diagnosis and the impact of these disorders on depression outcome...
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Background The most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressant medication (ADM). Results are reported on frequency of ADM use, reasons for use, and perceived effectiveness of use in general population surveys across 20 countries. Methods Face-to-face interviews with community samples totaling n = 49 919 respondents in t...
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Background: Treatment guidelines for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are based on a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials and do not consider patient-centered perceptions of treatment helpfulness. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of patient-reported treatment helpfulness for DSM-5 GAD and its two main treatment pa...
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The death of Hagop Akiskal left a great void in all who knew him, and many of us knew him, indeed, all over the world. Hagop was an attentive clinician and innovative researcher as well as a mentor who accompanied the growth of many young psychiatrists, a researcher sometimes controversial, never predictable, whose reflections have changed the way...
Article
There is significant variation in the response to adversity, with a substantial proportion of individuals displaying psychological resilience. Epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesised to be one molecular pathway of how experiences can become biologically embedded and contribute to individual differences in resilience. However, not much is known regar...
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Background Although randomized trials show that social phobia treatments can be effective, it is unclear whether patients experience treatment as helpful in clinical practice. We investigated this issue by assessing perceived treatment helpfulness for specific phobia in a cross-national epidemiological survey. Methods Cross-sectional population-ba...
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Background Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45. Methods We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) i...
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Background Perceived helpfulness of treatment is an important healthcare quality indicator in the era of patient‐centered care. We examine probability and predictors of two key components of this indicator for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Data come from World Mental Health surveys in 16 countries. Respondents who ever sought PTSD...
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Aims Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based sur...
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Aims Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined...
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Importance The perceived helpfulness of treatment is an important patient-centered measure that is a joint function of whether treatment professionals are perceived as helpful and whether patients persist in help-seeking after previous unhelpful treatments. Objective To examine the prevalence and factors associated with the 2 main components of pe...
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Background There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countr...
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Purpose Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem. Existing research has focused on reports from victims and few studies have considered pre-marital factors. The main objective of this study was to identify pre-marital predictors of IPV in the current marriage using information obtained from husbands and wives. Methods D...
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Background: Illicit drug use and associated disease burden are estimated to have increased over the past few decades, but large gaps remain in our knowledge of the extent of use of these drugs, and especially the extent of problem or dependent use, hampering confident cross-national comparisons. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative inv...
Article
Background: Prevalences of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) and Mental Health Disorders (MHDs) in many individual countries have been reported but there are few cross-national studies. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative standardizes methodological factors facilitating comparison of the prevalences and associated factors of AUDs in a l...
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Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM‐5) definition of agoraphobia (AG) as an independent diagnostic entity makes it timely to re‐examine the epidemiology of AG. Study objective was to present representative data on the characteristics of individuals who meet DSM‐IV criteria for AG (AG without a histor...
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Background: Specific phobia (SP) is a relatively common disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Because of its early onset, SP may be a useful early marker of internalizing psychopathology, especially if generalized to multiple situations. This study aimed to evaluate the association of childhood generalized SP with comorb...
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Importance Limited empirical research has examined the extent to which cohort-level prevalence of substance use is associated with the onset of drug use and transitioning into greater involvement with drug use. Objective To use cross-national data to examine time-space variation in cohort-level drug use to assess its associations with onset and tr...
Article
Aims: To examine cross-national patterns of 12-month substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and minimally adequate treatment (MAT), and associations with mental disorder comorbidity. Design: Cross-sectional, representative household surveys. Setting: Twenty-seven surveys from 25 countries of the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Part...
Article
Background Increased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates have been documented in children exposed to war. However, the contribution of childhood adversities and environmental sensitivity to children's responses to adversities and trauma are still far from settled. Aims To evaluate the relative roles of war, childhood adversities and sensit...
Article
Background and aims The World Health Organization's (WHO's) proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD‐11) includes several major revisions to substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses. It is essential to ensure the consistency of within‐subject diagnostic findings across countries, languages and cultures. To date, agreement...
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Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the...
Article
Aims To investigate for the first time the determinants and barriers of seeking help for mental disorders in the Arab world based on a national study: Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation (L.E.B.A.N.O.N). Methods A nationally representative ( n = 2857) and multistage clustered area probability household sample of a...
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Introduction This study aimed to examine the validity and internal consistency of Arabic version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (A-CSDD) and compare it to the Geriatric Depression and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. Methods Hundred fifty individuals were recruited; they underwent a clinical interview and filled the A-CSDD,...
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Introduction This study aimed to examine the validity and internal consistency of Arabic versions of the eight-item Alzheimer's Dementia, Alzheimer Questionnaire, and Clinical Dementia Rating scales and to assess the Arabic version of Katz Activities of Daily Living, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Methods One hundred fifty participants were recru...
Chapter
Cambridge Core - Epidemiology Public Health and Medical Statistics - Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - edited by Evelyn Bromet
Chapter
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - edited by Evelyn Bromet August 2018
Chapter
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - edited by Evelyn Bromet August 2018
Article
Psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with a range of mental and physical disorders, and disability, but little is known about the association between PEs and aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to investigate the association between PEs and five HRQoL indicators with various adjustments. Using data from the WHO World M...
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Purpose: The primary aims are to (1) obtain representative prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among college students worldwide and (2) investigate whether STB is related to matriculation to and attrition from college. Methods: Data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys were analyzed, which include face-to-face inter...
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Background Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders. Methods In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys we...
Article
Objectives: Religiosity is often associated with better health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and religiosity in a large, cross-national sample. Methods: A total of 25 542 adult respondents across 18 countries from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, religious...
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Purpose: Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/re...
Article
Background: Anxiety disorders are a major cause of burden of disease. Treatment gaps have been described, but a worldwide evaluation is lacking. We estimated, among individuals with a 12-month DSM-IV (where DSM is Diagnostic Statistical Manual) anxiety disorder in 21 countries, the proportion who (i) perceived a need for treatment; (ii) received a...
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Aims A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with...
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Background and aims: Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs and various types of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental...
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Background The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the pla...
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Background The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data. Methods...
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Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their ‘worst.’ Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with P...
Article
Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross-nationally, making it difficult to know what...
Article
Background Although childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.AimsTo examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to chil...
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Importance Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. Objective To examine the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs...
Article
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Background There is evidence that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder. However, most of the available data on the epidemiology of this condition originate from high income countries in the West. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative provides an opportunity to investigate the prevalence, course, impairment,...
Article
Background Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors. Methods The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-co...
Article
Background Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have redu...
Article
Objective: While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. Method: Lifetime occurrences of six types of PEs were assessed alo...
Article
Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys – CORRIGENDUM - R. P. Auerbach, J. Alonso, W. G. Axinn, P. Cuijpers, D. D. Ebert, J. G. Green, I. Hwang, R. C. Kessler, H. Liu, P. Mortier, M. K. Nock, S. Pinder-Amaker, N. A. Sampson, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, A. Al-Hamzawi, L. H. Andrade, C. Benjet, J....
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Background: Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Methods: Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey...
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Importance: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly understood compared with other anxiety disorders, and debates persist about the seriousness of this disorder. Few data exist on GAD outside a small number of affluent, industrialized nations. No population-based data exist on GAD as it is currently defined in DSM-5. Objective: To provide the...
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Objectives: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. Methods: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-middle (LLMI) income countries totalling 101,258 a...
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Background: Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and h...
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Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires...
Article
Background Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations. Method We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorder...
Article
Background: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. Methods: Da...
Article
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Aims: To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards....
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We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CID...
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The Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a National Mental Health Programme, which in turn has established the Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015–2020. In parallel, research involving refugees has been conducted since the onset of the Syrian crisis. The findings point to an increase in mental health disorders in th...
Article
Background An essential point in evaluating the utility of measuring temperaments is the stability of the instrument used especially in the presence of mental disorders. One of the most commonly used instruments in the clinical setting is the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). To our knowledge...
Article
Background: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20-40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3-5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that e...